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Full text of "The Periplus of the Erythræan sea; travel and trade in the Indian Ocean"

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Henrij W. Sage 


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^''^.ntete Of {he Erythran 

oiin ^ 1924 030 139 236 


Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 






Secretary of the Commercial Museum, Philadelphia 





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INDEX 295 



The Philadelphia Museums came into existence some 
fifteen years ago with the avowed purpose of aiding the manu- 
facturer in taking a larger share in the world's commerce. 

They have lost no opportunity in presenting to the in- 
quirer the trade conditions of all parts of the world. 

More than four years ago the Museums undertook the 
work of making a graphic history of commerce from the earliest 
dawn of trade and barter down to the present time. The 
author of this translation was entrusted with the study and 
preparation of the exhibit, which in its early stages of develop- 
ment was shown at the Jamestown exposition. It was in the 
preparation of this exhibit that attention was directed to the 
Periplus, and its interest in the early history of commerce 
appreciated. The Periplus of the Erythrjean Sea is the first 
record of organized trading with the nations of the East, in 
vessels built and commanded by subjects of the Western world. 
The notes add great interest, giving as they do an exhaustive 
survey of the international trade between the great empires of 
Rome, Parthia, India and China, together with a collection of 
facts touching the early trade of a number of other countries 
of much interest. 

The whole trade of the world is every day coming more 
and more under exact laws of demand and supply. When the 
history of commerce from its earliest dawn to its present tre- 
mendous international proportions shall be carefully written, 
the Periplus will furnish a most interesting part of such early 
history, and the Commercial Museum will not have to apologize 
for rescuing this work from obscurity and presenting it to the 

general public. 

W. P. WILSON, Sc.D., 

The Philadelphia Museums 
September, 1911 


The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea is one of those human docu- 
ments, like the journals of Marco Polo and Columbus and Vespucci, 
which express not only individual enterprise, but the awakening of a 
whole race toward new fields of geographical discovery and commer- 
cial achievement. It is the first record of organized trading with the 
nations of the East, in vessels built and commanded by subjects of 
the Western World. It marks the turning of a tide of commerce 
which had set in one direction, without interruption, from the dawn 
of history. For thousands of years before the emergence of the 
Greeks from savagery, or before the exploits of the Phoenicians in 
the Mediterranean and Atlantic, human culture and commerce had 
centered in the countries bordering on the Persian Gulf; in Elam 
and Babylonia, and in the whole land of Havilah, where there is 
gold: and the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium and the 
onyx stone." With the spread of culture in both directions, Egypt 
and the nations of Ancient India came into being, and a commercial 
system was developed for the interchange of products within those 
limits, having its center of exchanges near the head of the Persian 
Gulf. The peoples of that region, the various Arab tribes and more 
especially those ancestors of the Phoenicians, the mysterious Red Men, 
were the active carriers or intermediaries. The growth of civilization 
in India created an active merchant marine, trading to the Euphrates and 
Africa, and eastward we know not whither. The Arab merchants, 
apparently, tolerated the presence of Indian traders in Africa, but 
reserved for themselves the commerce within the Red Sea; that 
lucrative commerce which supplied precious stones and spices and 
incense to the ever-increasing service of the gods of Egypt. This 
was their prerogative, jealously guarded, and upon this they lived and 
prospered according to the prosperity of the Pharaohs. The muslins 
and spices of India they fetched themselves or received from the Indian 
traders in their ports on either side of the Gulf of Aden; carrying them 
in turn over the highlands to the upper Nile, or through the Red Sea 
and across the desert to Thebes or Memphis. In the rare inter- 
vals when the eyes of Egypt were turned eastward, and voyages of 
commerce and conquest were despatched to the Eastern Ocean, the 

officers of the Pharaohs found the treasures of all its shores gathered 
in the nearest ports, and sought no further to trace them to their 

As the current of trade gradually flowed beyond the Nile and 
Euphrates to the peoples of the north, and their curiosity began to 
trace the better things toward their source in India, new trade-routes 
were gradually opened. The story of the world for many centuries 
was that of the struggles of the nations upon the Nile and Euphrates 
to win all the territory through which the new routes passed, and so 
to prevent the northern barbarians from trading with others than them- 
selves. It was early in this struggle that one branch of the people 
known as Phoenicians left their home on the Persian Gulf and settled 
on the Mediterranean, there to win in the West commercial glories 
which competition in the East was beginning to deny them. The 
Greek colonies, planted at the terminus of every trade-route, gained 
for themselves a measure of commercial independence; but never 
until the overthrow of the East by the great Alexander was the control 
of the great overland caravan-routes threatened by a western people, 
and his early death led to no more than a readjustment of conditions 
as they had always existed. 

Meantime the brethren of the Phoenicians and their kinsfolk in 
Arabia continued in control of the carrying trade of the East, subject 
to their agreements and alliances with the merchants of India. One 
Arab kingdom after another retained the great eastern coast of Africa, 
with its trade in gold and ivory, ostrich feathers and oil; the shores 
of the Arabian Gulf produced an ever-rising value in frankincense 
and myrrh; while the cloths and precious stones, the timbers and 
spices — particularly cinnamon — brought from India largely by Indian 
vessels, were redistributed at Socotra or Guardafui, and carried to 
the Nile and the Mediterranean. Gerrha and OboUah, Palmyra and 
Petra, Sabbatha and Mariaba were all partners in this commercial 
system. The Egyptian nation in its later struggles made no effort to 
oppose or control it. The trade came and the price was paid. And 
the infusion of Greek energy after Alexander's day, when the Ptole- 
mies had made Egypt once more mistress of the nations, led to 
nothing more than the conquest of a few outposts on the Red Sea 
and at the head of the Gulf of Aden ; while the accounts of Agathar- 
chides are sufficient proof of the opulence which came to Southern 
Arabia with the increase of prosperity in Egypt. Here, indeed, the 
trade control was more complete than ever; for changes in the topog- 
raphy of India, the westward shifting of the Indus delta, the shoal- 
ing of the harbors in the Cutch region, and the disorder incident to 

great invasions of Asiatic peoples, had sapped the vigor of the Indian 

But in Arabia itself there were struggles for the control of all this 
wealth and power, and in the days of the later Ptolemies kingdoms 
rose and fell and passed into oblivion with bewildering frequency. 
The African coast was left to its own people and to the remnants of 
the Indian trade, and one Arab tribe maintained itself at the Straits, 
while its defeated adversary, establishing itself in the old "land of 
Cush," was building up the kingdom of Abyssinia, whose ambitions 
were bitterly opposed to the state which possessed its former home ' 
in the "Frankincense Country" of Arabia. 

It was at this juncture that the rule of the Ptolemies came to an 
end under Cleopatra, and the new ruler of the Western World, the 
Empire of Rome, came into possession of Egypt, and thus added to 
its control of the caravan-routes previously won in Asia Minor and 
Syria, that of a direct sea-route to the East, by way of the Ptolemies' 
outposts on the Red Sea. 

The prize thus within reach of the Roman people was a rich 
one. Successive conquests and spoliation of all the Mediterranean 
peoples had brought to Rome treasures as yet unexampled, and a taste 
for the precious things of the East was developed almost over-night. 
The public triumphs of the conquerors of Asia Minor and Syria glit- 
tered with new treasures, for which the people clamored. Money 
was plentiful and merchants flocked thither from all quarters. Within 
a generation the center of exchanges of the Mediterranean was moved 
from Alexandria to Rome. But a wise decision of the Emperor 
Augustus, only once departed from and that disastrously, limited the 
Roman dominion to the bank of the Euphrates; so that all this rich 
trade that flowed to Rome paid its tolls to the Empire of Parthia and 
to the Arab kingdoms, unless Rome could develop and control a 
sea-borne trade to India. 

Against such an enterprise all the energy and subtlety of the Arab 
was called into action. No information was allowed to reach the 
merchants in Egypt, and every device the imagination could create 
was directed toward discouraging the least disturbance of the channels 
of trade that had existed since human memory began. And in an 
unknown ocean, with only the vaguest ideas of the sources of the 
products they sought, and the routes that led to them, it might have 
been many years before a Roman vessel, coasting along hostile 
shores, could reach the goal. But accidents favored Roman ambi- 
tion. The new kingdom at Axum, smarting under the treatment of 
its former neighbors in Arabia, was courting the Roman alliance. 

The old trading-posts at Guardafui, formerly under Arab control, were 
now free, through the quarrels of their overlords, and their markets 
were open to who might seek. And then a Roman subject, perhaps 
in the Abyssinian service, was driven to sea and carried in an open 
boat to India, whence he returned in a few months with a favorable 
wind and much information. Then Hippalus, a venturesome navi- 
gator whose name deserved as much honor in Roman annals as that 
of Columbus in modern history, observed the periodic change of the 
Indian monsoon (doubtless long known to Arab and Hindu), and 
boldly setting sail at the proper season made a successful trading voy- 
age and returned with a cargo of all those things for which Rome 
was paying so generously: gems and pearls, ebony and sandalwood, 
balms and spices, but especially pepper. The old channels of trade 
were paralleled but not conquered; so strong was the age-long un- 
derstanding between Arab and Hindu, that cinnamon, which had 
made the fortune of traders to Egypt in earlier times, was still found 
by the Romans only at Guardafui and was scrupulously kept from 
their knowledge in the markets of India, where it was gathered and 
distributed; while the leaf of the same tree producing that precious 
bark was freely offered to the Roman merchants throughout the 
Malabar coast, and as malabathrum formed the basis of one of their 
most valued ointments. 

Great shiftings of national power followed this entry of Roman 
shipping into the Indian. Ocean. One by one Petra and Gerrha, 
Palmyra and Parthia itself, their revenues sapped by the diversion of 
accustomed trade, fell into Roman hands. The Homei-ite Kingdom 
in South Arabia fell upon hard times, its capital into ruin, and some 
of its best men migrated northward and as the Ghassanids bowed the 
neck to Rome. Abyssinia flourished in proportion as its old enemy 
declined. If this state of things had continued, the whole course of 
later events might have been changed. Islam might never have appeared, 
and a greater Rome might have left its system of law and government 
from the Thames to the Ganges. But the logic of history was too 
strong. Gradually the treasure that fell to the Roman arms was ex- 
pended in suppressing insurrections in the conquered provinces, in 
civil wars at home, and in a constant drain of specie to the east in 
settlement of adverse trade balances; a drain which was very real 
and menacing to a nation which made no notable advance in produc- 
tion or industry by means of which new wealth could be created. As 
the resources of the West diminished the center of exchange shifted 
to Constantinople. The trade-routes leading to that center were the 
old routes through Mesopotamia, where a revivified power under the 

Sassanids was able to conquer every passage to the East, including 
even the proud Arab states which had not yielded submission to Ham- 
murabi or Esarhaddon, Nebuchadrezzar or Darius the Great. Egypt, 
no longer in the highway of commerce, became a mere granary for 
Constantinople, and Abyssinia, driven from its hard-won footholds 
east of the Red Sea, could offer the Byzantine emperors no effective 
aid in checking the revival of Eastern power. And the whirlwind of 
activity let loose by Mohammed welded the Eastern World as no force 
had yet done, and brought the West for another millennium to its 
feet. Not until the coming of those vast changes in industry and 
transportation which marked the nineteenth century did the Western 
nations find commodities of which the East stood in need, and laying 
them down in Eastern markets on their own terms, turn back the 
channels of trade from their ancient direction. 

The records of the pioneers, who strove during the ages to stem 
this irresistible current, are of enduring interest in the story of human 
endeavor; and among them all, one of the most fascinating is this 
Periplm of the Erythraan Sea — this plain and painstaking log of a 
Greek in Egypt, a Roman subject, who steered his vessel into the 
waters of the great ocean and brought back the first detailed record of 
the imports and exports of its markets, and of the conditions and alli- 
ances of its peoples. It is the only record for centuries that speaks 
with authority on this trade in its entirety, and the gloom which it 
briefly lighted was not lifted until the wider activities of Islam broke 
the time-honored custom of Arab secrecy in trading, and by grafting 
Arab discovery on Greek theory, laid the foundations of modern ge- 
ography. Not Strabo or Pliny or Ptolemy, however great the store of 
knowledge they gathered together, can equal in human interest this 
unknown merchant who wrote merely of the things he dealt in and 
the peoples he met — those peoples of whom our civilization still knows 
so little and to whom it owes so much; who brought to the restless 
West the surplus from the ordered and industrious East, and in so 
doing ruled the waters of the "Erythraean Sea." 


The manuscript copies of the Periplus at Heidelberg and London 
do not enable us to fix either date or authorship. The Heidelberg 
manuscript attributes the work to Arrian, apparently because in that 
manuscript this Periplus follows a report of a voyage around the Black 
Sea made by the historian Arrian, who was governor of Cappadocia 
about 131 A. D. This is manifestly a mistake, and the London 
manuscript does not contain that reference. 

The only guidance to date or authorship must be found in the 
Periplus itself. 

Hippalus' discovery of the sea-route to India, described in § 57, 
is fixed by Vincent at about 47 A. D. 

Vincent reasons from Pliny's account (VI, 24) of the accidental 
journey of a freedman of Annius Plocamus who had farmed from 
the Treasury the revenues arising from the Red Sea. This freedman 
was carried away by a gale and in fifteen days drifted to Ceylon, where 
he was hospitably received and after a stay of six months returned 
home; after which the Ceylonese kings sent an embassy to Rome. 
Pliny says that this occurred during the reign of Emperor Claudius, 
which began in the year 41. The discovery of Hippalus must have 
come very soon after. (The first question suggested by this story is, 
what the freedman was doing outside the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb 
and from whom Annius Plocamus farmed the revenues. As to this 
Pliny is silent. Can it have been the friendly Abyssinians, or were the 
Greek colonies in Arabia still in existence.?) 

The discovery of Hippalus, described in § 57, seems to have oc- 
curred not long before the author of the Periplus made his voyage. 
He evidently feels a deep respect for the discoverer, and goes on to 
say that ' ' from that time until now ' ' voyages could be made directly 
across the ocean by the monsoon. 

Pliny has but a passing reference to Hippalus, suggesting that 
between 73 and 77 A. D. when he was writing, the memory of the 
discoverer had faded somewhat from view. 

Assuming 50 A. D. as a date earlier than which this Periplus 
can not have been written, we must look next for a limit on the other 

In § 38 is mentioned the sea-coast of Scythia" around the 
mouth of the Indus, and the metropoHs of Scythia, Minnagara, which 
was subject to Parthian princes at war among themselves." 

In § 41 is mentioned another city Minnagara, which, as indicated 
in the notes, is simply the Hindu name for 'city of the invaders." 

In § 47 is mentioned the "very war-like inland nation of the 
Bactrians. ' ' 

As explained in the notes, the Scythians of the Periplus are the 
Saka tribe, who had been driven from Eastern Turkestan by the Yueh- 
chi, and overran Beluchistan, the lower Indus valley, and adjacent 
parts of the coast of India itself. They submitted to the Parthian 
Kingdom, of which they formed an important part. Their south- 
ern extension under Sandares, the ruler mentioned in § 52, indicates 
a growing pressure from the Kushan kingdom on the north, but prior 

to the conquest of this whole country by the Kushans, which occurred 
soon after 95 A. D. The "war-hke nation of the Bactrians" is the • 
tribe of Yueh-chi or Kushans, formerly subject to China, who, after 
being driven westward by the Huns, overran the Greek kingdom of 
Bactria and set up there a powerful kingdom which, early in the second 
century A. D. , conquered most of northern India. The conditions in 
the text indicate a time before this nation had commenced its conquests 
in the valleys of the Indus and Ganges, and probably before the great 
defeat of its king Kadphises by the Chinese general Panchao near 
Khotan, which occurred in 90 A. D. A defeat of this magnitude 
must certainly have been reported throughout India and would not have 
led our author to refer to the nation as very warlike." Thus we 
arrive at two dates, 90 and 95 A. D., later than which this Periplus 
can not have been written. 

In §§ 4 and 5 our author mentions the city of the Axumites, and 
the territory, coast and inland, ruled over by Zoscales; whom Henry 
Salt identified with the name Za Hakale" found by him in the 
Tarik Negus/! or Chronicles of the kings of Abyssinia. The duration 
of this Za Hakale' s reign, according to the Chronicle, was thirteen 
years, and his dates Salt fixes at 76 to 89 A. D. , following a note in 
the Chronicle that the birth of Christ took place in the eighth year of 
one of Za Hakale' s predecessors, Zabaesi Bazen. The date of the 
accession of this Zabaesi Bazen was 84 years prior to that of Za Ha- 
kale. Salt's identification of the name is probably correct, but the 
dates as they stand in the Chronicles were written some centuries 
after the events, and can hardly be accepted as safe authority in the 
absence of other evidence. The fact that nearly all the reigns are 
given as lasting an even number of years, or else as so many years and 
six months, shows that the chroniclers were only estimating the time. 
Salt himself was obliged to rearrange their chronology in order to fit 
it to known facts, and it is quite possible that his rearrangement has 
slipped in a whole reign before that of Za Hakale. Obviously Salt's 
names are worth more than his dates. South Arabian inscriptions dis- 
covered by Glaser indicate the separation of Axum from its mother-land, 
the Habash or Ethiopia of South Arabia, not long before the date of 
the Periplus; and the fact that there is no mention of Axum in any 
work earlier than the Periplus, and not even in Pliny, suggests the 
same conclusion ; namely, that the Abyssinian Chronicles are unrelia- 
able, at any rate in their earlier portions. They count as independent 
kings a number of rulers who must have been subject to the Arabian 
mother-land ; the order of events they relate is uncertain, and their 
dates are merely approximations. 


Even if the dates in the Chronicle, and Salt' s identification of 
Zoscales with Za Hakale were strictly correct, the date generally ac- 
cepted for the birth of Christ, 5 B. C, would bring Za Hakale' s 
accession down to 71 A. D. and his death to 84. 

Nearly all the commentators think that the Periplus is earlier than 
Pliny' s Natural History, which is known to have been published be- 
tween 73 and 77 A. D. The principal indication is their similarity in 
the description of Arabia Felix, where Pliny seems to condense the 
Periplus; but, on the other hand, there are many statements in Pliny's 
sixth book which describe facts in disagreement with, and probably 
earlier than, the Periplus. Of course Pliny was a compiler and copy- 
ist, and usually not very discriminating, and he may have chosen to follow 
the Periplus only where it did not contradict the earlier accounts of 
King Juba II of Mauretania, for whose knowledge he repeatedly ex- 
pressed respect. Pliny has much more information about Meroe than 
appears in the Periplus, but he does not mention Axum. He ends 
the African coast at the Promontory of Mosyllum and says that the 
Atlantic Sea begins there. In this he follows King Juba; but had he 
known the Periplus he ought to have included the African coast as far 
as Zanzibar. He has an account of Mariaba, the royal city of Arabia 
Felix, which the Periplus has not. He quotes Aelius Gallus, writing 
in 24 B. C. , as stating that the Sabaeans are the richest tribe in south- 
ern Arabia. The Periplus, however, has them subject to the Homer- 
ites, who receive only passing mention from Aelius Gallus. 

One is tempted to imagine that Pliny' s account of the voyage to 
India (VI, 26) in which he refers to "information on which reliance 
may be placed, here published for the first time, ' ' refers to the Peri- 
plus, then existing merely as a merchant's diary; and Glaser has based 
much of his argument as to the authorship of the Periplus on that pass- 
age; but Pliny goes on to describe a voyage different in many ways 
from that of the Periplus, and giving quite a different account of the 
coast of India. At the time Pliny wrote, the sea-route to India had 
been opened for nearly thirty years, and he might have had this infor- 
mation from any sea-captain, as indeed he might have had the facts 
concerning Arabia Felix which seem to be in such close agreement 
with the Periplus. The argument that Pliny, whose work was dedi- 
cated in 77 A. D., borrowed from the Periplus is, then, suggestive and 
even plausible, but by no means conclusive. 

Returning to § 41, the reference to the anarchy in the Indo-Par- 
thian or Saka region does not suggest the consolidated power of that 
King of Kathiawar and Ujjain who founded the so-called Saka era 
of 78 A. D. ; indicating for the Periplus a date earlier than that era. 


Mention of the land of This' ' in § 64, is helpful. This seems 
evidently to be the state of Ts'in in northwest China, at the date of 
the Periplus the most powerful of the states of China, and actively en- 
gaged in pushing Chinese boundaries and influence westward across 
Turkestan. The capital city is supposed to be the modern Singanfu. 
The text says that "silk is brought overland from that country to 
Bactria and India, ' ' but that few men come from there and seldom. ' ' 
This suggests a time when the trade-routes across Turkestan were still 
in turmoil and before the conquests of the Chinese general Panchao. 
The route north of the desert of Turkestan was finally opened by him 
in 94 A. D., while the route south of the desert was opened as early 
as 73 A. D. , indicating that the Periplus must be fixed before that date. 

In § 19 is mentioned Malichas, king of the Nabataeans. As 
Fabricius has pointed out, this is one of the most important indica- 
tions of date contained in the text. Josephus in his Wars of the 
Jews mentions a Malchus, king of Arabia, under which name he 
always refers to the Nabataean kingdom, as having assisted Titus in 
his expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed in the year 70 
A. D. {^Bell. Jud., Ill, 4, § 2) ; and Vogiie in his Syrie Centrale, 
Semitic Inscriptions, p. 107, confirms that a Nabataean king 
Aretas (Hareth), contemporary with the Emperors Tiberius and Ca- 
ligula, had a son Malik, or Malchus III, who reigned about 40 to 70 
A. D. It was a sister of this Malchus who married Herod Antipas, 
tetrarch of Galilee, and was abandoned by Herod for his brother Philip' s 
wife, Herodias, mother of Salome. (Josephus, Ant. Jud. XVIII, 8). 
This action of Herod brought him to war with his father-in-law, 
Aretas, and doubtless explains to some extent the policy of Malichas 
in assisting Rome against Judea. This must have been the same as 
the Malichas of the text, and his action against Jerusalem must have 
been near the end of his reign. It is fair to infer that if the Periplus 
had been written after that expedition, Malichas also would have been 
called, like Charibael in § 23, a 'friend of the Emperor," and there- 
fore that the Periplus was written before Titus' campaign of the year 70. 

In §§ 23 and 27 we have the names of Charibael, king of the 
two tribes, the Homerites and the Sabaites, and of Eleazus, king of 
the Frankincense Country. It was the opinion of Glaser, based on 
inscriptions discovered by him in South Arabia, that both these names 
were titles rather than personal names, and that they were borne by sev- 
eral rulers during the first century A. D. His incription No. 1619 
mentions a king Eleazus who was ruler in 29 A. D., and a king Cha- 
ribael whose reign was from -bout 40 to 70 A. D. The mention of 
Charibael as "a friend of the Emperors" might answer for a date 


under Vespasian after the succession of short reigns that followed 
Nero; but the years of turmoil throughout the Roman Empire, for sev- 
eral years after the death of Nero, were not years of prosperous trade 
such as the Periplus describes. This reference indicates a date early 
in the reign of Nero, before the memory of his predecessor Claudius 
had faded; roughly, any time between 54 and 60 A. D. 

In § 23 is a reference to the recent destruction of Arabia Ludae- 
mon. Our present knowledge of Arabian history does not give us 
any positive date for the war leading to the destruction of this Sabaean 
port, but the inscriptions discovered and commented on by Glaser 
point to a time after the middle of the first century. 

In § 2 our author mentions the city of A-Ieroe. This capital of 
the Nubian kingdom was severely treated by the Romans soon after 
their occupation of Egypt. The Nubian queen Candace had attacked 
Egj'pt; and an expedition sent out against her under Petronius annihi- 
lated her army and destroyed many of her cities, including that of 
Napata. This was in B. C. 22. That another queen Candace of 
Nubia retained considerable power in the first half of the first century 
A. D. is shown in Acts VIII, 27. After this, Pliny relates, the 
savage tribes of the neighboring deserts came down and plundered 
what was left of the Nubian Kingdom, so that an expedition of in- 
quiry sent by the emperor Nero (Pliny, VI, 35) when he was 
contemplating a campaign in the South, ventured as far as Meroe 
and reported that they had met with nothing but deserts on their routes; 
that the buildings in Meroe itself were but few in number and were 
still ruled over by a queen named Candace, that name having passed 
from queen to queen for many years. This state of things can be 
fixed at about 67 A. D. It is obviously later than the account in the 

Very soon after Pliny' s time Meroe must have been destroyed, 
as the name does not appear again for several centuries. 

A suggestive fact is that the Periplus tells only of the great increase 
in trade with India, and has no mention of a cessation or decline of 
that trade consequent upon the burning of Rome, July 19-25 in the year 
64. Ten out of the fourteen districts of the city were destroyed. 
The loss was not equalized; fire insurance did not exist. It is true 
that this great calamity hardly receives mention in Pliny's work. He 
refers to the baseless story of Nero's having started the fire, and in 
several passages to the destruction of buildings, temples and the like, 
always with some reticence. In many places, however, once in so 
many words, he mentions the crisis through which Rome passed in the 
later years of Nero and his short-lived successors, and of the "rest 


brought t"- an exhausted empire ' ' by the strong hand of Vespasian. 
But in a work distinctly of a commercial nature, written far from Rome 
but relating to a commerce whose sudden expansion was due entirely to 
Roman demand, some mention of the trade depression that must have 
followed such a destruction of capital and the ensuing political dis- 
order, would have been most probable. The facts of this conflagra- 
tion and of its effects upon trade are thought to be stated in Revelation, 
c. XVIII, and, notwithstanding the different point of view of the 
writer of that book, the circumstances he describes are of importance 

And the kings of the earth . . . shall bewail her, and lament 
for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning, and 

the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no 
man buyeth their merchandise any more: the merchandise of gold, 
and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and line linen, and 
purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all sweet wood, and all manner 
vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and 
of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and odours, and oint- 
ments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and 
wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, 
and souls of men .... The merchants of these things, which 
were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her tor- 
ment, weeping and wailing, and saying, Alas, alas, that great city, 
that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked 
with gold, and precious stones, and pearls ! For in one hour so great 
riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the com- 
pany in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off, 
and cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying. What 
city is like unto this great city! And they cast dust on their heads 
and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, 
wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her 
costliness! .... For thy merchants were the great men of the 

Now our author was one of those same shipmasters trading by 
sea; but in his account there is no suggestion of standing afar off, 
weeping and wailing, such as would probably have appeared if he were 
writing after that great disaster. 

Following the discovery of Hippalus there seems to have been a 
sudden and enormous increase in the Roman trade with India, and par- 
ticularly in the importation of Indian products. The Periplus, in 
§ 10, refers to the larger ships ' ' now needed for the cinnamon trade. 
This increase, particularly in the importation of luxuries, can be 


ascribed to the fashion of extravagance set by Nero's court, during the 
ascendancy of his favorite Sabina Poppasa, whose influence lasted 
from 58 until her death in 65 A. D. Pliny's reference to the enor- 
mous quantity of spices used at Poppaea's funeral (XII, 41) indicates 
such an increased trade; which he further confirms (VI, 26) by stat- 
ing that specie amounting to about i>22, 000, 000 per year vi'as required 
to balance the trade, and that these Indian imports sold in Rome at 
one hundred times their cost. Pliny's figures are untrustworthy, as 
in XII, 41, he estimates a little over ^$4, 000, 000 as the balance of 
specie required for the entire trade with India, Arabia and China; 
but a sudden increase in commerce is none the less evident. 

The absence of any description in the Periplus of trade with the 
coasts of the Persian Gulf, then subject to Parthia, suggests that it 
was written at a time when Rome and Parthia were at war. Our 
author's descriptions, even of the southern coast of Arabia, stop 
at the Frankincense Country and its dependency, the island of Masira; 
and he explains that the coast beyond the islands of Kuria Muria was 
"subject to Persia" and thus closed to him. According to the 
account given by Rawlinson, i^Sixth Monarchy-, XVI,) conflicting claims 
as to the Armenian succession led Rome to make war on Parthia in 
55 A. D., the second year of Nero's reign. The Parthians, at the 
time occupied with civil war in the South (possibly even in their 
newly-acquired South Arabian possessions), gave hostages and aband- 
oned their Armenian pretensions; which, however, they reasserted in 
58, when war broke out anew. Hostilities continued in a desultory 
way until 62, when the two powers agreed upon a mutual evacuation of 
Armenia and a settlement of the dispute by a Parthian embassy which 
was to visit Rome. This truce occurred in the summer of 62. The 
embassy made its visit in the autumn and returned without a treaty. 
The truce was broken the same winter by a Roman invasion of 
Armenia, which was repulsed and the truce renewed. A second 
Parthian embassy to Rome in the spring of 63 settled the matter by 
placing a Parthian prince on the Armenian throne and requiring him 
to receive investiture from the Roman Emperor. This ceremony 
occurred in 65 A. D. 

Hostilities between the two countries certainly ceased in the 
winter of 62 and probably, as far as commercial interests were con- 
cerned, in the summer of that year. Therefore, the date of the 
Periplus, or at any rate the date of the voyage on which it was based, 
can probably be fixed at not later than the summer of 62 and not earlier 
than the summer of 58. 

The possibilities are rather in favor of the second or third year of 


the renewed Roman-Parthian war, when the Parthian power had fully 
recovered from the disorders in the South. 

The nearest single year that suggests itself as the date of tiie 
Periplus is, therefore, 60 A. D. 

As to the authorship, it is best to admit that nothing is known. 
Fabricius in his first edition of the Periplus attributed it to an Alex- 
andrian merchant named Arrian, but other editions, and Fabricius' 
own second edition, remove the name altogether. 

Glaser, in an article published in Aiisland, 1891, pp. 45-46, pre- 
sents an argument that seems too tempting to be true. He assumes 
that the sixth book of Pliny quotes from the Periplus; that the here- 
tofore unpublished account," which Pliny mentions, was that of our 
author; that his work could have been quoted in no other book of 
Pliny, and therefore that by comparison of the indices of authorities 
which Pliny puts at the end of each book, any name appearing in the 
sixth book only would be the name of our author. By such means 
Glaser arrives at the name Basilis, and in all his references to the 
Periplus after the date of that article, he is careful to cite — Basilis, 
author of the Periplus, 56 to 67 A. D." But Pliny himself in that 
same book (VI, 35) refers to Basilis as the author of an account of 
Meroe and the upper Nile, apparently considerably earlier than the 
expedition of Petronius against Nubia in 24 to 22 B. C. ; and a work 
on India, alsb by Basilis, is quoted by Agatharchides {Jp. Phot. p. 
454 b. 34, ed. Bekker), whose work on the Erythraean Sea was writ- 
ten about 113 B. C. , a century and a half before the Periplus. It 
seems to be this same Basilis, rather than a later writer of like name, 
whose Indica is quoted by Athenaeus (^Deipnos. IX, 390, b), who 
wrote about 230 A. D. Unless, therefore, Glaser assumes that the 
Basilis of Pliny's text is a different man from the Basilis of his index, 
his argument falls. 

Then, too, a man of Pliny's standing would have been apt to 
refrain from mentioning by name a writer with no literary reputation in 
Roman society. His index would omit an obscure sea-captain, just 
as his text omits him, referring merely to information on which reli- 
ance can be placed." For the aristocracy of letters was very real in 
imperial Rome, and the writer of the Periplus did not "belo^^. " 
The possibility that Pliny may have used his account does not imply 
^he use of his name. Altogether, Glaser' s argument is more ingeni- 
ous than probable. 

That the author was an Egyptian Greek, and a merchant in active 


trade who personally made the voyage to India, is e\ident by the text 
itself; that he lived in Berenice rather than Alexandria is indicated by 
the absence of any account of the journey up the Nile and across 
the desert from Coptos, v\hich Strabo and Pliny describe at length. 
It is possible that he made the voyage from Cape Guardafui to Zan- 
zibar, but the text is so vague and uncertain that he seems rather to 
be quoting from someone else, unless indeed much of this part of the 
work has been lost in copying. The coast of Arabia east of the 
Frankincense Country, the entire Persian Gulf and the coasts of Persia 
and Beluchistan as far as the Indus river, seem to have been known 
to him only by hearsay. They were subject to Parthia, an enemy of 

That he was not a highly educated man is evident from his fre- 
quent confusion of Greek and Latin words and his clumsy and some- 
times ungrammatical constructions. The value of his work consists, 
not in its literary merits, but in its trustworthy account of the trade of 
the Indian Ocean and of the settlements around its shores; concern- 
ing which, until his time, we possess almost nothing of an intel- 
ligent and comprehensive nature. 



CoDKX Pal. Gr-«c. , 398. A parchment of the Tenth Century, in 
the Library of the Uni\'ersity of Heidelberg. It was taken to 
Rome during the Thirty Years War, and to Paris under Na- 
poleon; and was restored to Heidelberg in 1816. 

This manuscript contains twenty different titles, of which the 
first six are as follows; 

I. Argumentum a Leone AUatio. (Allazi, who packed 

and shipped the Heidelberg Library to Rome.) 
II. Fragmentum dc Palude Maeotide et de Ponto 
III. Arrianus de ver.atione. 
IV Ejusdem epistola ad Trajanum qua periplus Ponti 

Euxini continetu.". 
V. Ejusdem Periplus Maris Rubri. 
VI. Hannonis periplus. 
Manuscript 19,391. A parchment, supposed to be of the Four- 
teenth or Fifteenth Century, in the British Museum. A portion 
of it is supposed to have come from the monastery of Mount 
Athos. Such matter as it contains in common with the Heidel- 
berg manuscript seems to have been copied therefrom, or from a 
common original. 

In this the Periplus is anonymous. 
Arriani et Hannonis Periplus; Plutarchus de fluminibus et 
MONTiBUs: Strabonis epitome. Froben. Basilea Anno 
AIDXXXIII. Sigismundus Geknius Amelmo Ephorino Medico S. 
This first printed text, corrupt and full of errors due to lack 
of knowledge of the subject, served . nevertheless for three cen- 
turies as the basis of later editions, because of the disappearance 
of the Heidelberg manuscript. 
Oelle Navigationi et Viagci raccolta da Gio. Batt. Ramusio. 
In J ■nctia, nella Stamperia dc Giunti, MDLXXXFIII. 

Vol. 1, pp. 281-283a has Discorso di Gio. Battista Ra- 
musio., sopra la navigatione del Alar Rosio, jino all' India Orientalt 
scritta per Arriano and p. 283a begins Navigatione del mar 
Rosso Jino A lie Indie Orientali scritta per Arriano in Lingua Greca, £5' 
di quclla poi Trade tta nella Italiana. 

There were editions of Ramusio' s Collection at Venice in 
1550, 1554, 1563 and 1588. 


Periplus, ad Adrianum C^SARE.m. Nunc primum e Graco 
sermone in Latinum versus, plurimusque mendis rcpurgatus. Jo. Gvi- 
lielmo Stvckio Tigvrino avthore. Genevce, apvd Evstathivm I'lgnon, 

This text is based on that of Gelenius, with few material 

Arriam Ars Tactica, Acies contra Alanos, Peripu s Ponti 

EixiM, Periplus Maris Erythr^ei, Liber de Venatione, 

etc. , etc. Cum Interpretihus Latinis, is Kotis. Ex Recensions tif 

illiiserj. Kicolai Blancardi, Amstelodami, Janssonio-Jl acsbcrirn, 1683. 

This text is professedly based on that of Stuck. 

Geographic Veteris Scriptores GRiECi AIixores. Cu7n Inter- 
pretatione Latina, Dissertationibus , ac Annotationibus. Oxonia:. E 
Theatro Sheldoniano, MDCXCVIll. ( Praestitit Joannes Hud- 
sonus. Dissertationes Henrici Dodwelli. ) 

This contains as its fifth title, Periplus Alaris Erythnei eidcni 
{ A mono ) vulgo adscriptus . Interpi-ete Jo. Gutlielmo Stuckio Ttgunno. 
The text is based on Gelenius and Stuck. 

Syiloges ion ex Epitomei tois palai Geographethenton typois 
ckdothenton philotimoi dapanei ton ex loannmbn philogenestaion adel- 
ph'on ZosiMlADON charin ton t'es HelUnikh paideias cphiemcnon 
Hcilenon. En Btennet tes Austrias ek tes Schraimblikes Typographias, 


It contains, pp. 295-333 Arrianou Periplous tes Erythras 
Thalassh, with notes translated from Hudson. 

Flavii Arriam Nicomediensis Opera Greece ad optimas cditiones 
collata. Studio August! Christiani Borheck. Lcmgovicc, Ahycr, 1809. 
This contains, pp. 91-121, Arrianou Periplous t'es Erythras 
Thalasscs. The text is from Hudson. 

The Periplus OF THE Erythrean Sea. Part the first, containing: 
An Account of the Navigation of the Ancients, from the Sea of Suez 
to the Coast of Zanguebar. With Dissertations. By AX'illiam Vin- 
cent. London: Cadell, Jun., Is Davies, 1800- 

The Commerce and Navigation of the Axcjen'is in the Indian 
Ocean. By William I incent, D.D., Dean of IVestminster. In 
two volumes. London: Cadell o Davies, 1807. NoX. I, The 
I oyage of Nearchus. Vol. II, The Periplus rjf the Ery threat} Sea. 
Part the first containing, A/i Account of the Navigation of ihe 
Ancients from the Sea of Suez to the coast oj '/.angucbar. With 
Dissertations. Part the second containing, ,/;; Account oJ the 


Navigation of the Ancients from the Gulph of Elana, in the Red 
Sea, to the Island of Ceylon. 

These two beautiful volumes, presenting the Greek text and 
English translation in parallel columns, preceded by dissertations 
that denote exhaustive geographical and historical research, are still 
of deep interest and importance to the student of the Periplus. 

The text is that of Blancard : His edition I was obliged 
to adopt, because I could obtain no other to use as copy. " (Vol. 
II, part II, preface, p. xi). Vincent's textual emendations are 
generally less useful than his geographical and commercial notes, 
which are still, in large part, illuminating and trustworthy, and 
were, when written, the first intelligent presentation of the sub- 

The Voyage of Nearchus and the Periplus of the Erythrean 
Sea (ascribed to Arrian), translated by W. Vincent, Oxford, 

Untersuchungex ueber einzeln'e Gegenstaende der alten Ge- 
schichte, Geographie, und Chronologie. G. G. Bredow, 
Altona, Hammerkh, 1S02. 

This includes Vincent's Periplus, translated into German, 
pp. 715-797. 


tischen und altex Geographie. C. G. Reichard. Giins, 
Reichard, 1836. 

This includes \'incent's work, pp. .374-425 and 438-496. 

Arriano Opuscoli, tradotti da \ari. Milano, Sonxogm, 1826-7, 
S. Blandi. 

Des Pseudo-Arrians Umschiffung des Erythraeischen Meeres — 
die Ersten neun Kapitel vollstHndig, die iibrigen im Auszugc. Vcbcr- 
set%t von Streubel in Jahres-Bericht iiber die Stralauer hohere Biirgcr- 
Schule fiir das Schuljahr von Michaelis 1860 bis Michaelis 1861, 
womit — einladet C. Hartung. Berlin, Druck von Hickethier, 

This partial translation is based on the texts of Stuck, Hud- 
son and Borheck, and is of little value. 

Arriani Alexandrini Periplus Maris Erythr^ei. Recensuit et 
brevi annotatione instruxit B. Fabricius. Dresda:, in commissts Gott- 
schalcki, MDCCCXLIX. 


Geographi GR-ffiCl MiNORES. E codicihus recognovit, prolegomenis, anno- 
tatione, mdicibusque instruxit, tabulis ari incisis illustravit Carolus 
Mullerus. Parisiis, Didot, MDCCCLV. 

Vol. I, pp. xcv— CXI has Prolegomena Anonymi Periplus Mark 
Erythnci^ and pp. 257—305 Anonymi ( Arriani, ut fertur) Periplus 
Maris Erythrcci, being the eighth title included in that volume. 
Vol. Ill contains four maps, xi-xiv, especially drawn to illustrate 
the Periplus, and four more, vi— viii and xv, drawn for other 
titles but presenting details that further elucidate this work. 

This edition is a vast improvement over all its predecessors, 
presenting a text which is still the standard, admitting of modifi- 
cation only in minor details. The Greek text, carefully corrected 
from the Heidelberg manuscript, and critically revised and im- 
proved, is presented side by side with a Latin translation. 7'he 
notes, which are in Latin, reflect almost everything of importance 
to the subject which had been written up to that time. 

The Commerce and Navigation of the Erythr^an Sea. By 
J. IF. McCrindle, M.A., LL.D., Calcutta, 1879. This volume 
contains a translation (with commentary) of the Periplus Eryth- 
R/Ei Maris, by an unknoivn writer of the first Christian century, 
and of the second part of the Indika of Arrian. 

The translation of the Periplus was also printed in the Indian 
Antiquary of Bombay, \o\. VIII, pp. 108-15L 

This excellent translation, while based professedly on Miil- 
ler's text, is often reminiscent rather of X^incent's, and thus 
repeats various errors which Miiller' s notes had corrected. 

The notes are valuable for the original material they contain 
concerning Hindu names, places and commodities, but show 
lack of acquaintance with German writers. 

Der Periplus des Eryi hraeischen Meeres von Einem Unbekann- 
'I'EN. Griechisch und deutsch mit kritischen und erktdrenden Anntn-- 
kungen nebst vollstdndigem 1 Forterver%eichnisse von B. Fabricius. 
Leipzig, I'erlag von Feit ^ Comp., J8Sj. 

A most scholarly presentation of Greek text and German 
translation on opposite pages, with clear and exhaustive notes. 
The Cjreek text, which has been revised with extreme care, 
contains many verbal corrections of Mullet's standard text, and 
leaves little to be desired. The historical and commercial notes 
call for revision where they omit conclusions previously reached 
by English writers, and in so far as they are affected by later 


The present translation is based on Miiller' s text, adopting 
most of Fabricius' verbal emendations, but conforming as far as 
possible with the results of later research. Vincent's text and 
translation .have also been consulted frequently. References in 
the text to articles of commerce have been carefully collated with 
Pliny and other contemporary writers, as well as with modern 


The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea 

1. Of the designated ports on the Erythraean Sea, 
and the market-towns around it, the first is the Egyp- 
tian port of Mussel Harbor. To those saiHng down 
from that place, on the right hand, after eighteen hun- 
dred stadia, there is Berenice. The harbors of both are 
at the boundary of Egypt, and are bays opening from 
the Erythrzean Sea. 

2. On the right-hand coast next below Berenice 
is the country of the Berbers. Along the shore are the 
Fish-Eaters, living in scattered caves in the narrow val- 
leys. Further inland are the Berbers, and beyond them 
the Wild-flesh-Eaters and Calf-Eaters, each tribe gov- 
erned by its chief; and behind them, further inland, 
in the country toward the west, there lies a city called 

3. Below the Calf- Eaters there is a little market- 
to^^'n on the shore after sailing about four thousand 
stadia from Berenice, called Ptolemais of the Hunts, 
from which the hunters started for the interior under 
the dynasty of the Ptolemies. This market-town has 
the true land-tortoise in small quantity ; it is white and 
smaller in the shells. And here also is found a little 
ivory, like that of Adulis. But the place has no harbor 
and is reached tjnl}' b\' small boats. 

4. Below Ptolemais of the Hunts, at a distance of 
about three thousand stadia, there is Adulis, a port es- 
tablished by law, lying at the inner end of a bay that 
runs in toward the south. Before the harbor lies the 


so-called Mountain Island, about two hundred stadia sea- 
ward from the very head of the bay, with the shores of 
the mainland close to it on both sides. Ships bound for 
this port now anchor here because of attacks from the 
land. They used formerly to anchor at the very head 
of the bay, by an island called Diodorus, close to the 
shore, which could be reached on foot from the land ; by 
which means the barbarous natives attacked the island. 
Opposite Mountain Island, on the mainland twenty stadia 
from shore, lies Adulis, a fair-sized village, from which 
there is a three-days' journey to Coloe, an inland town 
and the first market for ivory. From that place to the 
city of the people called Auxumites there is a five days' 
journey more; to that place all the ivory is brought 
from the country beyond the Nile through the district 
called Cyeneum, and thence to Adulis. Practically the 
whole number of elephants and rhinoceros that are 
killed live in the places inland, although at rare inter- 
vals they are hunted on the seacoast even near Adulis. 
Before the harbor of that market-town, out at sea on 
the right hand, there lie a great many little sandy islands 
called Alalaei, yielding tortoise-shell, which is brought 
to market there by the Fish-Eaters. 

5. And about eight hundred stadia beyond there is 
another very deep bay, with a great mound of sand 
piled up at the right of the entrance; at the bottom 
of which the opsian stone is found, and this is the only 
place where it is produced. These places, from the 
Calf-Eaters to the other Berber country, are governed 
by Zoscales; who is miserly in his ways and always 
striving for more, but otherwise upright, and acquainted 
with Greek literature. 


6. There are imported into these places, undressed 
cloth made in Egypt for the Berbers; robes from Ar- 
sinoe; cloaks of poor quality dyed in colors; double- 
fringed linen mantles; many articles of flint glass, and 
others of murrhine, made in Diospolis ; and brass, which 
is used for ornament and in cut pieces instead of coin; 
sheets of soft copper, used for cooking-utensils and cut 
up for bracelets and anklets for the women ; iron, which 
is made into spears used against the elephants and other 
wild beasts, and in their wars. Besides these, small axes 
are imported, and adzes and swords; copper drinking- 
cups, round and large; a little coin for those coming 
to the market; wine of Laodicea and Italy, not much; 
olive oil, not much ; for the king, gold and silver plate 
made after the fashion of the country, and for clothing, 
military cloaks, and thin coats of skin, of no great \alue. 
Likewise from the district of Ariaca across this sea, there 
are imported Indian iron, and steel, and Indian cotton 
cloth; the broad cloth called monache and that called 
sagmatogene, and girdles, and coats of skin and mal- 
low-colored cloth, and a few muslins, and colored lac. 
There are exported from these places ivory, and tortoise- 
shell and rhinoceros-horn. The most from Egypt is 
brought to this market from the month of January to 
September, that is, from Tybi to Thoth ; but season- 
ably they put to sea about the month of September. 

7. From this place the Arabian Gulf trends toward 
the east and becomes narrowest just before the Gulf of 
Avalites. After about four thousand stadia, for those 
sailing eastward along the same coast, there are other 
Berber market-towns, known as the "far-side" ports; 
lying at intervals one after the other, without harbors 


but having roadsteads where ships can anchor and he 
in good \veather. The first is called Avalites; to this 
place the voyage from Arabia to the far-side coast 
is the shortest. Here there is a small market- 
town called Avalites, which must be reached by boats 
and rafts. There are imported into this place, flint glass, 
assorted; juice of sour grapes from Diospolis; dressed 
cloth, assorted, made for the Berbers; wheat, wine, and 
a little tin. There are exported from the same place, 
and sometimes by the Berbers themselves crossing on 
rafts to Ocelis and Muza on the opposite shore, spices, a 
little ivory, tortoise-shell, and a very little myrrh, but 
better than the rest. And the Berbers who live in the 
place are very unruly. 

8. After Avalites there is another market-town, 
better than this, called Malao, distant a sail of about 
eight hundred stadia. The anchorage is an open road- 
stead, sheltered by a spit running out from the east. 
Here the natives are more peaceable. There are im- 
ported into this place the things already mentioned, and 
many tunics, cloaks from Arsinoe, dressed and dyed; 
drinking-cups, sheets of soft copper in small quantity, 
iron, and gold and silver coin, not much. There are 
exported from these places myrrh, a little frankincense, 
(that known as far-side), the harder cinnamon, duaca, 
Indian copal and macir, which are imported into Arabia; 
and slaves, but rarely. 

9. Two days' sail, or three, beyond Malao is the 
market-town of Mundus, where the ships lie at anchor 
more safely behind a projecting island close to the shore. 
There are imported into this place the things previously 
set forth, and from it likewise are exported the mer- 


chandise already stated, and the incense called mocrotu. 
And the traders li\'ing here are more quarrelsome. 

10. Beyond Mundus, sailing toward the east, after 
another two days' sail, or three, you reach Mosyllum, 
on a beach, with a bad anchorage. There are imported 
here the same things already mentioned, also silver 
plate, a very little iron, and glass. There are shipped 
from the place a great quantity of cinnamon, (so that 
this mtirket-town requires ships of larger size), and 
fragrant gums, spices, a little tortoise shell, and mocrotu, 
(poorer than that of Mundus), frankincense, (the 
far-side), ivory and myrrh in small quantities. 

11. Sailing along the coast bej^ond Mosyllum, after 
a two days' course you come to the so-called Little Nile 
River, and a fine spring, and a small laurel-grove, and 
Cape Elephant. Then the shore recedes into a bay, 
and has a river, called Elephant, and a large laurel- 
grove called Acanna; ; where alone is produced the far- 
side frankincense, in great quantity and of the best grade. 

12. Beyond this place, the coast trending toward 
the south, there is the Market and Cape of Spices, an 
abrupt promontory, at the very end of the Berber coast 
toward the east. The anchorage is dangerous at times 
from the ground-swell, because the place is exposed to 
the north. A sign of an approaching storm which is 
peculiar to the place, is that the deep water becomes 
more turbid and changes its color. When this happens 
they all run to a large promontory called Tabas, which 
ofTers safe shelter. There are imported into this market- 
town the things already mentioned ; and there are pro- 
duced in it cinnamon and its different varieties, gizir, 
asypha, arebo, mag/a, and moto) and frankincense. 


13. Beyond Tabae, after four hundred stadia, there 
is the village of Pano. And then, after sailing four 
hundred stadia along a promontory, toward which place 
the current also draws you, there is another market- 
town called Opone, into which the same things are im- 
ported as those already mentioned, and in it the greatest 
quantity of cinnamon is produced, (the arebo and moto), 
and slaves of the better sort, which are brought to Egypt 
in increasing numbers ; and a great quantity of tortoise- 
shell, better than that found elsewhere. 

14. The voyage to all these far-side market-towns 
is made from Egypt about the month of July, that is 
Epiphi. And ships are also customarily fitted out from 
the places across this sea, from Ariaca and Barygaza, 
bringing to these far-side market-towns the products of 
their own places ; wheat, rice, clarified butter, sesame 
oil, cotton cloth, (the monache and the sagmatogene) , 
and girdles, and honey from the reed called sacchari. 
Some make the voyage especially to these market-towns, 
and others exchange their cargoes while sailing along 
the coast. This country is not subject to a King, but 
each market-town is ruled by its separate chief. 

15. Beyond Opone, the shore trending more to- 
ward the south, first there are the small and great bluffs 
of Azania ; this coast is destitute of harbors, but there 
are places where ships can lie at anchor, the shore being 
abrupt; and this course is of six days, the direction being 
south-west. Then come the small and great beach for 
another six days' course and after that in order, the 
Courses of Azania, the first being called Sarapion and 
the next Nicon; and after that several rivers and other 
anchorages, one after the other, separately a rest and a 


run for each day, seven in all, until the Pyralaae islands 
and what is called the channel ; beyond which, a little 
to the south of south-west, after two courses of a day 
and night along the Ausanitic coast, is the island 
Menuthias, about three hundred stadia from the main- 
land, low and and wooded, in which there are rivers 
and many kinds of birds and the mountain-tortoise. 
There are no wild beasts except the crocodiles ; but there 
they do not attack men. In this place there are sewed 
boats, and canoes hollowed from single logs, which 
they use for fishing and catching tortoise. In this 
island they also catch them in a peculiar way, in wicker 
baskets, 'which they fasten across the channel-opening 
between the breakers. 

16. Two days' sail beyond, there lies the very 
last market-town of the continent of Azania, which is 
called Rhapta; which has its name from the sewed 
boats {rhaptbn ploiarion) already mentioned; in which 
there is ivory in great quantity, and tortoise-shell. 
Along this coast live men of piratical habits, ver\^ great 
in stature, and under separate chiefs for each place. 
The Mapharitic chief governs it under some ancient 
right that subjects it to the sovereignty of the state that 
is become first in Arabia. And the people of Muza 
now hold it under his authority, and send thither many 
large ships; using Arab captains and agents, who are 
famiHar with the natives and intermarry with them, and 
who know the whole coast and understand the language. 

17. There are imported into these markets the lances 
made at Muza especially for this trade, and hatchets 
and daggers and awls, and various kinds of glass; and 
at some places a little wine, and wheat, not for trade, but 


to serve for getting the good-will of the savages. There 
are exported from these places a great quantity of ivory, 
but inferior to that of Adulis, and rhinoceros-horn 
and tortoise-shell (which is in best demand after that 
from India), and a little palm-oil. 

18. And these markets of Azania are the very last 
of the continent that stretches down on the right hand 
from Berenice ; for beyond these places the unexplored 
ocean curves around toward the west, and running along 
by the regions to the south of Aethiopia and Libya and 
Africa, it mingles with the western sea. 

19. Now to the left of Berenice, sailing for two 
or three days from Mussel Harbor eastward across the 
adjacent gulf, there is another harbor and fortified place, 
which is called White Village, from which there is a 
road to Petra, which is subject to Malichas, King of 
the Nabataeans. It holds the position of a market-town 
for the small vessels sent there from Arabia; and so a 
centurion is stationed there as a collector of one-fourth 
of the merchandise imported, with an armed force, as 
a garrison. 

20. Directly below this place is the adjoining 
country of Arabia, in its length bordering a great dis- 
tance on the Erythraean Sea. Different tribes inhabit 
the country, differing in their speech, some partially, 
and some altogether. The land next the sea is similarly 
dotted here and there with caves of the Fish-Eaters, but 
the country inland is peopled by rascally men speaking 
two languages, who live in villages and nomadic camps, 
by whom those sailing off the middle course are plun- 
dered, and those surviving shipwrecks are taken for 
slaves. And so they too are continually taken prisoners 


by the chiefs and kings of Arabia; and they are called 
Carnaites. Navigation is dangerous along this whole 
coast of Arabia, which is without harbors, with bad an- 
chorages, foul, inaccessible because of breakers and 
rocks, and terrible in every way. Therefore we hold 
our course down the middle of the gulf and pass on as 
fast as possible by the country of Arabia until we come 
to the Burnt Island; directly below which there are 
regions of peaceful people, nomadic, pasturers of cattle, 
sheep and camels. 

21. Beyond these places, in a bay at the foot of the 
left side of this gulf, there is a place by the shore called 
Muza, a market-town established by law, distant alto- 
gether from Berenice for those sailing southward, about 
tA^elve thousand stadia. And the whole place is crowded 
with Arab shipowners and seafaring men, and is busy 
with the affairs of commerce; for they carry on a trade 
with the far-side coast and with Bar'gaza, sending their 
own ships there. 

22. Three days inland from this port there is 
a city called Sana, in the midst of the region called 
Mapharitis; and there is a vassal-chief named Chols- 
bus who lives in that city. 

23. And after nine days more there is Saphar, the 
metropolis, in which lives Charibael, lawful king of 
two tribes, the Homerites and those living next to 
them, called the Sabaites; through continual embassies 
and gifts, he is a friend of the Emperors. 

24. The market-town of Muza is without a har- 
bor, but has a good roadstead and anchorage because 
of the sandy bottom thereabouts, where the anchors 
hold safely. The merchandise imported there consists 


of purple cloths, both fine and coarse ; clothing in the 
Arabian style, with sleeves; plain, ordinary, embroi- 
dered, or interwoven with gold; saffron, sweet rush, 
muslins, cloaks, blankets (not many), some plain and 
others made in the local fashion; sashes of different 
colors, fragrant ointments in moderate quantity, wine 
and wheat, not much. For the country produces grain 
in moderate amount, and a great deal of wine. And 
to the King and the Chief are given horses and sump- 
ter-mules, vessels of gold and polished silver, finely 
woven clothing and copper vessels. There are exported 
from the same place the things produced in the coun- 
try : selected myrrh, and the Gebanite-Minaean stacte, 
alabaster and all the things already mentioned from 
Avalites and the far-side coast. The voyage to this 
place is made best about the month of September, that 
is Thoth ; but there is nothing to prevent it even earlier. 

25. After sailing beyond this place about three 
hundred stadia, the coast of Arabia and the Berber 
country about the Avalitic gulf no\v coming close to- 
gether, there is a channel, not long in extent, which 
forces the sea together and shuts it into a narrow strait, 
the passage through which, sixty stadia in length, the 
island Diodorus divides. Therefore the course through 
it is beset with rushing currents and with strong winds 
blowing down from the adjacent ridge of mountains. 
Directly on this strait by the shore there is a village of 
Arabs, subject to the same chief, called Ocelis; which 
is not so much a market-town as it is an anchorage and 
watering-place and the first landing for those sailing 
into the gulf. 

26. Beyond Ocelis, the sea widening again to\\ ard 


the east and soon giving a view of the open ocean, after 
about twelve hundred stadia there is Eudasmon Arabia, 
a village by the shore, also of the Kingdom of Chari- 
bael, and having convenient anchorages, and watering- 
places, sweeter and better than those at Ocelis; it lies at 
the entrance of a bay, and the land recedes from it. 
It was called Eudaemon, because in the early days of 
the city when the vo3rage was not yet made from India 
to Egypt, and when they did not dare to sail from 
Egypt to the ports across this ocean, but all came to- 
gether at this place, it received the cargoes from both 
countries, just as Alexandria now receives the things 
brought both from abroad and from Eg3^pt. But not 
long before our own time Charibae' destro3xd the 

27. After Eudaemon Arabia there is a continuous 
length of coast, and a bay extending two thousand stadia 
or more, along which there are Nomads and Fish-Eaters 
living in villages; just beyond the cape projecting from 
this bay there is another market-town by the shore, 
Cana, of the Kingdom of Eleazus, the Frankincense 
Ccnmtry; and facing it there are two desert islands, 
one called Island of Birds, the other Dome Island, one 
hundred and twenty stadia from Cana. Inland from 
this place lies the metropolis Sabbatha, in which the 
King lives. All the frankincense produced in tlie 
country is brought by camels to that place to be stored, 
and to Cana on rafts held up by inflated skins after the 
manner of the country, and in boats. And this place 
has a trade also with the far-side ports, with Barygaza 
and Scythia and Ommana and the neighboring coast 
of Persia. 


28. There are imported into this place from Egypt 
a httle wheat and wine, as at Muza; clothing in the 
Arabian style, plain and common and most of it spuri- 
ous; and copper and tin and coral and storax and other 
things such as go to Muza; and for the King usually 
wrought gold and silver plate, also horses, images, and 
thin clothing of fine quality. And there are exported 
from this place, native produce, frankincense and aloes, 
and the rest of the things that enter into the trade of 
the other ports. The voyage to this place is best made 
at the same time as that to Muza, or rather earlier. 

29. Beyond Cana, the land receding greatly, there 
follows a very deep bay stretching a great way across, 
which is called Sachalites ; and the Frankincense Coun- 
try, mountainous and forbidding, wrapped in thick 
clouds and fog, and yielding frankincense from the 
trees. These incense-bearing trees are not of great 
height or thickness; they bear the frankincense stick- 
ing in drops on the bark, just as the trees among us in 
Egypt weep their gum. The frankincense is gathered 
by the King's slaves and those who are sent to this ser- 
vice for punishment. For these places are very un- 
healthy, and pestilential even to those sailing along the 
coast; but almost always fatal to those working there, 
who also perish often from want of food. 

30. On this bay there is a very great promontory 
facing the east, called Syagrus ; on which is a fort for 
the defence of the country, and a harbor and storehouse 
for the frankincense that is collected ; and opposite this 
cape, well out at sea, there is an island, lying between 
it and the Cape of Spices opposite, but nearer Syagrus : 
it is called Dioscorida, and is very large but desert and 


marshy, having rivers in it and crocodiles and many 
snakes and great lizards, of which the flesh is eaten and 
the fat melted and used instead of olive oil. The island 
yields no fruit, neither vine nor grain. The inhabitants 
are few and they live on the coast toward the north, 
which from this side faces the continent. They are 
foreigners, a mixture of Arabs and Indians and Greeks, 
who have emigrated to carry on trade there. The island 
produces the true sea-tortoise, and the land-tortoise, and 
the white tortoise which is very numerous and prefer- 
red for its large shells; and the mountain-tortoise, which 
is largest of all and has the thickest shell ; of which the 
worthless specimens cannot be cut apart on the under 
side, because they are even too hard; but those of \'alue 
are cut apart and the shells made \\'hole into caskets 
and small plates and cake-dishes and that sort of \^'are. 
There is also produced in this island cinnabar, that 
called Indian, which is collected in drops from the 

."^l. It happens that just as Azania is subject to 
Charibael and the Chief of Mapharitis, this island is 
subject to the King of the Frankincense Country. 
Trade is also carried on there by some people from 
Muza and by those who chance to call there on the 
voyage from Damirica and Barygaza; they bring in 
rice and wheat and Indian cloth, and a few female 
slaves; and they take for their exchange cargoes, a 
great quantity of tortoise-shell. Now the island is 
farmed out under the Kings and is garrisoned. 

32. Immediately beyond Syagrus the bay of Omana 
cuts deep into the coast-line, the width of it being six 
hundred stadia; and beyond this there are mountains. 


high and rocky and steep, inhabited by cave-dwellers 
for five hundred stadia more ; and beyond this is a port 
established for receiving the Sachalitic frankincense; 
the harbor is called Moscha, and ships from Cana call 
there regularly; and ships returning from Damirica 
and Barygaza, if the season is late, winter there, and 
trade ^^'ith the King's officers, exchanging their cloth 
and wheat and sesame oil for frankincense, which lies 
in heaps all over the Sachalitic country, open and un- 
guarded, as if the place were under the protection of 
the gods; for neither openly nor by stealth can it be 
loaded on board ship without the King's permission; 
if a single grain were loaded without this, the ship could 
not clear from the harbor. 

33. Beyond the harbor of Moscha for about fifteen 
hundred stadia as far as Asich, a mountain range runs 
along the shore; at the end of which, in a row, lie 
seven islands, called Zenobian. Beyond these there is 
a barbarous region which is no longer of the same 
Kingdom, but now belongs to Persia. Sailing along 
this coast well out at sea for two thousand stadia from 
the Zenobian Islands, there meets you an island called 
Sarapis, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the 
mainland. It is about two hundred stadia wide and six 
hundred long, inhabited by three settlements of Fish- 
Eaters, a villainous lot, who use the Arabian language 
and wear girdles of palm-leaves. The island produces 
considerable tortoise-shell of fine quality, and small sail- 
boats and cargo-ships are sent there regularly from 

34. Sailing along the coast, which trends north- 
ward toward the entrance of the Persian Sea, there are 


many islands known as the Calsi, after about two 
thousand stadia, extending along the shore. The in- 
habitants are a treacherous lot, very little civilized. 

35. At the upper end of these Calsi islands is a 
range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not 
far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there 
is much diving for the pearl-mussel. To the left of 
the straits are great mountains called Asabon, and to 
the right there rises in full view another round and 
high mountain called Semiramis; between them the 
passage across the strait is about six hundred stadia ; be- 
yond which that very great and broad sea, the Persian 
Gulf, reaches far into the interior. At the upper end 
of this Gulf there is a market-town designated by law, 
called Apologus, situated near Charax Spasini and the 
River Euphrates. 

36. Sailing through the mouth of the Gulf, after 
a six-days' course there is another market-town of Persia 
called Ommana. To both of these market-towns large 
vessels are regularly sent from Barygaza, loaded with cop- 
per and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs 
of blackwood and ebony. To Ommana frankincense is 
also brought from Cana, and from Ommana to Arabia 
boats sewed together after the fashion of the place; 
these are known as madarata. From each of these 
market-towns, there are exported to Barygaza and also 
to Arabia, many pearls, but inferior to those of India ; 
purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a 
great quantity of dates, gold and slaves. 

37. Beyond the Ommanitic region there is a coun- 
try also of the Parsidae, of another Kingdom, and the 
bay of Gedrosia, from the middle of which a cape juts 


out into the bay. Here there is a river affording an 
entrance for ships, with a Httle market-town at the 
mouth, called Ortea; and back from the place an in- 
land cit}', distant a seven days' journey from the sea, in 
which also is the King's court; it is called (prob- 
ably Rhambacia). This country yields much \\ heat, 
\\ ine, rice and dates; but along the coast there is 
nothing but bdellium. 

38. Beyond this region, the continent making a 
wide curv^e from the east across the depths of the bays, 
there follows the coast district of Scythia, which lies 
above toward the north; the whole marshy; from 
\\ hich flows down the ri\'er Sinthus, the greatest of all 
the rivers that flow into the Erythraean Sea, bringing 
down an enormous volume of water; so that a long 
wav out at sea, before reaching this country, the water 
of the ocean is fresh from it. Now as a sign of ap- 
proach to this country to those coming from the sea, 
there are serpents coming forth from the depths to meet 
you; and a sign of the places just mentioned and in 
Persia, are those called grace. This river has seven 
mouths, very shallow and marshy, so that they are not 
navigable, except the one in the middle; at which by 
the shore, is the market-town, Barbaricum. Before it 
there lie* a small island, and inland behind it is the me- 
tropolis of Scythia, Minnagara; it is subject to Parthian 
princes who are constantly driving each other out. 

39. The ships lie at anchor at Barbaricum, but all 
their cargoes are carried up to the metropolis by the 
river, to the King. There are imported into this mar- 
ket a great deal of thin clothing, and a little spurious; 
figured linens, topaz, coral, storax, frankincense, vessels 


of glass, silver and gold plate, and a little wine. On 
the other hand there are exported costus, bdellium, 
lycium, nard, turquoise, lapis lazuli, Seric skins, cotton 
cloth, silk yarn, and indigo. And sailors set out thither 
with the Indian Etesian winds, about the month of 
July, that is Epiphi: it is more dangerous then, but 
through these winds the voyage is more direct, and 
sooner completed. 

40. Beyond the river Sinthus there is another gulf, 
not navigable, running in toward the north ; it is called 
Eirinon; its parts are called separately the small gulf 
and the great; in both parts the water is shallow, with 
shifting sandbanks occurring continually and a great 
way from shore ; so that very often when the shore is 
not even in sight, ships run aground, and if they at- 
tempt to hold their course they are wrecked. A prom- 
ontor\ stands out from this gulf, curving around from 
Eirinon toward the East, then South, then West, and 
enclosing the gulf called Baraca, \\ hich contains seven 
islands. Those who come to the entrance of this bay 
.. escape it by putting about a little and standing further 
out to sea; but those who are drawn inside into the 
gulf of Baraca are lost; for the waves are high and very 
violent, and the sea is tumultuous and foul, and has 
eddies and rushing whirlpools. The bottom is in some 
places abrupt, and in others rocky and sharp, so that 
the anchors lying there are parted, some being quickly 
cut off, and others chafing on the bottom. As a sign 
of these places to those approaching from the sea there 
are serpents, very large and black; for at the other 
places on this coast and around Barygaza, tliey are 
smaller, and in color bright green, running into gold. 


41. Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza 
and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the be- 
ginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. 
That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is 
called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is 
a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame 
oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths 
made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many 
cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stat- 
ure and black in color. The metropolis of this country 
is Minnagara, from x^'hich much cotton cloth is brought 
down to Barygaza. In these places there remain e\'en 
to the present time signs of the expedition of Alexander, 
such as ancient shrines, walls of forts and great wells. 
The sailing course along this coast, from Barbaricum 
to the promontory called Papica, opposite Barygaza, 
and before Astacampra, is of three thousand stadia. 

42. Beyond this there is another gulf exposed to 
the sea-waves, running up toward the north, at the 
mouth of which there is an island called Bseones; at 
its innermost part there is a great river called Mais. 
Those sailing to Barygaza pass across this gulf, which 
is three hundred stadia in width, leaving behind to their 
left the island just visible from their tops toward the 
east, straight to the very mouth of the river of Barygaza; 
and this river is called Nammadus. 

43. This gulf is very narrow to Barygaza and very 
hard to navigate for those coming from the ocean ; this 
is the case with both the right and left passages, but 
there is a better passage through the left. For on the 
right at the very mouth of the gulf there lies a shoal, 
long and narrow, and full of rocks, called Herone, 


facing the village of Cammoni; and opposite this on 
the left projects the promontory that lies before Asta- 
campra, \vhich is called Papica, and is a bad anchorage 
because of the strong current setting in around it and 
because the anchors are cut of?, the bottom being rough 
and rocky. And even if the entrance to the gulf is 
made safely, the mouth of the river at Barygaza is found 
with difficulty, because the shore is \er\ low and cannot 
be made out until you are close upon it. And when 
you have found it the passage is difficult because of the 
shoals at the mouth of the rixer. 

44. Because of this, native fishermen in the King's 
service, stationed at the very entrance in well-manned 
large boats called trappaga and cotymha, go up the 
coast as far as Syrastrene, from ^\'hich they pilot vessels 
to Barygaza. And they steer them straight from the 
mouth of the bay between the shoals with their cre\\"s ; 
and they tow them to fixed stations, going up with the 
beginning of the flood, and lying through the ebb at 
anchorages and in basins. These basins are deeper 
places in the river as far as Bar}'gaza; which lies 
bv the river, about three hundred stadia up from the 

45. Now the whole country of India has very many 
rivers, and \'ery great ebb and flow of the tides; in- 
creasing at the new moon, and at the full moon for 
three days, and falling off during the intervening days 
of the moon. But about Barygaza it is much greater, 
so that the bottom is suddenly seen, and now parts of 
the dr} land are sea, and now it is dry where ships were 
sailing just before; and the rivers, under the inrush 
of the flood tide, when the whole force of the sea is 


directed against them, are driven upwards more strongly 
against their natural current, for many stadia. 

46. For this reason entrance and departure of ves- 
sels is very dangerous to those who are inexperienced or 
who come to this market-town for the first time. For 
the rush of waters at the incoming tide is irresistible, 
and the anchors cannot hold against it; so that large 
ships are caught up by the force of it, turned broadside 
on through the speed of the current, and so driven on 
the shoals and wrecked; and smaller boats are over- 
turned ; and those that have been turned aside among 
the channels by the receding waters at the ebb, are left 
on their sides, and if not held on an even keel by props, 
the flood tide comes upon them suddenly and under 
the first liead of the current they are filled with water. 
For there is so great force in the rush of the sea at the 
new moon, especially during the flood tide at night, 
that if you begin the entrance at the moment when the 
waters are still, on the instant there is borne to you at 
the mouth of the river, a noise like the cries of an army 
heard from afar; and very soon the sea itself comes rush- 
ing in over the shoals with a hoarse roar. 

47. The country inland from Barygaza is inhabited 
by numerous tribes, such as the Arattii, the Arachosii, 
the Gandarjei and the people of Poclais, in which is 
Bucephalus Alexandria. Above these is the very war- 
like nation of the Bactrians, who are under their own 
king. And Alexander, setting out from these parts, 
penetrated to the Ganges, leaving aside Damirica and 
the southern part of India; and to the present day an- 
cient drachmae are current in Barygaza, coming from 
this country, bearing inscriptions in Greek letters, and 


the devices of those \\ho reigned after Alexander, 
Apollodotus and Menander. 

48. Inland from this place and to the east, is the 
city called Ozene, formerly a royal capital; from this 
place are brought down all things needed for the wel- 
fare of the country about Barygaza, and many things 
for our trade : agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and 
mallow cloth, and much ordinary cloth. Through 
this same region and from the upper country is brought 
the spikenard that comes through Poclais; that is, the 
Caspapyrene and Paropanisene and Cabolitic and that 
brought through the adjoining country of Scythia; 
also costus and bdellium. 

49. There are imported into this market-town, 
wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; 
copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing 
and inferior sorts of all kinds ; bright-colored girdles a 
cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, an- 
timony, gold and silver coin, on which there is a profit 
when exchanged for the money of the country; and 
ointment, but not very costly and not much. And for 
the King there are brought into those places very costly 
vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the 
harem, fine A\'ines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, 
and the choicest ointments. There are exported from 
these places spikenard, costus, bdelUum, ivory, agate 
and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk 
cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other 
things as are brought here from the various market- 
towns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt 
make the voyage favorably about the month of July, 
that is Epiphi. 


50. Beyond Barygaza the adjoining coast extends 
in a straight hne from north to south; and so this re- 
gion is called Dachinabades, for dachanos in the lan- 
guage of the natives means "south." The inland 
country back from the coast toward the east comprises 
many desert regions and great mountains ; and all kinds 
of wild beasts — leopards, tigers, elephants, enormous 
serpents, hyenas, and baboons of many sorts ; and many 
populous nations, as far as the Ganges. 

51. Among the market-towns of Dachinabades 
there are two of special importance; Psethana, distant 
about twenty days' journey south from Barygaza; be- 
yond which, about ten days' journey east, there is 
another very great city, Tagara. There are brought 
down to Barygaza from these places by wagons and 
through great tracts without roads, from Paethana car- 
nelian in great quantity, and from Tagara much com- 
mon cloth, all kinds of muslins and mallow cloth, and 
other merchandise brought there locally from the re- 
gions along the sea-coast. And the whole course to 
the end of Damirica is seven thousand stadia ; but the 
distance is greater to the Coast Country. 

52. The market-towns of this region are, in order, 
after Barygaza : Suppara, and the city of Calliena, which 
in the time of the elder Saraganus became a lawful 
market-town; but since it came into the possession of 
Sandares the port is much obstructed, and Greek ships 
landing there may chance to be taken to Barygaza 
under guard. 

53. Beyond Calliena there are other market-towns 
of this region ; Semylla, Mandagora, Palaepatms, Meli- 
zigara, Byzantium, Togarum and Aurannoboas. Then 


there are the islands called Sesecrienae and that of the 
Aegidii, and that of the Caenitas, opposite the place 
called Chersonesus (and in these places there are pirates) , 
and after this the White Island. Then come Naura 
and Tyndis, the first markets of Damirica, and then 
Muziris and Nelcynda, which are no\\' of leading im- 

54. Tyndis is of the Kingdom of Cerobothra ; it 
is a village in plain sight by the sea. Muziris, of the 
same Kingdom, abounds in ships sent there with car- 
goes from Arabia, and by the Greeks; it is located on 
a river, distant from Tyndis by river and sea five 
hundred stadia, and up the river from the shore twenty 
stadia. Nelcynda is distant from Muziris by river and 
sea about five hundred stadia, and is of another King- 
dom, the Pandian. This place also is situated on a 
river, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the 

55. There is another place at the mouth of this 
river, the village of Bacare; to which ships drop down 
on the outward voyage from Nelcynda, and anchor in 
the roadstead to take on their cargoes; because the 
river is full of shoals and the channels are not clear. 
The kings of both these market-towns live in the in- 
terior. And as a sign to those approaching these places 
from the sea there are serpents coming forth to meet 
you, black in color, but shorter, like snakes in the 
head, and \vith blood-red eyes. 

56. They send large ships to these market-towns 
on account of the great quantity and bulk of pepper and 
malabathrum. There are imported here, in the first 
place, a great quantity of coin ; topaz, thin clothing, not 


much; figured linens, antimony, coral, crude glass, 
copper, tin, lead; wine, not much, but as much as at 
Barygaza; realgar and orpiment; and wheat enough 
for the sailors, for this is not dealt in by the merchants 
there. There is exported pepper, which is produced 
in quantity in only one region near these markets, a 
district called Cottonara. Besides this there are ex- 
ported great quantities of fine pearls, ivory, silk cloth, 
spikenard from the Ganges, malabathrum from the 
places in the interior, transparent stones of all kinds, 
diamonds and sapphires, and tortoise-shell ; that from 
Chryse Island, and that taken among the islands along 
the coast of Damirica. They make the voyage to this 
place in a favorable season who set out from Egypt 
about the month of July, that is Epiphi. 

S7. This whole voyage as above described, from 
Cana and Eudsmon Arabia, they used to make in small 
vessels, sailing close around the shores of the gulfs ; and 
Hippalus was the pilot who by observing the location 
of the ports and the conditions of the sea, first discov- 
ered how to lay his course straight across the ocean. 
For at the same time when with us the Etesian winds 
are blowing, on the shores of India the wind sets in 
from the ocean, and this southwest wind is called Hip- 
palus, from the name of him who first discovered the 
passage across. From that time to the present day ships 
start, some direct from Cana, and some from the Cape 
of Spices; and those bound for Damirica throw the 
ship's head considerably off the wind; while those 
bound for Barygaza and Scythia keep along shore not 
more than three days and for the rest of the time hold 
the same course straight out to sea from that region, 


with a favorable wind, quite away from the land, and 
so sail outside past the aforesaid gulfs. 

58. Beyond Bacare there is the Dark Red Mountain, 
and another district stretching along the coast toward 
the south, called Paralia. The first place is called Balita ; 
it has a fine harbor and a village by the shore. Beyond 
this there is another place called Comari, at which 
are the Cape of Comari and a harbor; hither come 
those men Vv'ho wish to consecrate themselves for the 
rest of their lives, and bathe and dwell in celibacy ; and 
women also do the same ; for it is told that a goddess 
once d\\'elt here and bathed. 

59. From Comari toward the south this region 
extends to Colchi, where the pearl-fisheries are; (they 
are worked by condemned criminals) ; and it belongs 
to the Pandian Kingdom. Beyond Colchi there fol- 
lows another district called the Coast Country, w^hich 
lies on a bay, and has a region inland called Argaru. 
At this place, and nowhere else, are bought the pearls 
gathered on the coast thereabouts; and from there are 
exported muslins, those called Argaritic. 

60. Among the market-towns of these countries, 
and the harbors where the ships put in from Damirica 
and from the north, the most important are, in order 
as they lie, first Camara, then Poduca, then Sopatma; 
in which there are ships of the country coasting along 
the shore as far as Damirica; and other very large ves- 
sels made of single logs bound together, called sangara; 
but those which make the voyage to Chryse and to the 
Ganges are called colandia, and are \'ery large. There 
are imported into these places everything made in Da- 
mirica, and the greatest part of what is brought at any 


time from Egypt comes here, together with most kinds 
of all the things that are brought from Damirica and 
of those that are carried through Paralia. 

61. About the following region, the course trend- 
ing toward the east, lying out at sea toward the west is 
the island Palassimundu, called by the ancients Tapro- 
bane. The northern part is a day's journey distant, 
and the southern part trends gradually toward the west, 
and almost touches the opposite shore of Azania. It 
produces pearls, transparent stones, muslins, and tor- 

62. About these places is the region of Masalia 
stretching a great way along the coast before the inland 
country; a great quantity of muslins is made there. 
Beyond this region, sailing toward the east and crossing 
the adjacent bay, there is the region of Dosarene, yield- 
ing the ivory known as Dosarenic. Beyond this, the 
course trending toward the north, there are many bar- 
barous tribes, among whom are the Cirrhada;, a race 
of men with flattened noses, ver}^ savage; another tribe, 
the Bargysi; and the Horse-faces and the Long-faces, 
who are said to be cannibals. 

63. After these, the course turns toward the east 
again, and sailing with the ocean to the right and the 
shore remaining beyond to the left, Ganges comes into 
view, and near it the very last land toward the east, 
Chryse. There is a river near it called the Ganges, 
and it rises and falls in the same way as the Nile. On 
its bank is a market-town which has the same name as 
the river, Ganges. Through this place are brought 
malabathrum and Gangetic spikenard and pearls, and 
muslins of the finest sorts, which are called Gangetic, 


It is said that there are gold-mines near these places, 
and there is a gold coin which is called caltis. And 
just opposite this river there is an island in the ocean, 
the last part of the inhabited world toward the east, 
under the rising sun itself; it is called Chryse; and it 
has the best tortoise-shell of all the places on the Ery- 
thragan Sea. 

64. After this region under the very north, the sea 
outside ending in a land called This, there is a \'ery 
great inland city called Thins, from which raw silk 
and silk yarn and silk cloth are brought on foot through 
Bactria to Barygaza, and are also exported to Dami- 
rica by way of the river Ganges. But the land of 
This is not easy of access; few men come from there, 
and seldom. The country lies under the Lesser Bear, 
and is said to border on the farthest parts of Pontus and 
the Caspian Sea, next to which lies Lake Maeotis ; all 
of which empt}" into the ocean. 

65. Every year on the borders of the land of This 
there comes together a tribe of men with short bodies 
and broad, flat faces, and by nature peaceable; thej^ 
are called Besataa, and are almost entirely uncivilized. 
They come with their wives and children, carrying 
great packs and plaited baskets of what looks like green 
grape-leaves. They meet in a place between their own 
countrj^ and the land of This. There they hold a feast 
for several days, spreading out the baskets under them- 
selves as mats, and then return to their own places in 
the interior. And then the natives watching them 
come into that place and gather up their mats; and 
they pick out from the braids the fibers which they call 
petri. They lay the leaves closely together in several 


layers and make them into balls, which they pierce 
with the fibers from the mats. And there are three 
sorts; those made of the largest leaves are called the 
large-ball malabathrum ; those of the smaller, the me- 
dium-ball; and those of the smallest, the small-ball. 
Thus there exist three sorts of malabathrum, and it is 
brought into India by those who prepare it. 

66. The regions beyond these places are either 
difficult of access because of their excessive winters 
and great cold, or else cannot be sought out because 
of some divine influence of the gods. 



(Numerals refer to paragraphs similarly numbered in the text.) 

Title. Periplus was the name applied to a numerous class of 
writings in Roman times, which answered for sailing-chart and trav- 
eler's hand-book. The title might be rendered as Guide-Book to 
the Erj'thrasan Sea." 

Title. Erythraean Sea was the term applied by Greek and Ro- 
man geographers to the Indian Ocean, including its adjuncts, the Red 
Sea and the Persian Gulf. Erythra means Red, so that the modern 
name perpetuates the ancient; but we are assured by Agatharchides 
that it means, not Red Sea, but Sea of King Erythras, following a 
Persian legend. 

The following is the account gi\en by Agatharchides of the origin 
of the name: iDe Marl Erythrao, S 5.) 

The Persian account is after this manner. There was a man 
famous for his valor and wealth, by name Erythras, a Persian by 
birth, son of Myozaeus. His home was by the sea, facing toward 
islands which are not now desert, but were so at the time of the em- 
pire of the iMedes, when Erythras lived. In the winter-time he used 
to go to Pasargadae, making the journey at his own cost; and he in- 
dulged in these changes of scene now for profit, and now for some 
pleasure of his own life. On a time the lions charged into a large 
flock of his mares, and same were slain; while the rest, unharmed 
but terror-stricken at what they had seen, fled to the sea. A strong 
wind was blowing from the land, and as they plunged into the waves 
in their terror, they were carried beyond their footing; and their fear 
continuing, they swam through the sea and came out on the shore of 
the island opposite. With them went one of the herdsmen, a youth 
of marked braver^', who thus reached the shore by clinging to the 
shoulders of a mare. Now Erythras looked for his mares, and not 
seeing them, first put together a raft of small size, but secure in the 
strength of its building; and happening on a favorable wind, he 
pushed off into the strait, across which he was swiftly carried by the 
waves, and so found his mares and found their keeper also. And 
then, being pleased with the island, he built a stronghold at a place 
well chosen by the shore, and brought hither from the main-land op- 
posite such as v\ere dissatisfied v\'ith their life there, and subsequently 


settled all the other uninhabited islands with a numerous population; 
and such was the glory ascribed to him by the popular voice because 
of these his deeds, that even down to our own time they have called 
that sea, infinite in extent, Erythraan. And so, for the reason here 
set forth, it is to be well distinguished ( for to say Er'ythra thdlatta, Sea 
of Erythras, is a very different thing from Thalatta erythra, Red Sea) ; 
for the one commemorates the most illustrious ?rian of that sea, while 
the other refers to the color of the water. Now the ohe explanation 
of the name, as due to the color, is false (for the sea is not red), but 
the other, ascribing it to the man who ruled there, is the true one, 
as the Persian story testifies." 

Here is manifestly a kernel of truth, referring, however, to a 
much earlier time than the Empire of the Medes and their capital 
Pasargadae. It suggests the theory of a Cushite-Elamite migration 
around Arabia, as set forth by Glaser and Hommel: the story of a 
people from Elam, who settled in the Bahrein Islands and then spread 
along South Arabia, leaving their epithet of Red" or "ruddy" in 
many places, including the sea that washed their shores and floated 
their vessels: Sea of the Red People," or, according to Agathar- 
chides, "of the Red King." See under §§ 4, 23 and 27. 

1. Designated ports. — Trade was limited to ports of entry 
established, or, as the text has it, designated" by law, and super- 
vised by government officials who levied duties. There were many 
such ports on the Red Sea under the Ptolemies. There were also 
ports of entry maintained by the Nabataean Kingdom, by the Homerite 
Kingdom in Yemen, and by the newly-established Kingdom of the 
Axumites; the latter, possibly, farmed to Egyptian Greeks, now Ro- 
man subjects. 

Fabricius objects to 'designated," and translates "frequented," 
thereby straining the meaning of the word and losing its obvious de- 
scription of historical facts. 

Under the early Ptolemies, who succeeded Alexander the Great, 
Egypt went far toward recovering her former wealth and glory. Under 
Ptolemy II, called Philadelphus (B. C. 285-246) the canal between 
the Nile and the Red Sea (originally dug by one of the Sesostrises, 
about the 20th century B. C. , reopened under the Empire in the 15th 
century, and partly reopened by the Persians under Darius in the 5th 
century), was once more open to commerce; various caravan-routes, 
carefully provided with wells and stopping-places, were opened be- 
tween the river and the sea, and where they terminated ports of entry 
were established and colonized. Egyptian shipping on the Red Sea 
was encouraged, and regular trade was opened with the Sabaeans of 


South Arabia, and the tribes of the Somali coast. The names of all 
these ports, and a description of this newly-created commerce, in 
terms of romantic enthusiasm, are given by Agatharchides in his work 
on the Erythraean Sea. At the time of this Periplus, the remain- 
ing settlements seem to be Arsinoe, IVIyos-hormus, Berenice, Ptolemais 
and Adulis. The other places mentioned by Agatharchides had 
probably lost their importance as the Egyptian ships ventured farther 
beyond the straits and frequented the richer markets that fringed the 
Gulf of Aden. 

1. Mussel Harbor ( Myos-hormus), is identified with the bay 
within the headland now known as Ras Abu Somer, 27 12 N., 
,^5° 55' E. It was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus B. C. 274. 
He selected it as the principal port of Eirjptian trade with India, in 
preference to Arsinoe (near the modern Suez), which was closer to 
the Egyptian capital, but difficult of access because of the bad passage 
through the upper waters of the Red Sea. Alyos-hormus was distant 
six or seven days from Coptos on the Nile, along a road opened 
through the desert by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Strabo (XVII, I, 45) 
says at present Coptos and Alyos-hormus are in repute, and they 
are frequented. Formerly the camel-merchants traxeled in the night, 
directing their course by obser\'ing the stars, and, like mariners, car- 
ried with them a supply of water. But now watering-places are pro- 
vided; water is also obtained by digging to a great depth, and rain- 
water is found although rain rarely falls, which is also collected in 
reservoirs." Coptos is the modern Koft, in the bend of the Nile. 

Vessels bound for Africa and Southern Arabia left Alyos-hormus 
about the autumnal equinox, when the N. W. wind then prevailing 
carried them quickly down the gulf. Those bound for India or Cey- 
lon left in July, and if they cleared the Red Sea before the first of 
September they had the monsoon to assist their passage across the 

1. Sailing. — The ship used by the author of the Periplus prob- 
ably did not differ \ery materially from the types created in Egypt long 
before, as depicted in the reliefs of the Punt Expedition in the Der-el- 
Bahri temple at Thebes, and elsewhere. By the first century A. D. 
the single square sail, with two yards, each much longer than the 
height of the sail, which distinguished the shipping of the 15th century 
B. C, had been modified by omitting the lower yard and by increas- 
ing the height of the mast; while a triangular topsail had come into 
general use. The artlmon or sloping foremast, later developed into a 
bowsprit, was not generally used, even in the Mediterranean, until 
the 2d century. The accompanying illustration of a modern Burmah 


(From a sketch by R. T. Pritchett. ) 

trader, which perpetuates in many ways the shipbuilding ideas of an- 
cient Egypt, probably gives a better idea of our author' s ship than any 
of the Greek or Roman coins or reliefs, which were all of Mediter- 
ranean shipping, built for different conditions and purposes. 

In the Indian Ocean navigation depended on the trade-winds, 
and voyages were timed so that the ship could run before the wind in 
either direction, without calling the rudder into much use. This was 
at the quarter, the steersman plying the tiller from his station high in 
stern, overlooking the whole vessel. 

Hippalus' discovery of the periodicity of the trade-winds, described 
in i? 57, carried with it a knowledge of steering the boat somewhat 
off the wind, to reach a destination farther south than the straight 
course would make possible. This was done partly by the rudder, 
but largely by shifting the yard. 


The lateen sail, as exemplified in the Arab dhow, the Bombay 
Jiotia, and so on, came into use about the 4th century B. C, but was 
used by Arab and Hindu, rather than Egyptian or Greek. 

See Chat'terton: Sailing Ships and their Story: Torr: Ancient Ships; Holmes: 
Ancient and Modern Ships; Pritchett: Sketches of Shipping and Craft; Lindsay: 
History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce; Chamock: History oj Ma- 
rine Architecture; Jal: Archeologie Nanjale. 

1. Stadia. — Three stadia were in use in the Roman world at 
this time, — the Phileterian of 525 to the degree, the Olympic of 600, 
and that of P^ratosthenes, of 700. Reduced to English measure this 
would make the Phileterian stadium equivalent to about 650 feet, the 
Olympic about 600 feet, and that of Eratosthenes about 520 feet. 
The stadium of the Periplus seems to be that of Eratosthenes. Gen- 
erally speaking, ten stadia of the Periplus to the English statute mile 
would be a fair calculation. But it must not be forgotten that all 
distances named in this text are approximations, based principally on 
the lent^th of time consumed in going from place to place, which 
naturally \ aried according to direction of the wind and current, of 
sailing-course, and other factors as well. The distance is generally 
given in round numbers; and without any means of arriving at an 
exact calculation, the figures in the text can be considered only as 

According to the system of measurement laid down by Ptolemy, 
the circumference of the earth was estimated at 180,000 stadia, with 
500 stadia to the degree. 

The true length of the degree is 600 stadia. 

The Olympic or standard Greek stadium (being the length of 
the race-course at Olympia), was 600 Greek feet, or 8 to the Roman 
mile. There was a later stadium of which 7/2 went to the Roman 
mile (1000 paces, 4854 English feet) . This, the Phileterian stadium, 
sur\'ived in Arabic science, and thence in the calculations of mediaeval 
Jsurope; being very nearly the English furlong. 

According to Col. Leake' s calculations, 

1 Olympic stadium = 606. 75 English feet. 
10 " " =6067.50 " 

1 Nautical mile =6075.50 " 
1 Admiralty knot =6086.50 " 
or, by Clarke's measurement, 6087.11 


10 Olympic stadia = 1 minute of the equator. 
m) " " =1 degree " 


1 Roman mile = 1000 passus= 4854 English feet. 

1 Old English mile = 1000 paces = 5090 
1 Modem Statute " = 5280 

75 Roman miles = 1 degree. 

(or 75.09 to be exact). 
4 Roman miles = 19,416 ft., English = 1 marine league. 
The earth's circumference = 21,600 nautical miles, or 

= 24,874 to 25,020 statute miles. 
A degree on the equator = 69.1 to 69.5 statute miles. 
The Tordesillas geographers, in 1494, gave 21.625 leagues to 
the equatorial degree. They were wrong, but followed Eratosthenes, 
who made the globe l-16th larger than it really is. 

Vespucci, following Ptolemy and Alfragan, figured 6000 leagues, 
or 24,000 Roman miles, as the measure of the earth's circumference; 
so that dividing by 360, 16/'§ leagues made a degree. 

Columbus, following various Arabian geographers, made the 
degree 56^3 miles, or 14}i leagues. 

All this confusion goes back to some deduction based on Ptolemy. 
By 1517, according to Navarrete, the valuation of 17;^ leagues 
to the degree had become general. At the treaty of Zaragoza, in 
1529, that ratio was admitted on both sides. 

The correct figure is very close to 17/^ leagues. 
All ancient calculations were based on dead reckoning. The 
log-line did come into use until 1521. 

See Vivien de Saint-Martin, Le Nord de fAfrigue dans rAntiguite grecgue et 
romaine. Paris, 1863: p. 197. 

Samuel Edward . Dawson : The Line of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI , 
and that of the Treaty of Tordesillas, in Transactions of the Royal Society of 
Canada, 1899; Vol. V. § 2, pp. 467 flf. 

1. Berenice (named for the mother of Ptolemy Philadelphus) , 
is identified with Umm-el-Ketef Bay, below Ras Benas, 23° 55' N. 
and about 35° 34' E. It is 258 Roman miles, or 11 days, from 
Coptos, by a road across the desert. There are ruins still visible, even 
the arrangement of streets being clear; in the center is a small 
Egyptian temple with hieroglyphics and bas-reliefs of Greek workman- 
ship. There is a fine natural harbor, but the bar is now impassable 
at low water; and Strabo (XVI, IV, 6) mentions dangerous rocks 
and violent winds from the sea. 

At the time of this Perlplus, Berenice seems to have been the 
leading port of Egypt for the Eastern trade, and was probably the 
home of the author. 


2. Berber Country. — This word means more than the "land 
of the barbarians," and seems, like our modern Barbary States," to 
refer to the Berber race, as representing the ancient Hamitic stock of 
North Africa. 

The name itself seems to be foreign to the people, and is prob- 
ably related to the Arabic bar, a desert; and its application to North 
Africa recalls that ancient race-opposition about the Gulf of Aden, 
when the Red Aim, or ruddy people, overcame the children of the 
desert' ' ; who spread over all North Africa and carried the name with 
them, submitting time after time to similar Semitic conquests, Phoe- 
nician, Carthaginian or Saracen. 

The occurrence of the name throughout North Africa is re- 
markable. We have the modern Somali port of Berbera, the Nile 
town and district of Berber (and its inhabitants, the Barbara, Barbe- 
rins or Barbarins, who appear in the ancient Theban inscriptions as 
Beraberata) ; the Barbary States, the modern Berbers or Kabyles; 
and at the western extremity, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, still 
another tribe calling themselves Berabra. 

The ancient Egyptians extended the word to include the meanings 
of savage and outlander, or public enemies in general; and from them 
the Greeks took the word into their own language, with like mean- 

The Berbers of the Periplus probably included the ancestors of 
the Bejas between the Nile and Red Sea, the Danakils between the 
Upper Nile, Abyssinia and the Gulf of Aden, and the Somals and 

2. Cave -Dwelling Fish -Eaters, Wild -Flesh -Eaters, 

Calf-Eaters. — The original names, Ichthyophagi (Troglodytas ) , 
Agriophagi, Moichophagi, add nothing to our ethnic knowledge, being 
merely appellations given by the Greeks; and they are therefore 
translated. These tribes are represented by the modern Bisharins. 
Calf-Eaters" seems to mean eaters after the style, of calves, i. e. of 
green things, rather than eaters of calves. Some commentators would 
replace Agriophagi by Acridophagi, locust-eaters. 

2. Meroe was the final capital of the Kingdom of Nubia. It 
became the royal seat about 560 B. C. and continued as such until a 
few years after this Periplus, when the kingdom, worn out by con- 
tinued attacks by the tribes of the desert and the negroes of the Sudan, 
fell to pieces. It was located on the Nile, below the 6th cataract, 
but just within the fertile region that begins above the confluence of 
the Atbara; and is identified with the modern Begerawiyeh, about 
16° 55' N. 


The early Kingdom of Egypt comprised the Nile delta and the 
fertile valley of the river as far as the ] st cataract, the modern Assuan. 
Here a narrow gorge made the stream impassable for boats, and 
formed a natural barrier. Above Assuan the desert hugs the river 
close until above the 5th cataract, when it gives place to open fertile 
country. Between the island of Elephantine and Assuan, and the 
site of Meroe, the distance is about 480 miles in a direct line, and by 
the river about 1000 miles. This narrow strip of river-bed was Nubia 
proper. The Atbara, flowing into the Nile some 40 miles below 
Meroe, rises in northern Abyssinia or Tigre; at Khartum, about 150 
miles above Meroe, the river branches again; the Blue Nile flowing 
down from the mountains of Central Abyssinia or Amhara, and the 
White Nile from the Nyanza lakes. These regions were more or 
less subject to Nubia at different periods, but their population varied 
greatly. The Abyssinian highlands were peopled by a Hamitic stock 
originally related to the Egyptians as well as to the still uncivilized 
tribes of the eastern and western desert, but with a mixture of negro 
blood and a strong strain of Arabian origin. The upper reaches of 
the Nile were peopled by various negro tribes, entirely distinct from 
Egyptian or Berber. From the mouth of the Red Sea there was a 
regular trade-route across the Tigre highlands to the Atbara River and 
so to the Nile; and other routes reached Meroe from the Sudan and 
Uganda. Thence the products of trade found their way down-stream 
to Elephantine, beyond which no negro was permitted to go. Here 
was the market for all Egypt, and the modern town, Assuan, repeats 
its history, as the very name means market. ' ' From the Sudan 
came gold, ebony and ivory, panther skins and ostrich feathers; from 
the Nubian desert east of the Nile, gold; from the Red Sea across 
the Tigre, myrrh, frankincense, and various fragrant woods and resins : 
all of which were in constant demand for the Egyptian treasury and 
the service of the temples, and provided a constant reason for Egyp- 
tian control of this important avenue of commerce. 

In the early period of the Egyptian nation the power centered in 
the Delta, but a loose control seems to have been maintained between 
the 1st and 2d cataracts over tribes appearing in the inscriptions as 
"Wa-wat," probably negroes. During the prosperous period of the 
Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries B. C. , the river- 
routes were kept in order, and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as 
far as the myrrh-country. Then came a period of disorder and the 
fall of the Delta dynasties, followed in the 22d century by the rise of 
the Theban or Middle Kingdom, the dynasties of the Amenemhets 
and Sesostrises. These kings fully conquered the river tribes to the 


2d cataract, as well as the "Nubian troglodytes" of the eastern desert, 
where they developed the gold-mines that added so much to their 
wealth and power. In this period, from the 22d to the 18th cen- 
turies B. C, the name "Cash" first appears in the inscriptions, indi- 
cating, as Glaser thought, a migration o\erland to the Nile by the wan- 
dering Cushite-Elamite tribes who had left their home at the head of 
the Persian Gulf some 300 years previously, and who, after settling 
in the incense-producing regions of Southern Arabia and Somaliland, 
whence they had opened trade with .Mesopotamia, had now traced 
the same trade to its other great market in Egypt. The name Cush' ' 
seems to have included not only the Nile valley between the 3d and 
and 6th cataracts, but much of the highlands. These people, appar- 
ently a mongrel race, were held in great contempt by the Egyptians, 
whose annals contain numerous references such as the following: 
"Impost of the wretched Cush: gold, negro slaves, male and 
female; oxen, and calves; bulls; vessels laden with ivory, ebony, 
all the good products of this country, together with the harvests of 
this country." 

After the fall of the Xllth dynasty, 1788 B. C, came a period 
of feudal disorder, followed by an invasion from Arabia and a foreign 
dynasty, the Hyksos, probably Minaean Beduins. This was ended 
by the expulsion of the Arabs and the establishment of the Empire 
under the XVIIIth dynasty (1580-1350 B. C). These great Pha- 
raohs carried the Egyptian arms to their widest extent, from Asia Minor 
to the 4th cataract and possibly even farther south. The collapse of 
the Empire at the death of Rameses III (1167 B. C. ) left Nubia still 
Egyptian. Invasions from the west resulted in a series of Libyan 
dynasties, which began, under Sheshonk or Shishak I, by reasserting 
sovereignty over Syria and by plundering the temple of Solomon and 
the treasures of the newly-established Kingdom of Israel; but the 
latter part of this administration was so inefHcient that Theban princes 
established in Nubia separated from Egypt and formed a new king- 
dom, now called Ethiopia (indicating a growing Arabian settlement), 
with capital at Napata, below the 4th cataract (the modern Gebel 
Barkal), subsequently invading Egypt and establishing their power 
over the whole valley, from 722 to 663 B. C. Then came the As- 
syrian invasions, first by Esarhaddon and then the definite conquest of 
Egypt proper by Assurbanipal in 661 B. C. The ruin of Thebes is 
vividly described by the prophet Nahum (III, 8-10). The Nubians 
withdrew to Napata. There they were attacked by the restored 
power of Egypt under Psammetichus II, and about 560 B. C, trans- 
ferred their capital to Meroe; a much better location, less open to 


attack from the north, in a fertile region instead of a narrow gorge in 
the desert, and in the direct path of the rapidly-growing immigration 
and trade from the south and east. Here they checked the army of 
Cambyses, which made Egypt a Persian province in 525 B. C. The 
capital fell into his hands for a time, but the country was not sub- 
dued. The conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great, 332 B. C, 
left them undisturbed; and with his successors, the Ptolemies, they 
maintained an increasing commerce, notwithstanding the active policy 
then pursued to assert Egyptian supremacy in the Red Sea. 
(See Breasted : J History of Egypt. N. Y., 1905.) 
In 30 B. C. Egypt became a Roman province and the Nubians 
met a different foe. Their queen, Candace, attacked the Egyptians, 
and a punitive expedition by Petronius destroyed their power. (Strabo, 
XVII, 1, 54. ) Gradually the enfeebled kingdom was engulfed by 
the tribes of the desert; and Pliny, whose Natural History was 
completed in 77 A. D., notes that of a long list of cities and towns 
above Philae, described a century before, Nero's embassy in 67 A. D. 
could find hardly a trace, and that the capital itself, Meroe, was but a 
collection of a few wretched huts. National decay had done its work; 
and the few remnants left from the attacks of the Berbers had joined 
the new Kingdom of the Axumites" in the highlands to the south- 

In later times, under the Byzantine Empire, Nubia again became 
a center of culture and prosperity. Its new capital, the modern Khar- 
tum, became a leader in Christian thought, and maintained its influ- 
ence even after the Saracens had overrun Egypt; only finally to 
repeat history by being utterly destroyed by a new irruption from the 
desert, under the spur of Islam, and to leave again to the Abyssinian 
highlands the defence of what remained of its Monophysite Christianity. 

Josephus {Antiquities of the Je-ws, II, 9) has an account of a war 
of the Egyptians against the Ethiopians, under the command of Moses. 
The Ethiopians were finally driven back into their capital, Saba, "to 
which city Cambyses afterwards gave the name of Meroe, in compli- 
ment to his sister . . it being situated at the conflux of the rivers 
Astaphus and Astabora with the Nile. ' ' The city was finally delivered 
up to the Egyptians as the condition of Moses' marriage with the 
Ethiopian King's daughter Tharbis, who had fallen in love with him. 

Aside from the obvious anachronisms in this story, one fact is of 
interest: the name of the capital, Saba, indicates that Nubia was 
ruled, if not mainly peopled, by Arabs, who had followed the ancient 
trade-routes from the mouth of the Red Sea. 

Glaser {Punt und die siidarabischen Reiche, 42-3) notes that Napata 


also is a Semitic name, probably Nabat, allied to Nabatu of the Assy- 
rian inscriptions, to Nebaioth (son of Ishmael), and to the later 
Nabataeans of § 19. 

Herodotus (II, 8) refers to the mountain of Arabia" extending 
from north to south along the Nile, stretching up to the Erythraean 
Sea, and says that at its greatest width from east to west it is a two- 
months' journey; and that eastward its confines produce frankin- 
cense. " Here also is an indication of the connection of Nubia with 
Somaliland, confirmed by the pompous titles of the later Cushite kings 
in Meroe (Ed. Meyer: Geschichte Aegyptens, 359): Kings of the 
four quarters of the world and of the nine distant peoples. ' ' 

3. Ptolemais. — This is identified with Er-rih island, 18° 9' N., 
38° 27' E., the southern portion of the Tokar delta. It was fortified 
by Ptolemy Philadelphus (B. C. 285-246), and became the center of 
the elephant-trade. Being situated near the Nubian forest, where ele- 
phants abounded, its location was very favorable. The Egyptians had 
formerly imported their elephants from Asia; but the cost was high 
and the supply uncertain, and iPtolemy sent his own hunters to Nubia, 
against the will of the inhabitants, to obtain a nearer supply. 

From very early times there was a trade-route from the Red Sea 
to the Nile at this point, terminating near Meroe, and corresponding 
closely to the railway recently built between Berber on the Nile and 
Port Sudan on the Red Sea. 

3. Adulis. — The present port is Massowa, center of the 
Italian colony of Eritrea, which lies near the mouth of the bay of 
Adulis. The ancient name is preserved in the modern village of 
Zula. The location has been described by J. Theodore Bent, (&- 
cred City of the Ethiopians, London, 1896: pp. 228-230). It is on 
the west side of Annesley Bay, and numerous black basalt ruins are 
still visible there. Adulis was one of the colonies of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, and was always of commercial importance because it was the 
natural port for Abyssinia and the Sudan. It seems to have been 
built by Syrian Greeks. Here was the famous inscription reciting the 
conquests of Ptolemy Euergetes (B. C. 247-223) with an addition 
by Aizanas, or El Abreha, King of Abyssinia about 330 A. D., for a 
copy of which we are indebted to the Christian Topography of Cosmas 

4. Coloe. — The ruins of Coloe were found by Bent at Kohaito, 
{Sacred City of the Ethiopians, Chap. XII). It is a large flat plateau 
many miles in extent, high above the surrounding country (7000 feet) 
and thus cool and comfortable. It seems to have been the main set- 
tlement, and Adulis the trading-post, which was inhabited no more 


than necessary because of its hot climate. There is a fine dam, 219 
feet long, and in one place 74 feet 4 inches above bed-rock, with 
sluice-gates 5 feet 3 inches wide; the whole built of large cut stones 
without mortar. When in use a large lake would have formed. 
There are numerous ruins of stone temples and dwellings; the ar- 
chitecture resembling that at Adulis, apparently Ptolemaic Greek. 
The town covered many acres. 

Glaser thinks Kohaito is too near Adulis to be the ancient Coloe; 
but he seems to overlook the stiff climb up the mountain, which would 
naturally take longer in proportion than the subsequent road over the 

The name Coloe, Glaser notes {Punt und die sudarabischen Reiche, 
23} is the same as the Arabic Kala'a, (which appears in the Aduhs 
inscription of King Aizanas), and is deriyed from the same source as 
the Calsi Islands and Calon mountains in southeastern Arabia (in 
§S 34-5). He derives the Alalaei Islands in this § 4 from the same 
tribal name, Kalhat, via Halahila. 

4. Ivory. — In the inscriptions of Harkhuf, an Assuan noble 
under King Mernere of the Vlth Dynasty (B. C. 2600) occurs the 
first definite record of ivory as a commercial article in Egypt. 

"I descended (from the country of Yam, southern Nubia) with 
300 asses laden with incense, ebony, grain, panthers, ivory, throw- 
sticks, and every good product. I was more vigilant than any 
caravan-conductor who had been sent to Yam before." (Breasted: 
Ancient Records of Egypt, I, 336. ) 

There are numerous records of the receipt of ivory, in cornmerce 
and as tribute, under the XVIIIth Dynasty; coming from Tehenu 
(Libya, but cf. the Tenessis of Strabo); Punt (Somaliland), God's 
Land (S. W. Arabia), Gnbti (vicinity of Kuria Muria Islands), Cush 
(Nubia), the South Countries, Retenu (Syria) and Isy (Cyprus). 
Also articles made of ivory: chairs, tables, chests, statues, and whips. 

Similar records occur under the XlXth and XXth dynasties; the 
latter, in the Papyrus Harris, being an item in a list of gifts of Ra- 
meses III to the god Ptah. 

King Solomon's throne was of ivory, overlaid with gold; and 
his "navy of Tharshish" brought him the ivory every three years, 
together with gold and silver, apes and peacocks (I Kings X, 18-22). 

4. Cyeneum is the modern Sennaar — Eastern Sudan. 

4. City of the people called Auxumites. — This is the 
first known reference to the city of Axum, and serves very nearly to 
fix the date of its foundation. Pliny and other writers of this period 
mention the Asachae living south of Meroe and known as elephant- 


hunters; and their stronghold, Oppidum Saca, probably the same 
settlement as Axum. Bion speaks of Asachae five days from the sea, 
and Ptolemy locates a "city of the Sacae'' in the Tigre highlands, but 
has no knowledge of Axum. Pliny (VI, 34) also speaks of the Ascitae 
who brought myrrh and frankincense to South Arabia on their rafts 
supported on inflated skins, and suggests a derivation of the name from 
astos, bladder; but both names reproduce rather the mountainous 
coast of South Arabia, east of Hadramaut, called Hasik (Asich in 
§ 33 of the Periplus), and there is evidently an ethnic and geographic 
connection between Hasik, the Asachae or Ascitae, and Axum. 

Axum, the ancient capital and sacred city of the kingdom we call 
Abyssinia, is still the place of coronation for its kings. Abyssinia is 
the Latinized form of Habash, while its people call themselves Itio- 
pyavan, Hellenized into Aethiopians. Habash is translated by modern 
Arabs as "mixture," while Herodotus explained Aethiopia as land 
of the sunburned faces;" each explanation being, probably, incorrect. 
The Habashat appear likewise along the eastern terraces of South 
Arabia ( Mahra) where they were the dominant race for several cen- 
turies before the Christian era. Pau^anias ide Situ Griscice, VI, 26-9), 
speaks of a "deep bay of the Erythraean Sea, having islands, Abasa 
and Sacaea" (probably Kuria Aluria, .Masira, and Socotra) ; the Roman 
writers mention an Abissa Polis in this region, and Stephanus of By- 
zantium says beyond the Sabasans are the Chatramotitas (Hadra- 
maut) and the Abaseni." From the Egyptian inscriptions we learn 
that one of the Punt-people visited in their trading voyages was called 
Hbsti, and dwelt, apparently, not only in Mahra, but also in Socotra 
and Eastern Somaliland. 

Glaser derives the name Habash from a Mahri word, meaning 
"gatherers." Synonymous with this is Aethiopian or Itiopyavan, 
which he derives from atyob, incense;" and it is significant that even 
in the time of the Periplus their ancient home in Mahra was still the 
"Frankincense Country." As gatherers of incense," then, we have 
the mission of the Asachae or Axumites. This people, like their prede- 
cessors from the same region, the Cushites who traded with Babylon 
and Thebes, a branch of whom, intermarrying with the natives" 
(Periplus, § 16), helped found the Nubian Kingdom, and like the 
Punt or Poen-people of the Theban inscriptions, left their settle- 
ments in Mahra, Socotra and Somaliland (the true frankincense 
country) and migrated westward, settling finally in the Tigre high- 
lands, where for the first time they established an enduring power. 
But their migration was different from the others, in that it was due 
to warfare and oppression rather than trade. 


In the 3d century B. C. the Habashat or "gatherers" were 
supreme in their incense-lands," and their allies and, perhaps, rela- 
tives, the Sabaeans, worked with them in the spice and incense trade 
to Egypt, then at the height of its power under the Ptolemies. The 
prosperity of the trade is attested by Agatharchides. The Habashat 
held Socotra and Cape Guardafui, and much of the East African 
coast. But the succeeding centuries were turbulent. In order along 
the south Arabian coast, from west to east, were the Homerites 
(Himyar), the Sabaeans, Hadramaut, Kataban, and the Habashat. 
Beyond were tribes under Persian influence. With the establishment 
of the Parthian, or Arsacid, empire, came a wave of conquest by the 
Parthians throughout eastern Arabia. Almost simultaneously came 
the African campaigns of Ptolemy Euergetes, said to have reached 
Mosyllum on the Somali coast (Periplus, § 10). The two incense- 
lands were hard hit. Then came the conquest of Kataban by 
Hadramaut and a threatening policy by Himyar against the Sabaeans. 
Glaser has edited an inscription telling of an alliance of Djadarot, 
King of the Habashat, with three successive kings of Saba, for mutual 
protection against Hadramaut and Himyar. This dates from about 
75 B. C. Isidorus of Charax Spasini, writing in the time of Augustus, 
mentions a chief of the Omanites in the Incense-Country, named 
Goaisos {,cf. the language of the Habashat, Gee'z.) who was apparently 
of the same race. But very soon afterward the Parthians renewed 
their attack from the East; Himyar overthrew Saba and demolished 
its port, and Hadramaut moved on Habash. Egypt was in a bad way, 
and the Romans who were taking over its government were encour- 
aging a direct sea-trade from India, receiving Indian embassies, and 
breaking up the system which had so long closed the Arabian gulf to 
Indian shipping. Despoiled of their incense-terraces in Arabia and of 
their commercial activities at Guardafui, the Habashat sought a new 
home; and in the Tigre highlands built their stronghold, the Op- 
pidum Saca, which soon became the city of Axum. It lay across 
the natural trade-route from India to Egypt; from Adulis, the sea- 
port, to the Atbara River, was no great journey, and through a fertile 
country instead of the desert to the north. Here, then, so long as 
the "Berbers" of the lowlands could be dominated, a state could 
flourish; and hence the picture of its King Zoscales in § 5, "miserly 
in his ways and always striving for more." For six centuries the new 
kingdom of Abyssinia kept up its alliance with Rome and Constanti- 
nople against its ancient enemies the Homerites, and their allies the 
Parthians and Persians. The kingdom grew apace, and twice it over- 
ran southern Arabia; and not until the later Mohammedan conquests 


was its power broken and its people shut up in their mountains, there 
to preserve, for hundreds of years unknown to the outside world, 
their Monophysite Christianity. 

The Abyssinian Chronicles make Zoscales at the time of the 
Periplus, the successor of a long line of kings at Axum. It is probable 
that Habashat had frequented the country for a century before, as the 
power of Egypt receded, but as colonists rather than state-builders, 
until driven from Arabia; and that most of Zoscales' predecessors 
were local chiefs and not tribal kings. The final migration Glaser 
places not far from the Christian era. 

The Abyssinians were converted to Christianity about 330 A. D. 
Before that time their strongest outside influence may have been 
Buddhism. James Fergusson {History of Architecture, I, 142-3 j notes 

Monoliths at Axum 

that the great monolith at Axum is of Indian inspiration; "the idea 
Egyptian, but the details Indian. An Indian nine-storied pagoda, 
translated in Egyptian in the first century of the Christian era!" He 
notes its likeness to such Indian temples as Bodh-Gaya, and says it 
represents that curious marriage of Indian with Egyptian art which 
we would expect to find in the spot where the two people came in 

contact, and enlisted architecture to symbolize their commercial 
union." Such an alliance was to the advantage of the Hindu traders. 
The Homerites stopped their vessels at Ocelis on the Arabian shore 
(Periplus, § 25), taking their cargoes thence to Egypt by caravan; 
here was a new power that allowed them to trade to Avalites and 
Adulis, and even to march overland and take their wares to Egypt 
themselves. Ujjeni and Bharukacha, Axum and Alexandria were in 
close connection during the first and second Christian centuries, and 




^il=i^-| T? 



Mf^ ^TtLlu 




Bi^ - 1 



mi -^Ti'o-^P^^w 





i^<<'i '^^^Hh 









•- ■ 'MM! 





Temple of Bodh-Gaya, India, dating from early in 
the 6th century 

the ODserver of the early relations between Buddhism and Christianity 
may find along this frequented route greater evidence of mutual influ- 
ence than along the relatively obstructed overland routes through 
Parthia to Antioch and Ephesus. By the third century, with the 
decline of Rome, the growth of Antioch and Byzantium, and the fall 
of the Arsacid dynasty, the tendency would be the other way. 


See Glaser: Die Abessinier in Arabten und Afrika, Munich, 1895. (A 
masterly marshaling of inscriptions in support of his thesis, above summarized. ) 
Punt und die sudarabischen Keiche^ Berlin, 1899; Skix-x.e der GeSchichte und 
Geograp/iie Arabiens,Qer\m, 1890; Dillmann: Geschic/ite des Axumitischen Reiches, 
in Kon. Preuss. Akad. d. Wissenchaften, Berlin, 1880. For the interrelation 
between Buddhism and early Christianity, and the hist<5rical causes leading thereto, 
see Edmunds: Buddhist and Christian Gospels noiv first compared from the 
originals, Philadelphia (4th edition), 1908. 

4. Alalaei Islands. — These preserve the name, being called 
Dahalak. They lie at the entrance to Annesley Bay. 

5. Bay of the Opsian stone. — This is identified with 
HauakilBay, north of Ras Hanfilah, 14° 44' N. , 40° 49' H "Hanfilah" 
is Amphila, the Antiphili Portus of Artemidorus. 

Pliny {/jp. cit. XXXVI, 67) says the obsian stone (as he spells 
itj of Aethiopia was \ery dark, sometimes transparent, but dull to the 
sight, and reflected the shadow rather than the image. It was used in 
his day for jewelr\' and for statues and votive offerings. 

It was used by the Emperor Domitian to face a portico, so that 
from the reflections on the polished surface he might detect any one 
approaching from behind. 

It seems to have been a \ olcanic glass, feldspar in a more or less 
pure state, and the same as our obsidian. 

It was found also, according to Pliny, in India, at Samnium in 
Italy, and in Portugal; and it was extensively imitated in glass. 

Henry Salt {A J'oyage into Jhyssin'ta, pp. 190-4 J, describes his visit 
to the Bay of the Opsian stone, which was marked by a hill, near 
which he 'was delighted with the sight of a great many pieces of a 
black substance, bearing a \ery high polish, much resembling glass, 
that lay scattered about on the ground at a short distance from the sea; 
and I collected nearl\' a hundred specimens of it, most of which were 
two, three, or four inches in diameter. One of the natives told me 
that a few miles farther in the interior, pieces are found of much larger 
dimensions. This substance has been analyzed since my return to 
P2ngland and found to be true obsidian." 

5. Coast subject to Zoscales. — Col. Henry ^"ule in his 
Marcrj Polo, II, 434, sa\s "To the 1 0th century at least, the whole 
coast-country of the Red Sea, from near Berbera probably to Suakin, 
was still subject to Abyssinia. At this time we hear only of 'Alusal- 
man families' residing in Zeila and the other ports and tributary to the 
Christians." (See also Mas' udi. III, 34.) 

5. Zoscales. — Salt {op. cit. 460-5.) identifies this name with Za 
Hakale, which appears in the Abyssinian Chronicles. The reign i'^ 
said to ha\e lasted 13 years, and Salt fixes the dates as 76 to 89 A. D. 


But he admits (p. 460) that "no great dependence can be placed" 
upon the Chronicles. 

The list begins with Arwe, the serpent," who reigned 400 
years; Za Beesi Angaba, 200; Zagdur, 100; Zazebass Besedo, 50; 
Zakawasya b'Axum,l; Za Makeda, 50; in her 4th year she went 
to Jerusalem, and after her return reigned 25 years." Then comes 
Menilek, 29; followed by 15 others, 91 years 2 months; then Za 
Baesi Bazen, 16 years, and in the eighth year of his reign Christ 
was born." Then follow 7 names, 68 years, and Za Hakale, 13; 
then 15 more names, 227 years 4 months, and Aizanas (el Abreha), 
and Saizanas (el Atzbeha), 26 years 6 months, and in the 13th year 
of this reign Christianity was introduced," and so on. 

If Za Makeda was the Queen of Sheba who visited King 
Solomon in the 10th century B. C, there are evidently great omis- 
sions before Za Baesi Bazen, vvhose reign is said to have begun in 8 
B. C. And Salt was obliged to move Aizanas and Saizanas from their 
places in the Chronicle, and to advance them 130 years, in order to 
make them tally with their Axum and Adulis inscriptions, and the cor- 
respondence known to have been carried on between them and the Ro- 
man Emperors Constantine and Constantius. Therefore Za Hakale' s 
place in the list, in the absence of confirming evidence, can hardly 
fix the date of the Periplus, as proposed by JMiiller. More probable 
is it that, like Salt's Aizanas, he must be advanced in the Chronicle to 
meet known facts. By moving him up three places in the line his 
accession is brought to 59 A. D., a very probable date. 

The Abyssinian Chronicle was composed some time after the 
conversion of the people to Christianity. Its earlier portions are, 
therefore, mere tradition; and two versions of it which Salt examined 
during his visit to that country were found to differ materially. 

The reigns in the first Christian century, as given by Salt, are as 
follows : 

Za Baesi Bazen, 16 years, months 

Za Senatu, 

26 ' 


Za Les, 

10 ' 


Za Masenh, 

6 ' 


Za Sutuwa, 

9 " 


Za Adgaba, 

10 " 

' 6 

Za Agba, 


■ 6 

Za Malis, 

6 ' 


Za Hakale, 

13 " 


Za Demahe, 

10 ' 


Za Awtet, 

2 " 



The Zfl prefix, recalling the Dja of Glaser' s Arabian inscriptions, 
gives way in the 3d century to a long list beginning with El, indicating 
perhaps a change of dynasty from the Habash stock to the Sabaean. 

6. Egyptian cloth. — This was linen, made from flax. 

6. Arsinoe was at the head of the Heroopolite Gulf, corre- 
sponding to the modern Suez, but now some distance inland owing 
to the recedence of the Gulf. It was named for the favorite wife of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus. At one time it was important commercially, 
as an entrepot for the Eastern trade; and while it soon lost that posi- 
tion, it continued for centuries to be a leading industrial center, par- 
ticularly in textiles. 

6. Glass. — Pliny {op. cit. XXXVI, 65) says that glass-making 
originated in Phcenicia, and that the sand of the river Belus was long 
the only known material suitable for the industry. He attributes the 
discovery for the process to the wreck of a ship laden with nitre on 
this shore, and the accidental subjection of nitre and sand to heat as 
the merchants set caldrons on the beach to cook their food. Later 
the Phoenicians applied themselves to the industry; and their experi- 
ments led to the use of manganese and other substances, and to an 
advanced stage of perfection in the product. 

In Pliny's time a white sand at the mouth of the river Volturnus 
was much used in glass-making. It was mixed with three parts of 
nitre and fused into a mass called hammo-nitrum ; which was sub- 
jected to fusion a second time, and then became pure white glass. 
Throughout Gaul and Spain a similar process was used, and this was 
doubtless the process used in Egypt, as mentioned in the Periplus. 

The color was added in the second fusion, after which the glass 
was either blown, turned or engraved. 

6. Murrhine. — See the note to § 49. It was probably agate 
and carnelian from the Gulf of Cambay; but was extensively imitated 
in glass by the Phoenicians and Egyptians. The murrhine mentioned 
here was evidently a cheap trading product, probably colored glass. 

6. Diospolis (City of GodJ was probably Thebes, the me- 
tropolis of the Egyptian Empire — the modern Karnak. This was its 
name under the Ptolemies and Romans. There was another Dios- 
polis in Egypt, mentioned by Strabo; it was in the Nile delta, above 
the Sebennytic mouth; but it was not of great importance. Still 
another, known as Diospolis Parva, was on the Nile some distance 
below Coptos. The greater Diospolis — Diospolis Magna — was a 
center of commerce and industry, being no great way above Coptos, 
from which the caravans started for Berenice. 


As illustrating the fame of that city, Strabo quotes Homer {Iliad 
IX, 383) with her hundred gates, through each of which issues two 
hundred men with horses and chariots." The prophet Nahum (III, 
8-10) draws another picture of the city after its capture by the Assyr- 
ians: populous No (or No-Ambn, City of God) that was situate 
among the rivers, that had the waters round about it Ethiopia 

and Egypt were her strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim 
' Cyrene and Libya) were thy helpers. Yet was she carried away, 
she went into captivity; her young children also were dashed in pieces 
at the top of all the streets; and they cast lots for her honourable 
men, and all her great men were bound in chains." 

6. Brass. — The Gv&ek.-wor6.\soreichalcos, "mountain-copper," 
which Pliny {op. cit. XXXIV, 2) makes into a hybrid, as aurichalcum, 
golden copper; brass, a yellow alloy, as distinguished from pure copper 
or the darker alloys. Pliny describes it as an ore of copper long in 
high request, but says none had been found for a long time, the earth 
having been quite exhausted. It was used for the sestertium and double 
as, the Cyprian copper being thought good enough for the as. 

Oreichalch seems to have been a native brass obtained by smelting- 
ores abundant in zinc; the Roman metallurgy did not distinguish zinc 
as a separate metal. 

Alines yielding such ores were held in the highest estimation, and 
their exhaustion was deeply regretted, as in the case of the Corin- 
thian brass. ' ' But later it was found by accident that the native earth, 
calamine, an impure oxide of zinc, added to molten copper, would 
imitate the true oreichalch; and this the Romans did without under- 
standing what the earth was, just as they used native oxide of cobalt 
in coloring glass without knowing the metal cobalt. 

(See Pliny XXXVII, 44, and Beckmann, History of Inventions ^ 
II, 32-3.) 

Philostratus of Lemnos, about 230 A. D., mentions a shrine in 
Taxila in which were hung pictures on copper tablets representing the 
feats of Alexander and Porus. The various figures were portrayed 
in a mosaic of orichalcum, silver, gold, and oxidized copper, but the 
weapons in iron. The metals were so ingeniously worked into one 
another that the pictures which they formed were comparable to the 
productions of the most famous Greek artists" (McCrindle: Ancient 
India, 192). 

The Greek word is effectively used by Oscar Wilde in his poem 
The Sphinx: 

the God of the Assyrian, 

Whose wings, like strange transparent talc, rose high above his hawk-faced head. 
Painted with silver and with red and ribbed with rods of oreichalch. 


6. Sheets of soft copper. — The text is "honey-copper." 
That the metallurgy of Roman days included a fusion with honey or 
other organic substances, such as cow's blood, to produce greater 
ductility, has been asserted, but not proven. Miiller makes a more 
plausible suggestion, that this was ductile copper in thin sheets, and 
was called honey-copper ' ' because the sheets were shaped like 
honey-cakes. Ductile copper in Roman times generally meant an 
alloy with 5 to 10 per cent of lead. 

6. Iron. — Pliny {op. c'lt. XXXIV, 39-46) speaks of iron as "the 
most useful and most fatal instrument in the hand of man." The ore, 
he says, is found almost everywhere; even in the Isle of Elba." It 
is worked like copper, and its quality depends somewhat on the water 
into which the red-hot metal is plunged. Bilbilis and Turiasso in 
Spain, and Comum in Italy, are distinguished for the use of their 
waters in smelting. The best iron is that made by the Seres, who 
send it to us with their tissues and skins." Next to this in quality 
is the Parthian iron. In all other kinds the metal is alloyed, that is, 
apparently, the ore is impure. 

6. Coats of skin. The text is kaunakai. — Originally these 
were of rough skins with the hair left on; later they were imitated in 
Mesopotamia by a heavy woolen fabric, suggesting the modern frieze 
overcoat, which was largely exported. It is not known which is 
meant here. 

6. Ariaca. — This is the northwest coast of India, especially 
around the Gulf of Cambay; the modern Cutch, Kathiawar and 
Gujarat. As the name indicates, it was at the time of the Periplus 
one of the strongholds of the Indo-Aryan races, and incidentally of 
Buddhism, the religion then dominant among them. 

6. Indian iron and steel. — Marco Polo (Yule ed. I, 93) 

Book I, chap. X\^II, mentions iron and ondamque in the markets of 
Kerman. Yule interprets this as the andank of Persian merchants 
visiting Venice, an especially fine steel for swords and mirrors, and 
derives it from hundwdniy Indian ' ' steel. 

Kenrick suggests that the "bright iron" of Ezekiel XXVII, 19, 
must have been the same. 

Ctesias mentions two wonderful swords of such material which 
he had from the King of Persia. 

Probably this was also the ferrum candidum of which the Malli 
and Oxydracae sent 100 talents' weight as a present to Alexander. 

Ferrum indicum also appears in the lists of dutiable articles under 
Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. 


Salmasius notes a Greek chemical treatise "On the tempering 
of Indian steel." 

Edrisi says The Hindus excel in the manufacture of iron. 
They have also workshops wherein are forged the most famous sabres 
in the world. It is impossible to find anything to surpass the edge 
that you get from Indian steel.'' 

6. Cotton. — Sanscrit, karpasa; Hebrew, carpas; Greek, kar- 
pasos; Latin, carbasui — the seed-fibers of Gossypium herbaceum and G. 
arboreum (order, Malvacea) native in India, and woven into cloth by 
the natives of that country before the dawn of history. The facts 
concerning it have been admirably stated by Mr. R. B. Handy in The 
Cotton Plant, a report of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, issued 
in 1896. Cotton thread and cloth are repeatedly mentioned in the 
laws of Manu, 800 B. C. Professor A. H. Sayce in his Hibbert 
Lectures shows ground for the belief that it was exported by sea to the 
head of the Persian Gulf in the 4th millennium B. C. ; and it found 
its way very early to Egypt. Herodotus describes it as a wool, better 
than that of sheep, the fruit of trees growing wild in India. 

The manufacture of cotton cloth was at its best in India until 
very recent times, and the fine Indian muslins were in great demand 
and commanded high prices, both in the Roman Empire and in 
Mediasval Europe. The industry was one of the main factors in the 
wealth of ancient India, and the transfer of that industry to England 
and the United States, and the cheapening of the process by mechani- 
cal ginning, spinning and weaving, is perhaps the greatest single factor 
in the economic history of our own time. 

Pliny and Pollux state that cotton was grown in Egypt in their 
time (1st and 2nd centuries A. D.), how extensively is unknown. 
It was also grown in the island of Tylos in the Persian Gulf, and 
according to Theophrastus, in Arabia; and the Periplus confirms this 
by mentioning it as an article of export from Ommana. 

Cotton seems also to have been grown in Syria, Cilicia and 
Palestine; and the fiber known to Josephus as c^iv/w/, Hebrew, kctonci; 
Arabic, kttf n, (the same sound appears in Phoenician, Syrian and 
Chaldee), was perhaps cotton. Movers states that the inhabitants of 
Palestine before the Hebrew migration made use of cotton, and that 
the Phoenicians exported Syrian cotton cloth to Sabaea. 

Pausanias describes cotton as growing in Elis, in Achaea, and 
says that it was made into cloth by the women of Patra;; but this 
could not have been an extensive industry. It was quite certainly not 
produced or woven in Ilaly during Roman days. 

Any generalizations based on the Arabic kufn or the Greek 


karpasos are uncertain, because those words were applied also to flax, 
which was in very general use in all the Mediterranean countries. 

It is noteworthy that the word used in the Periplus is uniformly 
othonion, meaning simply cloth," but usually cotton cloth; while the 
Mmatismos, translated as clothing, ' ' was very likely cloth in suitable 
lengths to be worn as tobe or toga. 

6. Monache cloth. — Vincent says cloth "singularly fine," and 
for sagmatogene would read the sort used for stuffing" (from sasso, 
to stuff; sagma, a saddle) being the down from the tree -cotton, Gossyp- 
ium arboreum. But these words may be Greek corruptions of some 
Indian trade-names for different grades or dyes of cloth, as to the 
particulars of which we cannot determine. 

Fabricius alters monache to mohchine because of the occurrence 
of the same word in the following line, and makes a similar alteration 
wherever the word appears in the text, but it is difficult to see just 
what is gained. 

This broad cloth ' ' was no doubt used for garments such as 
the modern Somali 'tobe," described by Burton (First Footsteps, p. 
29) : It is a cotton sheet eight cubits long, and two breadths sewn 
together. It is worn in many ways; sometimes the right arm is 
bared; in cold weather the whole person is muffled up, and in sum- 
mer it is allowed to fall below the waist. Generally it is passed behind 
the back, rests upon the left shoulder, is carried forward over the 
breast, surrounds the body, and ends hanging on the left shoulder, 
where it displays a gaudy silk fringe of red and yellow. This is the 
man's Tobe. The woman's dress is of similar material, but differ- 
ently worn; the edges are knotted generally over the right, sometimes 
over the left shoulder; it is girdled round the waist, below which 
hangs a lappet, which in cold weather can be brought like a hood 
over the head. Though highly becoming and picturesque as the 
Roman toga, the Somali Tobe is by no means the most decorous of 
dresses; women in the towns often prefer the Arab costume — a short- 
sleeved robe extending to the knee, and a Futah or loin-cloth under- 
neath. ' ' 

McCrindle, Ancient India, p. 26, notes that India has two dis- 
tinct species of cotton, Gossypium herbaceum, and Gossypium arboreum or 
tree-cotton. The former only is made into cloth, while the latter 
yields a soft and silky texture, which is used for padding cushions, 
pillows, etc. Pliny says (XIX, 1) that Upper Egypt also produces 
"a shrub bearing a nut from the inside of which wool is got, white 
and soft." 


6. Molochine, or mallow cloth, was a coarse cotton cloth 
dyed with a preparation of a variety of the hibiscus native in India. 
This purplish cloth must have corresponded closely to the coarse blue 
drills still in demand on this coast. 

6. Lac. — McCrindle notes that the Sanscrit is laksha, a later 
form of raksha, connected with the root ranj, to dye. The Prakrit 
form is lakkha. It was used by women for dyeing the nails and feet, 
also as a dye for cloth. 

The lac insect {Tachardia Lacca, Kerr) is native in India and 
still practically confined to that country. 

According to Watt ^Commercial Products of India, pp. 1053 ff. ), 
it yields two distinct products : a dye and a resin. The dye competed 
on favorable terms with the Mexican cochineal until both were dis- 
placed by manufactured aniline, when the resin shellac again became 
more important. 

The resin is formed around the young swarms as they adhere to 
the trees; the lac being a minute hemipterous insect living on the 
plant-juices sucked up by a proboscis. 

The dye is taken from the bodies of the females, which assume 
a bright red color during the process of reproduction. For a com- 
plete account of the product and its uses see Watt. 

Of somewhat similar nature to lac was the ' kermes-berry" pro- 
duced on the Mediterranean holm-oak; whence the dye known as 
carmesin, cramoisi, crimson or carmine; or, by another derivation, 
scarlet; or, referring to the pupa-stage of the insect, vermiculum or 

These insect dyes were used separately, or, associated with murex, 
as an element in the so-called Tyrian purple." 

6. Tortoise-shell. — This was a great article of commerce in 
the Roman world, being used for small receptacles, ornaments, and 
for inlaying furniture and woodwork. It is one of the most fre- 
quently-mentioned commodities in the Periplus. The antiquity of 
the trade is uncertain, but this seems to be the shell" brought from 
the Land of Punt by Queen Hatshepsut's expedition in the 15th cen- 
tury B. C. 

6. Rhinoceros. — The horns and the teeth, and probably the 
skin, were exported from the coast of Abyssinia, where Bruce found the 
hunting of this animal still a trade and described it ( Travels, Vol. IV) . 

7. Avalites is identified with the modern Zeila, 11° 20' N., 
43° 28' E. It is 79 miles from the .straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. The 
ancient name is preserved by the village Abalit, on the north shore of 


the bay. The Somali tribes call the place Ausal, apparently perpetu- 
ating the Ausan of the South Arabian coast; which also at one time 
possessed much of the coast of East Africa (called the "Ausanitic 
coast" in § 15 of the Periplus). Avalites is thought by Forster {His- 
torical Geography of Arabia, Vol. I) to perpetuate the name of Obal, 
son of Joktan (Gen. IV) whose name is almost unknown in Arabia; 
thus indicating a very early migration of this tribe to the Somali coast. 
This name seems also to survive in Obollah at the Euphrates mouth on 
the Persian Gulf; which was the Ubulu of the Assyrian inscriptions, 
and the Apologus of § 35. 

Of Zeila, Ibn Batuta, writing in the 14th century, said: "I then 
went from Aden by sea, and after four days came to the city of Zeila. 
This is a settlement of the Berbers, a people of Sudan, of the Shafia 
sect. Their country is a desert of two months' extent; the first part 
is termed Zeila, the last Makdashu. The greatest number of the in- 
habitants, however, are of the Rafizah sect. Their food is mostly 
camel' s flesh and fish. The stench of the country is extreme, as is 
also its filth, from the stink of the fish and the blood of the camels 
which are slaughtered in its streets. 

Zeila is described by Burton {First Footsteps in East Africa, p. 14) 
as ' 'the normal African port — a strip of sulphur-yellow sand, with a 
deep blue dome above, and a foreground of the darkest indigo. The 
buildings, raised by refraction, rise high, and apparently from the 
bosom of the deep. . . No craft larger than a canoe can ride near 
Zeila. After bumping once or twice against the coral reefs, it was 
considered advisable for our ship to anchor. My companions put me 
into a cockboat, and wading through the water, shoved it to shore. 
The situation is a low and level spit of sand, which high tides 
make almost an island. There is no harbor; a vessel of 250 tons 
cannot approach within a mile of the landing-place; the open road- 
stead is exposed to the terrible north wind, and when gales blow from 
the west and south it is almost unapproachable. Every ebb leaves a 
sandy flat, extending half a mile seaward from the town; the reefy 
anchorage is difficult of entrance after sunset, and the coraline bottom 
renders wading painful." 

Zeila, the nearest port to Harrar in the interior, had, when Bur- 
ton wrote, lost the caravan trade to Berbera, owing to the feuds of 
its rulers; so that the characteristics of its people had not changed 
from the account given in § 7 of the Periplus. 

At that time the exports from Zeila were slaves, ivory, hides, 
honey, antelope horns, clarified butter, and gums. The coast abounded 
in sponge, coral, and small pearls. In the harbor were about twenty 


native craft, large and small; they traded with Berbera, Arabia, and 
Western India, and were navigated by "Rajput" or Hindu pilots. 

Burton {op. cit., pp. 330-1) says again; 
I repeatedly heard at Zeila and at Harrar that traders had visited 
the far West, traversing for seven months a country of pagans wear- 
ing golden bracelets, till they reached the Salt Sea upon which Franks 
sail in ships. I once saw a traveler descending the Nile with a store 
of nuggets, bracelets and gold rings similar to those used as money 
by the ancient Egyptians. Mr. Krapf relates a tale current in Abys- 
sinia, namely : that there is a remnant of the slave trade between 
Guineh (the Guinea coast) and Shoa. Connection between the east 
and west formerly existed; in the time of Joao I, the Portuguese 
on the river Zaire in Congo learned the existence of the Abyssinian 
church. Travelers in Western Africa assert that Fakihs or priests, 
when performing the pilgrimage, pass from the Fellatah country 
through Abyssinia to the coast of the Red Sea. And it has lately been 
proved that a caravan line is open from the Zanzibar coast to Benguela. ' ' 

The foregoing, written before modern discovery had altered the 
trade of Africa, indicates the same condition as that existing in ancient 
history: a well-established trade to Egypt and South Arabia, coming 
from tribe to tribe through the heart of Africa, from great distances 
\^'est and South. 

7. The "Far-side" coast. — According to Burton {op. cit. p. 
12 ) the Somali tribes called their country the Barr el A jam, which he 
translates as barbarian land, " but goes on to explain \}s\zx. Ajam means 
all nations not Arab, just as among Egyptians and Greeks ' 'bar- 
barian" meant all nations not of their country. 

The name seems to apply to the migration and trade from South 
Arabia, the tribes who had crossed the gulf at Aden at various periods 
of history being referred to by their countrymen as those "of the 
farther side," which our author has rendered into Greek 2& peratikos 
{pera, beyond). 

7. Juice of sour grapes. — The text is omphakion. Pliny 
says ( XII, 60) : 'Omphacium is a kind of oil obtained from the 
olive and the vine — the former is produced by pressing the olive while 
still white; the latter from the Aminasan grape, when the size of a 
chick-pea, just before the rising of the Dog-star. The verjuice is 
put into earthen vessels, and then stored in vessels of Cyprian copper. 
The best is reddish, acrid, and dry to the taste. Also the unripe grape 
is pounded in a mortar, dried in the sun, and then divided into 

The Aminaean grape he describes in XIV, 4 : also a lanata or 


woolly grape — so that we not be surprised at the wool-bearing trees 
of the Seres or the Indians." These latter were cotton; the former 
were mulberry trees with silkworm cocoons bred on them. cf. Virgil, 
{Georgks, II, 121.) 

Velleraque ut f oliis depectant tenuia Seres. ' ' 

Pliny (XXIII, 4) says again: ' Omphacium heals ulcerations of 
the humid parts of the body, such as the mouth, tonsillary glands, etc. 
The powerful action of omphacium is modified by the admixture 
of honey or raisin wine. It is very useful, too, for dysentery, spitting 
of blood, and quinsy." 

And in XXIII, 39; "The most useful of all kinds of oil (other 
than olive) is omphacium. It is good for the gums, and if kept from 
time to time in the mouth, there is nothing better as a preservative 
of the whiteness of the teeth. It checks profuse perspiration." 

7. Wheat. — Tritkum vulgare, Villars, order Graminece. The 
cultivation of wheat, says De Candolle, is prehistoric. It is older 
than the most ancient languages, each of which has independent and 
definite names for the grain. The Chinese grew it 2700 B. C. It 
was grown by the Swiss lake-dwellers about 1500 B. C, and has been 
found in a brick of one of the Egyptian pyramids dating from about 
3350 B. C. 

Originally it was doubtless a wild grass which under cultivation 
assumed varying forms. In the early Roman Empire vast quantities 
of wheat were raised in Sicily, Gaul, North Africa, and particularly 
Egypt, for shipment to Rome. Later a great wheat area was opened 
up in what is now Southern Russia, which finally supplanted Egypt 
in the markets of Constantinople, after Alexandria and Antioch fell 
into Saracen hands. The trade in wheat as described in the Periplus 
is interesting. It shows that South Arabia, Socotra and East Africa 
had wheat not only from Egypt but also from India, which has not 
usually been considered as a wheat country at that time. Watt 
(.op. cit. p. 1082) thinks wild rice {_Ory%a coarctata) may have been 
intended, but the Periplus distinguishes between wheat and rice as 
coming from India. The Hindus might certainly have had the seed 
from Egypt and cultivated it, but Watt notes the complete absence, 
so far as known, of wild wheat in modern India. 

7. Wine. — The fermented juice of J'itis vinifera, Linn., order 
I itacea. The culture of the vine seems to have begun in Asia Minor 
and Syria, but within the period of written history it is almost uni- 
versal. It introduction was ascribed to the gods: by the Greeks to 
Dionysos, the Romans to Bacchus, the P.gyptians to Osiris; or in 
the case of the Hebrews, to the patriarch Noah. The vine and the 


olive, requiring continued cultivation from year to year, almost dis- 
tinguish settled civilization from nomadic conditions, and the product 
of both industries appears in commerce from the earliest times. 

The wine of the Damacus valley was an important export in the 
time of Ezekiel (XXVII, 18); of the Greek wines the best were 
from the Aegean islands and the Asiatic coast near Ephesus (Strabo, 
XIV, 1, 15). The Phoenicians carried the vine to Spain, and the 
Greeks to southern Gaul. It was unknown in early Italy, but was 
fostered by the Roman republic, which restricted imports of foreign 
growths, and stimulated exports by restricting viticulture in the prov- 
inces. In the valleys of the Seine and Moselle wine was not 
produced until the later days of the Roman Empire. 

At the time of the Periplus, the popular taste demanded a wine 
highly flavored with extraneous substances, such as myrrh and other 
gums, cinnamon and salt. 

The Periplus tells us that Italian and Laodicean wines were im- 
ported into Abyssinia, the Somali Coast, East Africa, South Arabia, 
and India. Arabian wine was also carried to India; this may have 
included grape-wine from Yemen (§ 24) but was principally date- 
wine from the Persian Gulf (§36). Italian wine was preferred to 
all others (§ 49). This was from the plain of Campania, in the 
vicinity of the modern Naples, whence Strabo tells us (V, VI, 13), 
"the Romans procured their finest wines, the Falernian, the Statanian, 
and the Calenian. That of Surrentum is now esteemed equal to 
these, it having been lately discovered that it can be kept to ripen." 
Petronius ( Cena Trimakhionis) mentions a Falernian wine which had 
been ripened 100 years. 

The Laodicean wine was from Laodicea on the Syrian coast, 
some 60 miles south of Antioch, the modern Latakia. Strabo (XVI, 
II, 9) says: "it is a very well-built city, with a good harbor; the ter- 
ritory, besides its fertility in other respects, abounds with wine, of 
which the greater part is exported to Alexandria. The whole moun- 
tain overhanging the city is planted almost to its summit with vines." 

7. Tin. — Hebrew, bedil; Greek, kassiteros; Sanscrit, kasthira; 
Latin, stannum. This metal, the product of Gahcia and Cornwall, 
was utilized industrially at a comparatively late period, having been 
introduced after gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and mercury. It 
made its appearance in the Mediterranean world soon after the migra- 
tion of the Phoenicians to Syria. The Phoenician traders may have 
found it first on the Black Sea coast, coming overland from tribe to 
tribe ; very soon they discovered the Spanish tin and traced it to its 
source, and finally that of Cornwall. The value of tin in hardening 


copper was soon understood, and the trade was monopolized for cen- 
turies by the Phoenicians and their descendants, the Carthaginians. 
How carefully they guarded the secret of its production appears in 
Strabo's story (III, V, 11) of the Phcenician captain who, finding 
himself followed by a Roman vessel on the Atlantic coast of Spain, 
ran his ship ashore rather than divulge his destination, and collected ' 
the damage from his government on returning home. 

There is much confusion in the early references to this metal, 
because the Hebrew iedi/ ( meaning the departed") was also applied 
to the metallic residue from silver-smelting — a mixture of silver, lead, 
and occasionally copper and mercury. The same comparison applies 
to kassiteros and stannum. Pliny, for example, distinguishes plumbum 
nigrum, lead, anA plumbum candidum, stannum. Without any definite 
basis for determining metals, appearance was often the only guide. 

Suetonius (Fitell. VI, 192 J says that the Emperor Vitellius took 
away all the gold and silver from the temples, (69 A. D.) and sub- 
stituted aurichalcum and stannum. This stannum could not have been 
pure tin, but rather an alloy of lead, like pewter. 

The letters from the King of Alashia f Cyprus), in the Tell-el- 
Amarna tablets, indicate the possibility of the use of tin there in the 
15th centun,' B. C, and of the shipment of the resultant bronze to 
Egypt; and tin, as a separate metal, is thrice mentioned in the Papyrus 
Harris, under Rameses III f 1198-1167 B. C). This confirms the 
mention of tin in Numbers XXXI, 22. By the time of Ezekiel 
(.X'XVII, 12) it was, of course, well known; here it appears with silver, 
iron, and lead, as coming from Spain. The stela of Tanutamon de- 
scribes a hall for the god Amon, build by the Pharaoh Taharka at 
Xapata (688-663 B. C. ), of stqne ornamented with gold, with a tablet 
of cedar incensed with myrrh of Punt, and double doors of electrum 
with bolts of tin. (Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. IV). 

B\ the Greeks the true tin vv-as understood and extensively used, 
and the establishment of their colony of Alassilia was largely due to the 
discovery of the British metal coming overland to the mouth of the 
Rhone. The Romans ultimately conquered both Galicia and Corn- 
wall, and then controlled the trade; but to judge from Pliny's ac- 
count, their understanding of it was vague. 

According to the Periplus, tin was shipped from Egypt to both 
Somaliland and India. 

Lassen ( Indische Alterthuinskundc, 1, 249) and Oppert, arguing 
from the similarity between the Sanscrit kasthira and the Greek kassi- 
teros, v\ ould transfer the earliest tin trade to India and Malacca; but 
it seems probable that the' Sanscrit word was a late addition to the 


language, borrowed from the Greek with the metal itself; which, as 
stated by the Periplus in §§ 49 and 56, came to India from the west. 
See also Movers, Phinizier, Vol. Ill; Beckmann, op. cit., II, 

8. Malao is the modern Berbera, 10° 25' N., 45° 5' E. It is 
now the leading port of this coast, the capital of British Somaliland, 
and the center of the caravan trade to the interior. Glaser iShzze, 


{ SaunSmgs in ^hihonhs.} 

From Burton: First Footsteps in East Africa. 


p. 196) would identify it with Bulbar, about 30 miles farther west; 
but the description of the sheltering spit running out from the east" 
in S 8, places it beyond doubt at Berbera, which has just such a spit, 
while Bulbar is on the open beach. 

Burton i^op. at., pp. 407-418) gives a detailed description of 
the town and harbor, of the stream of sweet water flowing into 
it, and of the interior trade and the great periodical fair, frequented 
by caravans from the interior and by sailing vessels from Yemen, the 
South Arabian coast, Muscat, Bahrein and Bassora, and beyond as far 
as Bombay; the same trade as that described in § 14. 

8. "Far-side" frankincense. — Concerning frankincense in 
general, see under §§ 29-32. Somali frankincense figures in the trade 
of Egypt at the time of the Punt expeditions, and probably much 
earlier. It was different from, and often superior to, the Arabian. 
It is, indeed, possible that the true frankincense {Boswellia neglecta) 
was native here, and that the Arabian \arieties (^Boswellia serrata, etc. ) 
were a later cultivation. Yet Fabricius (p. 124) in curious disregard 
of the text, thinks the Malao frankincense was imported from Arabia! 

8. Duaca is identified by Glaser (Skizze, 197) w\th.duakh, which 
appears in several Arabic inscriptions as a variety of frankincense; 
duka, he says, is a trade-name in modern Aden for a certain quality 
of frankincense. 

Burton i_op. cit. , p. 416) describes the range of mountains run- 
ning parallel with this coast, some 30 miles inland from Berbera, 
"4000 to 6000 feet, thickly covered with gum-arabic and frankincense 
trees, the wild fig and the Somali pine." 

8. Indian copal. — The text is kankmnon, which is mentioned by 
Pliny as a dye (probably in confusion with lac); by Dioscorides as 
the exudation of a wood like myrrh, and used for incense. PHny 
(XII, 44) says that it came from the country that produces cinna- 
mon, through the Nabataean Troglodyta:', a colony of the Nabataei." 
Glaser iSki%%e, 196) is positive that it is no Arabian product. Col. 
Henry Yule identifies it with Indian copal, Alalabar tallow, or white 
dammar, the gum exuded from Vateria Indica, Linn., order Diptero- 
carpea; which is described by Watt iop. cit., p. 1105,) as a "large 
evergreen of the forests at the foot of the Western Ghats from Kanara 
to Travancore, ascending to 4000 feet. " This gum or resin dissolves 
in turpentine or drying oils, and, like copal, is chiefly used for making 
varnishes. The bark is also very astringent, rich in tannin, and is 
used to control fermentation. 

8. Macir is mentioned by Dioscorides as an aromatic bark. 
Pliny (XII, 16) says that it was brought from India, being a red bark 


growing upon a large root, bearing the name of the tree that produced 
it. He was ignorant of the tree itself. A decoction of this bark, 
mixed with honey, was used in medicine as a specific for dysentery. 

Lassen (o/). cit.. Ill, 31) identifies it with makara, a remedy for 
dysentery, consisting of the root-bark of a tree native on the Malabar 
coast; but he does not identify the tree. 

This macir was doubtless the root-bark of Holarrhena antidysen- 
terica, Wall., or Aer ApocynacecE, described by Watt (op. cit. p. 640) 
as a small deciduous tree, found throughout India and Burma, 
ascending the lower Himalaya to 3500 feet, and to a similar altitude 
on the hills of Southern India. Both bark and seed of this plant 

are among the most important medicines in the Hindu materia medica. 
By the Portuguese this was called herba malabarica, owing to its great 
merit in the treatment of dysentery, they having found it on the 
Malabar coast. The preparation, generally in the form of a solid or 
liquid extract, or of a decoction, is astringent, antidysenteric and 
anthelmintic. The seeds yield a fixed oil, and the wood-ash is used 
in dyeing. The wood is much used for carving, furniture and 
turnery. ' ' 

9. Mundus is probably the modern Bandar Hais, 10° 52' 
N., 46° 50' E. Glaser {Shzze, 197) would identify it with Berbera. 
But the text gives 'two or three days' sail' ' between Malao and 
Mundus, altogether too much for the 30 miles, more or less, between 
Bulbar and Berbera. And just as the "sheltering spit" identifies 
Berbera as Malao, so does the "island close to shore" identify Hais 
as Mundus. Vivien de Saint-Martin {Le Nord de I' Afrique dans 
I'antiquite grecque et romairie, p. 285) describes a small island protecting 
this little harbor, and says it was much frequented by Arab and Somali 

Miiller's identification with Burnt Island (11° 15' N., 47° 15' 
E. ) is less probable because that island is too far from shore to afford 
protection to small vessels. 

9. Mocrotu was probably a high grade of frankincense. Glaser 
(Skizzc, 199-201) notes that the Arabic name for the best variety is 
mghairot, or in Mahri, mghdr; and that the same word appears in 
Somaliland as mokhr. From this to the Greek of the text the change 
is negligible. 

10. Mosyllum is placed by most commentators at Ras Hantara, 
(11° 28' N., 49° 35' E.) Glaser prefers Ras Khamzir (10° 55'N., 
45° 50' E. ) many miles farther west. The text gives no help in the 
way of local description. It is noteworthy that Pliny says the Atlantic 
Ocean begins here; ignoring not only the coast of Azania, as 


described in § 15, but the Cape of Spices itself. Mosyllum was proba- 
bly, therefore, rather a prominent headland on the coast, altogether 
such as Ras Hantara. 

This, by the way, was reputed to have been the eastward limit of 
the conquests of Ptolemy Euergetes, King of Egypt, in the 3d 
century B. C. 

10. Cinnamon. — The text is kasia, from Hebrew kma fPs. 
XLV, 8; Ezek. XXVII, 19, XXX, 24), the modern cassia. This 
meant usually, in Roman times, the wood split lengthwise, as dis- 
tinguished from the flower-tips and tender bark, which rolled up into 
small pipes and was called kinnamomon, iromWchrcw kheneh, 2i pi^e^; 
khinemon (Exod. XXX, 23, Prov. \\\ 17, Cant. IV, 14); Latin 
canna, French cannelle. 

Cinnamon and cassia are the flower-tips, bark, and wood of 
several varieties of laurel native in India, Tibet, Burma and China. 
Engler and Prantl, Die Naiiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, classify them as 
follows : 


Persoideae : 


1. Cinnamomum 

Sect. 1. Malabathrum 

including C. javaneum 
C. cassia 
C. zeylanicum 
C. culilawan 
C. tamala 
C. iners 
Sect. 2. Camphora 

including C. camphora 

C. parthenoxylon 
Cinnamon is mentioned as one of the ingredients of the sacred 
anointing oil of the Hebrew priests (Exod. XXX). The Egyptian 
inscriptions of Queen Hatshepsut's expedition, in the 15th century 
B. C. , mention cinnamon wood as one of the "marvels of the 
country of Punt" which were brought back to Egypt. 

Cinnamon was familiar to both the Greeks and Romans, and 
was used as an incense, and as a flavor in oils and salves. It is men- 
tioned by Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Pliny. Dioscorides gives 
a long description of it. He says it "grows in Arabia; the best sort 
is red, of a fine color, almost like coral; straight, long, and pipy, and 
it bites on the palate with a slight sensation of heat. The best sort is 

that called %igir, with a scent like a rose. . . . The cinnamon has 
many names, from the different places where it grows. But the best 
sort is that which is like the casta of Mosyllum, and this cinnamon is 
called Mosyllitic, as well as the cassia. ' ' And this cinnamon, he says, 
when fresh, in its greatest perfection, is of a dark color, something 
between the color of wine and a dark ash, like a small twig or spray 
full of knots, and very fragrant. ' ' 

Roman writers distinguish between true cinnamon and cassia; 
the former was valued at 1500 denarii (about $325) the pound; the 
latter at 50 denarii. The Periplus makes no distinction; cassia" it 
mentions at Mosyllum and Opone, and the "harder cassia" at Malao. 
Cinnamon, under the Empire, probably meant the tender shoots and 
flower-tips of the tree, which were reserved for the emperors and pa- 
tricians, and distributed by them on solemn occasions. Cassia was 
the commercial article, and included the bark, the split wood, and the 
root. The Romans could not distinguish between species, and their 
classification was according to the appearance of the product as it came 
to them. 

As to the country of origin, Herodotus (book III) states that 
cassia was from Arabia; naturally so, as the Phoenicians brought it 
thence. He distinguishes cinnamon, and gives a fabulous story of its 
recovery from the nests of great birds in those countries in which 
Bacchus was nursed," which in Greek legend meant India. The 
Periplus says that it was produced in Somaliland, to which Strabo and 
other Roman writers refer as the regio cinnamomifera in the same belief. 
But there is no sign of a cinnamon tree in that region at present, 
where the requisite conditions of soil and climate do not exist. Pliny 
(VI, 29) indicates that it was merely trans-shipped there. Strabo 
(XVI, IV, 14) says that it came from the "far interior" of this 
region, and that nearer the coast only the "false cassia" grew. Pliny 
(XXI, 42) says that it came from Aethiopia and was brought over 
vast tracts of sea" to Ocelis by the Troglodytes, who took five years 
in making the round trip. Here are indications that the true cinna- 
mon was brought from India and the Far East to the Somali coast, 
and there mixed with bark from the laurel-groves mentioned in § 11 
and by Strabo, and taken thence to Arabia and Egypt. The Periplus 
notes also (§10) the "larger ships" required at Mosyllum for the 
cinnamon trade. This was probably the very midst of the Land of 
Punt" whence the Egyptian fleet brought cinnamon 15 centuries 

In India various barks and twigs are sold as cassia and cinnamon, 
and according to Watt (»/>. cit., p. 313) it is still almost impossible to 


distinguish them. Cassia bark iC. cassia, or Cassia lignea) was his- 
torically the first to be known, and the best qualities came from China, 
where it is recorded first about 2700 B. C. The Malabar bark was 
less valuable. Persian records invariably refer to cinnamon as Dar 
Chini, "Chinese bark;" and between the 3d and 6th centuries A. D. 
there was an acti\e sea-trade in this article, in Chinese ships, from 
China to Persia. 

Marco Polo describes cinnamon as growing in Malabar, Ceylon, 
and Tibet. The British East India Company's records show that it 
came usually from China; and Millburn (Or. Comm. 1813, II, 500) 
describes both bark and buds, and warns traders against the coarse, 
dark and badly packed" product of Malabar. 

Since the later years of the 18th century the variety C. %eylanicum 
has been extensively culti\ated in Ceylon; but the best quality is still 
shipped from Canton, being from C. Cassia, native throughout Assam, 
Burma, and Southern China. It seems altogether probable that the 
true cinnamon of the ancient Egyptian and Hebrew records, of 
Herodotus and Pliny, reached the Mediterranean nations from no 
nearer place than Burma, and perhaps through the Straits of Malacca 
from China itself. Many, indeed, must have been the hands through 
which it passed on its long journey to Rome. 

The malabathriini of the Romans, which they bought in India 
while still unable to obtain cinnamon there, was the leaves of three 
varieties: that of the Malabar mountains from C. %eylanicum, and that 
of the Himalayas from C. tamala, with a little from C. iners. 

These trees are all of fairly large growth, evergreen, rising to 
about 6000 feet altitude. The tree flowers in January, the fruit ripens 
in April, and the bark is full of sap in May and June, when it is 
stripped off and forms the best grade of cinnamon. The strippings 
of later months are not so delicate and are less valued. 

See Watt, op. at., pp. 310-313; Lassen, op. cit., I, 279-285, 
II, 555-561; \'incent, II, 130, 701-16; Fluckiger and Hanbury, 
Pharmacographia, 519-527; Marco Polo, Yule Ed., II, 49, 56, 315, 
389; and for malabathrum or folium indicuin, see Garcia de Orta, 
Coll., XXIIl; also comment by Ball in Roy. Ir. Acad., 3d ser. , 
I, 409; also Linschoten, Voy. E. Ind. (Ed. Hakl. Soc), II, 131. 

11. Little Nile River. — The text is Neilopotamion , perhaps a 
reflection of Egyptian Greek settlement. Another reading is Neilo- 
ptolemaion, which might also suggest a connection with one of the 
Ptolemies. But in Egyptian records there is no mention of settlement 
or conquest sn far east. 

Miiller identifies this river with the Tokwina (11° 30' N. , 49° 


55' E. ) which empties below a mountain, Jebel Haima, 3800 feet 
high; there are ancient ruins here. The "small laurel grove" he 
places at Bandar Muriyeh (11° 40' N., 50° 25' E.), below the Jebel 
Muriyeh, 4000 feet high. 

11. Cape Elephant seems to be the modern Ras el Fil, or 
Filuk, 12° 0' N., 50° 32' E. It is a promontory 800 feet high, about 
40 miles west of Cape Guardafui. The word fil is said also to 
mean elephant, ' ' and the shape of thfe headland suggests the name. 
A -river empties into the gulf just east of the promontory. Glaser 
(Siizze, 199) thinks this is too far east, and prefers Ras Hadadeh 
(48° 45' E. ). Elephant River he identifies with the Dagaan (49° E. ) 
or the Tokwina (49° 55' E. ), from which the modern fiusus frank- 
incense is brought to Aden. But by placing Mosyllum at Ras Kham- 
zir, Glaser is entirely too far west to admit of covering the remainder 
of this coast in two days' journey, as stated in {>■ 11. And the "south- 
erly trend" of the coast just before Guardafui, mentioned in {^ 12, fixes 
Cape Elephant at Ras el Fil. 

Glaser objects to the relatively short two days' sail between Ras 
Hantara and Guardafui ; but he fails to take into account the prevailing 
calms north of the cape, which would justify a shorter day's sail in 
that vicinity than farther west, where the winds are steadier. 

Salt (op. cit., 97-8) says: Scarcely had we got round the cape 
(Guardafui) when the wind deadened. At daylight we found that 
we had made scarcely any progress. The same marks on the shore 
remained the whole day abreast of us. ' 

11. Acannae is identified with Bandar Ululah, 12° 0' N., 
50° 42' E. McCrindle notes that Captain Saris, an English navi- 
gator, called here in 1611, and reported a river, emptying into a bay, 
offering safe anchorage for three ships abreast. Several sorts of gums, 
very sweet in burning, were still purchased by Indian ships from the 
Gulf of Cambay, which touched here for that purpose on their voyage 
to Mocha. 

12. The Cape of Spices is, of course, the modern Cape 
Guardafui, or Ras Asir, 11° 50' N., 51° 16' E. McCrindle de- 
scribes it as ' a bluff point, 2500 feet high, as perpendicular as if it 
were scarped. The current comes round it out of the Gulf (of 
Aden) with such violence that it is not to be stemmed without a brisk 
wind, and during the S. W monsoon the moment you are past the 
Cape to the north there is a stark calm with insufferable heat." 


Ka« Frlnk }PtS. 4 Imujum Jiftant. 


From Salt: J Voyage into Abyssinia. 

This is the Southern Horn" of Strabo, who says (,X\'I, IV, 
14) after doubling this cape toward the south, we have no more de- 
scriptions of harbors or places, because nothing is known of the sea- 
coast beyond this point." 

Pliny prefers the account of King Juba of Mauretania, compiled 
from earlier information, in which the end of the continent is placed 
at Mosyllum; so that if he had before him this Periplus, he ignored 
completely the account it gives of this coast. 

The Market of Spices is identified by Glaser {Skizze, II, 20) 
with the modern Olok, on the N. W. side of the Cape. 

Strabo 's description is as follows ( XVI, IV, 14) : "Next is the 
country which produces frankincense; it has a promontory and a 
temple with a grove of poplars. In the inland parts is a tract along 
the banks of a river bearing the name of Isis, and another that of 
Nilus, both of which produce myrrh and frankincense. Also a lagoon 
filled with water from the mountains; next the watchpost of the Lion, 
and the port of Pythangelus. The next tract bears the false cassia. 
There are many tracts in succession on the sides of rivers on which 
frankincense grows, and rivers extending to the cinnamon country. 
The river which bounds this tract produces rushes in abundance. 
Then follows another river, and the port of Daphnus, and a valley 
called Apollo's,, which bears, besides frankincense, myrrh and cinna- 
mon. The latter is more abundant in places far in the interior. 
Next is the mountain Elephas projecting into the sea, and a creek; 
then the large harbor of Psygmus, a watering-place called that of the 
Cynocephali, and the last promontory of this coast, Notu Ceras (the 
Southern Horn)." 

12. Tabae is placed by iVIuUer at the Ras Chenarif, 11° 5' N. 
Glaser ( Siizze, 201 ) thinks the distance from Olok too great, and 
places Tabae just behind the eastern point of the cape. 


13. Pano is probably Ras Binna, 11° 12' N., 51° 7' E. There 
is a modern village on the north side, a little west of the point, which 
afFords shelter from the S. W. monsoon. 

1.?. Opone is the remarkable headland now known as Ras 
Hafun, 10° 25' N., 51° 25' E., about 90 miles below Cape Guardafui. 

Glaser finds a connection between these names, Pano and Opone, 
the Egyptian "Land of Punt" or Poen-at, the island Pa-anch of the 
Egyptians (Socotra), the incense-land Panchaia of Virgil {Georgics, II, 
139; "Totaque turiferis Panchaia pinguis arenis,") and the Puni or 
Phoenicians; who, he thinks, divided as they left their home in the 
Persian Gulf (the islands of King Erythras in the story quoted by 
Agatharchides) ; one branch going to the coasts of Syria, the other to 
those of South Arabia and East Africa. 

13. Cinnamon produced. — A letter from Mr. R. E. Drake- 
Brockman, F. Z. S. , F. R. G. S. , (author of The Mammals of So- 
maliland, and now at work on Somali Flora) dated Berbera, January 7, 
1910, says: 

"The Horn of Africa' was known to the Romans as the regio 
aromatifera on account of the large quantities of myrrh that were 
exported. The country abounds in the various species of the acacias, 
which produce gums of varying commercial value, also certain trees 
producing resins. 

"I have so far not come across any trees of the cinnamon group, 
nor have I heard of their existence. 

The tree producing myrrh, or malmal as it is known to the 
Somalis, is called garron; but owing to the activities of the Mullah I 
have never been able to penetrate the southern Dholbanta and Mijer- 
tain countries where it grows. 

And again, March 3 : "I have never heard of the exportation of 
cinnamon from this part of Africa. It is just possible that there 

might be some species of laurels in the Dholbanta country and south 
of it, but it is not possible to venture so far owing to the hostility of 
the Mullah." 

If there was any aromatic bark produced near Cape Guardafui 
and not merely trans-shipped there, it seems almost certain that it was 
an adulterant added there to the true cinnamon, that came from India. 

14. Ships from Ariaca. — The antiquity of Hindu trade 
in East Africa is asserted by Speke {Discovery of the Source of the 
Nik, Chaps. I, V, X). The Puranas described the Mountains of 
the Moon and the Nyanza lakes, and mentioned as the source of 
the Nile the "country of Amara," which is the native name of the 
district north of Victoria Nyanza. A map based on this description, 

drawn by Lieut. W'ilford, was printed in the Asiatic Researches, Vol. 
Ill, 1801. 

'Nothing was ever written concerning their Country of the 
Moon, as far as we know, until the Hindus, who traded with the 
east coast of Africa, opened commercial dealings with its people in 
slaves and ivory, possibly some time prior to the birth of our Saviour, 
when, associated with their name. Men of the A4oon, sprang into 
existence the Mountains of the Moon. These Men of the Moon 
are hereditarily the greatest traders in Africa, and are the only people, 
who, for love of barter and change, will leave their own country as 
porters and go to the coast, and they do so with as much zest as our 
country-folk go to a fair. As far back as we can trace they have done 
this, and they still do it as heretofore. 

The Hindu traders had a firm basis to stand upon, from their 
intercourse with the Abyssinians — through whom they must have 
heard of the country of Amara, which they applied to the Nyanza — 
and with the If'anyamuezi or Men of the Moon, from whom they 
heard of the Tanganyika and Karague mountains. Two church 
missionaries, Rebmann and Erhardt, without the smallest knowledge 
of the Hindus' map, constructed a map of their own, deduced from 
the Zanzibar traders, something on the same scale, by blending the 
Victoria Nyanza, Tanganyika, and Nyassa into one; whilst to their 
triuned lake they gave the name of Moon, because the Men of the 
Moon happened to live in front of the central lake.' ' 

This trading-voyage of the first century by Indian vessels, although 
less extended, was in other respects similar to that of the Arab traders 
of a century ago as described by Salt (op. cit., p. 103) : 

The common track pursued by the Arab traders is as follows: 
they depart from the Red Sea in August (before which it is dangerous 
to \enture out of the gulf), then proceed to Muscat, and thence to 
the coast of Malabar. In December they cross over to the coast of 
Africa, visit Alogdishu, Merka, Barawa, Lamu, Malindi, and the 
Querimbo Islands; they then direct their course to the Comoro 
Islands, and the northern ports of Madagascar, or sometimes stretch 
down southward as far as Sofala ; this occupies them until after April, 
when they run up into the Red Sea, where they arrive in time to refit 
and prepare a fresh cargo for the following year." 

14. The products of their own places. — For a discussion 
of the products of India imported into the Somali ports, see later, 
under § 41. The important thing to be noted here is that these ag- 
ricultural products were regularly shipped, in Indian vessels, from the 
Gulf of Cambay; that these vessels exchanged their cargoes at Cape 

Guardafui and proceeded along the coast, some southward, but most 
westward ; and that, according to § 25, Ocelis, at the entrance to the 
Red Sea, was their terminus, the Arabs forbidding them to trade 
beyond. Between India and Cape Guardafui they apparently enjoyed 
the bulk of the trade, shared to some extent by Arabian shipping and 
quite recently by Greek ships from Egypt; on the Somali coast they 
shared the trade in an incidental way; and they received their return 
cargoes at Ocelis and shared none of the Red Sea trade, which in 
former times the Arabs of Yemen had monopolized, but in the days 
of the Ptolemies the Egyptians had largely taken over. 

At the time of the Periplus, owing to the conquest of Egypt by 
the Romans, the establishment of the Axumite Kingdom, and a settled 
policy in Rome of cultivating direct communication with India, this 
commercial understanding, or alliance, between Arabia and India 
(which had existed certainly for 2000 years and probably much 
longer), is shown to be at the point of extinction; but still to be 
strong enough for the Romans to know the cinnamon-bark only as a 
product of the Arabian tributary, Somaliland, while the cinnamon-leaf, 
a later article of commerce, they knew (§§ 56, 65) under the name 
of malabathrum, as a product of India and Tibet. 

14. Clarified butter. — The text is boutyron. Some of the 
commentators object to the word (Lassen and Fabricius especially) 
and Fabricius, in his notes (p. 130) thinks it would be very wrong 
to suppose that butter could have been brought from India, in this hot 
chmate, to the eastern coast of Africa." Therefore they propose 
substitutes, as noted under § 41. 

The voyage from India to Africa by the N. E. monsoon may 
have averaged 30 to 40 days. As shown under § 41, clarified butter 
will keep in the tropics not only for years, but for centuries; but the 
account given by Burton (First Footsteps, pp. 136 and 247) shows that 
modern caravans take it for trips of six weeks or more, under the same 
hot climate of Somaliland; and Lieut. Cruttenden, in his description 
of the Berbera Fair, tells of modern Cambay ships laden with ghee 
in jars, bought in Somaliland for trade elsewhere; probably along the 
Arabian coast. That is, the Somali had learned the art of clarifying 
butter, and exported it in the 19th century by the same class of ships 
that had brought it to them from India in the 1st century. 

A'lungo Park found the same product entering into the commerce 
of the much more humid Senegal coast of West Africa: 

"The Foulahs use the milk chiefly as an article of diet, and that 
not until it is sour. The cream which it affords is very thick, and is 
converted into butter by stirring it violently in a large calabash. This 


butter, when melted over a gentle fire, and freed from impurities, is 
preserved in small earthen pots, and forms a part in most of their 
dishes; it serves likewise to anoint their heads, and is bestowed very 
liberally on their faces and arms." {^Travels of Mungo Park, Lon- 
don: 1799. Chap. IV ^ 

14. Honey from the reed called sacchari is the first men- 
tion in the history of the European world of sugar as an article of 
commerce. It was known to Pliny as a medicine. Sacchari is the 
Prakrit form of the Sanscrit sarkara, Arabic sukkar, Latin saccharum. 

Grinding sugar in Western India 

The modern languages reflect the Arabic form — Portuguese, assucar, 
Spanish azucar, French suc?-c, German zucker, English sugar. The 
sugar is derived from Saccharum officinarum, Linn., order Graminea. 
It was produced in India, Burma, Anam and Southern China, long 
before it found its way to Rome, and seems to have been cultivated 
and crushed first in India. 

14. Exchange their cargoes. — This trade of the Indian 
ships at Opone and elsewhere, is so like that described on the same 


coast by Lieut. Cruttenden in 1848, that his account deserves to be 
quoted in full: 

"From April to early October," (the quotation is from Burton, 
First Footsteps, 408-10), "the place is deserted. No sooner does the 
season change than the inland tribes move down toward the coast, 
and prepare their huts for their expected visitors. Small craft from 
the ports of Yemen, anxious to have an opportunity of purchasing 
before \essels from the gulf could arrive, hastened across, followed two 
or three weeks later by their larger brethren from Muscat, Sur, and Ras 
el Khyma, and the valuably freighted hagalas from Bahrein, Bassora, 
and Graen. Lastly, the fat and wealthy Banian traders from Pore- 
bandar, Mandavi and Bombay, rolled across in their clumsy kotias, 
and with a formidable row of empty ghee-jars slung over the quarters 
of their vessels, elbowed themselves into a permanent position in the 
front tier of craft in the harbor, and by their superior capital, cunning, 
and influence soon distanced all competitors. 

During the height of the fair there is a perfect Babel, in con- 
fusion as in languages; no chief is acknowledged, and the customs 
of bygone days are the laws of the place. Disputes between the in- 
land tribes daily arise, and are settled by the spear and dagger, the 
combatants retiring to the beach at a short distance from the town, in 
order that they may not disturb the trade. Long strings of camels are 
■ arriving and departing day and night, escorted generally by women 
alone, until at a distance from town; and an occasional group of 
dusty and travel-worn children marks the arrival of the slave-caravan 
from the interior. 

"Here the Somali or Galla slave merchant meets his corre- 
spondent from Bassora, Bagdad or Bandar Abbas; and the savage 
Gudabirsi, with his head tastefully ornamented with a scarlet sheep- 
skin in lieu of a wig, is seen peacefully bartering his ostrich feathers 
and gums with the smooth-spoken Banian from Porebandar, who, 
prudently living on board his ark, and locking up his puggaree, which 
would infallibly be knocked off the instant he was seen wearing it, 
exhibits but a small portion of his wares at a time, under a miserable 
mat spread on the beach. 

"By the end of March the fair is nearly at an end, and craft of 
all kinds, deeply laden, and sailing generally in parties of three or 
four, commence their homeward journey. By the first week in April 
the place is again deserted, and nothing is left to mark the site of a 
town lately containing 20,000 inhabitants, beyond bones of slaughtered 


camels and sheep, and the framework of a few huts, which is carefully 
piled on the beach in readiness for the ensuing year." 

15. The Bluffs of Azania are the rugged coast known as El 
Hazin, ending at Ras el Kyi, 7° 44' N., 49° 40' E. 

15. The Small and great beach is the Sif el Tauil or "low 
coast," ending at Ras Aswad, 4° 30' N., 47° 55' E. ; but this is 
actually a longer course than the bluffs, whereas the Periplus rates 
them both as six days' journey. 

15. The Courses of Azania are the strips of desert coastex- 
tending below the equator. The Arabs divide this coast into two 
sections, the first called Barr Ajjan (preserving the ancient namej, 
the second Benadir, or 'coast of harbors." Sarapion may be the 
modern Mogdishu, 2° 5' N., 45° 25' E. Nicon is, perhaps, the 
modern Barawa, \° 10' N., 44° 5' E. The "rivers and anchorages" 
are along the modern £/ Z);«a/r or coast of islands. " 

Concerning the name Azania, R. N. Lyne, in his Zan-zihar in 
Contemporary Times, and Col. Henry Yule, in his edition of Marco 
Polo, have much of interest. The name survives in the modern Zan- • 
zibar (the Portuguese form of Zanghibar), which Marco Polo applied 
not only to the island, but to the whole coast; and it is popularly 
derived from bar, coast, and zang, black: land of the blacks." But 
the name seems to be older, and to refer to the ancient Arabic and 
Persian division of the world into three sections. Hind, Sind and Zinj, 
wherefrom even European geographers in mediaeval times classified 
East Africa as one of the Indies, and Marco Polo located Abyssinia 
in Middle India. ' ' Cosmas Indicopleustes, writing in the 6th cen- 
tury A. D., indicates that the whole Zingi" coast, to a point cer- 
tainly below Mogdishu, was subject to the Abyssinian Kingdom. 
Yule notes that the Japanese Encyclopaedia describes a 'country of 
the Tsengu in the S. W ocean, where there is a bird called pheng, 
which in its flight eclipses the sun. It can swallow a camel, and its 
quills are used for water casks." This is doubtless the Zanghibar 
coast, the name and legend reaching Japan through the Arabs. 

The lack of distinction in ancient geography between Asia and 
Africa goes back to the dawn of letters. Hecataeus in the 6th century 
B. C. divided the world into two equal continents — Europe, north of 
the Mediterranean; Asia, south of it. Around them ran the ocean 
stream. The distinction is supposed to have been based on temper- 
ature. T oxer ( History of Ancient Geography, p. 69) refers it to ancient 
Assyria, a(^u (sunrisej and irih (darkness' frequently occurring in in- 
scriptions there. 



15. The Pyralaae Islands are evidently Patta, Manda, and 
Lamu, back of which there is a thoroughfare, the only protected 
waterway on the whole coast. This is the "channel;" several rivers 
empty into it, and there is a passage to the ocean between Manda 
and Lamu, 2° 18' S. , 40° 50' E. Vincent's identification of the 
"channel" with Mombasa, on account of a canal now known to 
have been dug there much later, is impossible. 

15. Ausanitic Coast. — Ausan was a district of Kataban in 
South Arabia, which had been absorbed by Himyar shortly before the 
time of the Periplus, ; hence the natural result, that a dependency of 
the conquered state should be exploited for the advantage of the 
Homerite port, Muza. 

15. Menuthias. — This whole passage is corrupt, and there are 
probably material omissions. The first island south of Manda is 
Pemba (at about 5° S. ). But the topographic description is perhaps 
truer to Zanzibar (about 6° S. j, and the name seems perpetuated in 
the modern Monfiyeh (about 8° S. ). Our author was possibly un- 
acquainted with this coast, and included in his work hearsay reports 
from some seafaring acquaintance, in which he may have lumped the 
three islands into one; or if he is describing places he has visited 
(which is suggested by the mention of the local fishing-baskets and 
the like), some scribe may have omitted a whole section of the text. 

16. Rhapta. — This location depends on the condition of the 
preceding text regarding the island Alenuthias. If that be Pemba, 
Rhapta would be the modern Pangani (5° 25' S., 38° 59' E. ), at the 
mouth of the river of the same name ; if Zanzibar, it would be at or 
near Bagamoyo (6° 31' S., 38° 50' E. ); if Monfiyeh, the modern 
Kilwa (8° 57' S. , 39° 38' E. ). \^incent's insistence upon Kilwa is 
very likely well grounded, from the suggestion of the ancient name; 
that is, if the text is a mutilated description of three islands known to 
exist in close proximity, the last market-town of the continent" 
would naturally be below the southernmost island, Monfiyeh. But 
the distances given by Ptolemy between Rhapta and Prasum suggest 
for the former a location near Bagamoyo, perhaps Dar-es-Salaam, 
(6° 42' S., 39° 5' E. ). The Prasum of Ptolemy, the farthest point 
in 'Africa known to him, is evidently Cape Delgado (10° 30' S. , 
40° 30' E.). The later identification of Menuthias with Madagascar 
was due to the discoveries of the Saracens, and is impossible for Ro- 
man times. 

Rhapta, Glaser notes, has its name from an Arabian word rahta, 
to bind. 





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16. Great in stature. — "The whole system of slaveholding 
by the Arabs in Africa, or rather on the coast or at Zanzibar, is ex- 
ceedingly strange; for the slaves, both in individual strength and in 
numbers, are so superior to the Arab foreigners, that if they chose to 
rebel, they might send the Arabs flying out of the land. It happens, 
however, that they are spell-bound, not knowing their strength any 
more than domestic animals, and they seem to consider that they 
would be dishonest if they ran away after being purchased, and so 
brought pecuniary loss on their owners." (Speke, op. cit., intro- 
duction. ) 

16. Sovereignty of the state that is become first in 
Arabia. — A vivdd picture is here given us of the early policies of the 
Arabs. Prevented by superior force from expanding northward, but 
useful commercially to their stronger neighbors, they were free to 
exploit Africa. The early Egyptian records bear testimony to their 
activities in the second millennium B. C, if not earlier. The Au- 
sanitic Coast" mentioned in § 15 was probably a possession of Ausan 
when that state was independent, which was not later than the 7th 
century B. C. Later the coast became Katabanic, then Sabaean, then 
Homerite. From the 3d to the 6th centuries A. D. , according to 
the Adulis inscription and Cosmas Indicopleustes, it was Abyssinian. 
In Mohammedan times it returned to the Arab allegiance, and until 
Zanzibar and the adjacent coast accepted the English protectorate they 
were dependencies of the Sultan of Muscat. 

Glaser has well expressed this undoubted fact of Arab dominion 
{Skizze, II, 209) ; ' We must finally abandon the idea that Moham- 
med was the first to bring Arabia into a leading position in the world's 
history. So long as Rome and Persia (and Egypt and Babylon before 
them) retained their power, the Arabs could expand in Africa only. 
But as soon as these states became exhausted, then Arabia burst forth 
irresistibly and overflowed the northern world." (See also Punt und 
die Siidarabischen Reiche, 20-23. ) 

Previous translators of the Periplus have much misunderstood the 
meaning of this passage in the text. 

16. Arab captains who know the whole coast. — The 

discovery by Carl Mauch in 1871, of strange temple-like structures in 
northern Rhodesia, led to a great deal of wild assumption as to their 
history. The ruins are loosely-built stone enclosures, some of them 
irregularly elliptical in form, having conical pillars within, and ap- 
parently facing North, East and West. The largest of them were 
situated somewhat South of the present Salisbury-Beira railway line, 
near the upper waters of the Sabi River and within reach of the trade 


of Sofala, known to have been frequented by Arab traders in medi- 
a;val times. It was at once assumed that they were of Sabasan or 
Phoenician origin and of great antiquity. The subject was volumin- 
ously but uncritically written up. See for instance Ancient Ruins of 
Rhodesia, by Hall and Neal, London, 1894; Monomotapa, by A. 
W'ilmot, London, 1896, and The Ruined Cities of Mashonaland, by 
J. T. Bent, London, 1902. 

The appearance of the structures suggested the form of ancient 
Arabian temples, and the locality was at once identified with the 
ubiquitous land of Ophir" of King Solomon's voyages. Professor 
Miiller {Burgen und Schlosser, II, 20), noted a resemblance between 
the Zimbabwe enclosure (20° 30' S , 31° 10' E. ) and the temple 
at iMarib, the capital of the ancient Sabaean kingdom of Southern 
Arabia. The whole argument was of course pure assumption, as 
there is no reference in ancient literature to any knowledge of the 
African coast within si.x hundred miles of the port of Sofala. Dr. 
Da\id Randall-Maciver made a careful investigation of the ruins in 
1905, and proved conclusively in his account of that work, Mediceval 
Rhodesia, London, 1906, that the structures were the work of negroes, 
probably Kaffirs, of the so-called kingdom of Monomotapa. A piece 
of Nankin china of the late mediaeval period, found in the cement at 
the bottom of one of the structures, showed that they could not date 
earlier than the 14th or 15th century. They were enclosures for de- 
fence, rudely built of loose stone, and their supposed orientation was 
found to be inexact and probably accidental. 

The service done by Dr. Maciver in disproving the antiquity of 
this Kaffir kraal did not, however, need to be supplemented by his 
denial (pp. 1-2) of the probability of Arabian trade far down this coast 
at a very early age. The Periplus mentions Rhapta, some distance 
south of the Zanzibar islands, as the last settlement on the coast; and 
Ptolemy describes Cape Delgado. Dr. Maciver may have known the 
Periplus only through the account given by Guillain in 1856 {Docu- 
mcnts sur I'histoire, la g'eographie et le commerce de l' Afrique Orientale), but 
at all events he ignores the detailed account given in both those works, 
and in the Periplus the statement is definitely made that this whole 
coast (to about 10° S. ) was "subject under some ancient right to the 
sovereignty of the power which held the primacy in Arabia; " that is, 
in the 1st century A. D. the right was still so ancient as to be beyond 
the explanation of the merchant who described it. The coast was 
frequented by Arab ships in command of Arab captains who knew 
the harbors, spoke the language of the natives and intermarried with 


This condition is corroborated by the known Arab infusion in the 
negro peoples on the whole coast, which is of far earlier origin than 
the Mohammedan colonization. 

\\'ho were the natives and what was their language, as men- 
tioned in the Periplus? Rev. J. Torrend, S. J., in a paper read 
before the Rhodesia Scientific Association, included in its Proceedings 
(\', 2, Buluwayo, 1905), analyzes the languages of the coast and 
finds a striking similarity between the speech of the Tana Ri\ er, which 
empties below the island of Lamu about 2° 4U' S., and that of the 
lower Zambesi C18°-19° S. ). He gives a long comparative list of 
words in these so-called Pokomo and Cizimba tongues, evidently 
identical. He quotes Dr. Krapf and other German philologists as 
saying that the Pokomo is the aboriginal language of the coast, and 
that the modern Swahili is derived from it; and he himself believes 
that the Cizimba is e\en more primiti\ e, and that it gives the 
key to most of the modern dialects of the southern coast. Father 
Torrend, full of the Sofala-Ophir theory, argues that the language was 
brought from the Tana River to the Zambesi, not by land because the 
modern tribes are of peaceful disposition, but rather by sea, and par- 
ticularly by sea-traders, assuming such to have come from Arabia. 
The assumption is certainly far-fetched, as it is hardly likely that any 
traffic, ho\ve\er busy, would have brought this negro language and 
transplanted it 1500 miles down the coast to a different tribe. The 
suggestion is rather that this branch of the Bantu race migrated south- 
ward within historical times, through the African rift-\alley, and that the 
modern tribes of the lower Zambesi, said to be speaking to-day the 
most primitive language, are their descendants, while those who re- 
mained on the Tana have had their speech modified more notably by 
later contact with the outside world. 

The name Cizimba, borne by the modern dialect, suggests the 
Agisymha of the Roman geographers; which was known to them 
through the report of an adventurous youth, Julius Alaternus, who 
marched for four months southward from the Garamantes (Fezzan), 
and brought back word of a region abounding in rhinoceros, inhabited 
by negroes and bearing that name ( Ptolemy, I, 8, 5 J. It seems not 
an unreasonable assumption that he did reach the head-waters of the 
Nile and found somewhere in that great rift-valley the ancestors of 
this Bantu tribe which later migrated southward and formed, among 
other confederations, the so-called A'lonomotapa of the medi«;val geog- 

This rift-valley of East Africa is a striking feature of its topog- 
raphy, and must have had a great bearing on its early trade. A good 


description is given by Prof. J. M. Gregory, {The Great Rift Valley, 
London, 1896). It is a natural depression beginning at the lower 
shore of the Red Sea between Massowa and the straits, taking a south- 
westerly direction through Abyssinia to the British and German East 
African possessions, including lakes Rudolf, Nyanza, Tanganyika and 
Nyassa, and running almost to the Zambesi. While it is unKkely 
that this valley was ever at one time under the control of any Arabian 
power, it is probable that the tribes inhabiting it were in more or 
less j;egular commercial relations with the North, and that it was a 
more important avenue of trade than the sea-coast with its broad un- 
healthy swamps. It is indeed quite possible that the Mashonaland 
gold, which lay at no great distance south of the valley, might to some 
extent have found its way along this natural trade-route by exchantxe 
from tribe to tribe; and it is entirely unnecessary, in disproving the 
antiquity of the Mashonaland ruins, to attempt to disprove the manifest 
fact of early Arab influence and infusion along the East African coast. 
Neither is it necessary to deny the general infiltration of early Arabian 
culture in two directions from the head-waters of the Nile, southward 
down the rift-valley, and westward through the Sudan toward the Gulf 
of Guinea. In fact this general spread of culture, folk-lore and religious 
beliefs and practices, is too well attested to admit of denial. 

17. Palm oil. — The word in the text, nauplios, is corrected to 
nargilios, a word which appears in modified forms in other Greek 
geographers. This is the Sanscrit narikela, narikera, Prakrit nargil, 
"cocoariut," and the appearance of the word on the Zanzibar coast 
is of course a confirmation of Indian trade there. (See Lassen, op. 
cit., I, 267. ) The Greek word was koix, whence the adjective koukio- 
phoros, Latin cucifera, from which the Periplus, § 19, coins the Greek 
adjective koukinos. 

This palm oil was from Cocos nucifera, Linn., order Palmea; 
probably native in the Indian archipelago, and carried by natural 
causes as well as Hindu activity to most of the tropical world. It 
is one of the most useful plants known, providing timber for houses 
and ships, leaves for thatch and fiber for binding and weaving, aside 
from the food value of the nut, fresh and dried, and the oil. As a 
medicine also it was of importance to the Hindus, the pulp of the 
ripe fruit being mixed with clarified butter, coriander, cumin, carda- 
moms, etc., to form their narikela-khanda, a specific for dyspepsia and 
consumption. The nut was described by Cosmas Indicopleustes in 
the 6th century as argellion: and by Marco Polo in the 13th century 
(I, 102; II, 236, 248) as Indian nut. (See also Watt, op. cit., 


C ¥. .V -S V S 

/ 1 



18. Unexplored ocean. — This reflects the settled belief of 
the Greeks that Africa was surrounded by the ocean and could be 
circumnavigated. Herodotus gives an account, by no means impossi- 
ble (IV, 42 ) of a Phoenician expedition, under the Pharaoh Necho, 
which did so about 600 B. C, returning to Egypt in the third year of 
their journey. Eratosthenes and Strabo placed the southern ocean 
immediately below Cape Guardafui ; Pliny thought it began even at 

Mossylum' ' west of Guardafui ; our author shifts it to the Zanzibar 
Channel, and Ptolemy carried it as far as the Madagascar Channel. 
The actual southern extension of Africa was not known to Europeans 
until the Portuguese discoveries in the 15th century. The Saracens 
seem to have discovered it in the 9th or 10th century, but their 
knowledge did not reach Europe. The Guinea coast was known in 
part to the Carthaginians and Romans, and they supposed that it 
continued due eastward and thus joined the "Indian Ocean, or 'Ery- 
thraean Sea. ' ' 

The current ideas of geography at this time are reflected by the 
accompanying map according to Pomponius Mela, about 44 A. D. 
The contribution of the author of the Periplus was to establish the 
southern extension of both Africa and India, to a distance never before 
understood by his civilization. 

19. To the left. — This section begins the account of a second 
voyage, from Berenice to India. 

19. W^hite Village {Leuke Kome) is placed by most commenta- 
tors at El Haura, 25° 7' N., 37° 13' E. , which lies in a bay protected 
by Hasani island. The name Haura also means white," and the 
Arab name itself appears as Juara, in Ptolemy. The place is on the 
regular caravan route that led, and still leads, from Aden to the Medi- 

The words "from Mussel Harbor, " in the text, are probably 
there only through an error in copying. The distance and direction 
are more nearly right from Berenice, which is the starting-point 
named at the beginning of this paragraph. 

19. Petra (30° 19' N., 35° 31' E.) lay in the Wady Musa, 
east of the Wady-el-Araba, the great valley connecting the Dead Sea 
with the Gulf of Akaba. It was the great trading center of the 
northern Arabs, and the junction of numerous important caravan- 
routes, running from Yemen northward, and from the Persian Gulf 
eastward. Thus it controlled the Eastern trade from both directions, 
and held its advantage until the results of Trajan's conquests trans- 
ferred the overland trade to Palmyra; the sea-trade having been 
already diverted to Alexandria. 


The district of Arabia Petraea has its name from this city. The 
native name, according to Josephus {.Ant. Jud. IV, 7, 1) was Rekem, 
referring to the variegated color of the rocks in the Wady IVIusa. 
The Bibhcal name was Sela, a city of Edom" (2 Kings, XI\', 7; 
Isaiah, X\'I, 1; Judges, I, 36). Sela (Arabic Sal) means a 'hollow 
between rocks," and Obadiah, 3, apostrophizes Edom as "thou that 
dwellest in the clefts of the rocks, whose habitation is on high. " 
Strabo (X\'I, IV, 21 j says Petra is situated on a spot which is sur- 
rounded and fortified by a smooth and level rock, which externally is 
abrupt and precipitous, but within there are abundant springs of water 
both for domestic purposes and for watering gardens. Beyond the 
enclosure the country is for the most part a desert, particularly toward 
Judaea. Athenodorus, my friend, who had been at Petra, used 

to relate with surprise, that he found many Romans and also many 
other strangers residing there." 

Ammianus Alarcellinus (XIV, 8, 13) describes the place as "full 
of the most plenteous variety of merchandise, and studded with strong 
forts and castles, which the watchful solicitude of its ancient inhabi- 
tants has erected in suitable defiles, in order to repress the inroads cf 
the neighboring nations." 

The topography of Petra is well known through the descriptions 
of Flinders Petrie and others. It was a fertile bit of valley surrounded 
by precipitous cliffs, with a long, narrow and winding entrance, and 
almost impregnable. It seems to have been, first, a place of refuge 
and a safe storehouse for the myrrh, frankincense, silver, etc. , coming 
from Yemen. The Biblical references show it as an Edomite strong- 
hold; but, being abandoned when the Edomites entered Palestine 
after the Babylonian captivity, it was taken by the Nabatasans; whom 
Josephus makes the descendants of Nebaioth, son of Ishmael, while 
Glaser and others see rather Nabatu, an Aramaic tribe noted in an 
inscription of Tiglathpdeser III (745-727 B. C), who migrated to 
the \alley of Edom probably in the 6th centuiy B. C. 

Here the Nabatairans were at first nomadic and predatory, inviting 
attack by land from Antigonus, and by sea on the Gulf of Akaba, 
from the Ptolemies (Agatharchides, 88; Strabo, X\'I, IV, 18). 
Soon, hf)vve\er, they settled down to orderly commerce and prospered 
exceedingly, as tlie ruins of Petra testify. One may suppose that a 
part, at least, of their trouble with Syria and Egypt was due to their 
commercial agirressi\eness rather than their predatory habits. They 
fought hard to maintain and control the caravan trade against the 
competition of Egyptian shipping. In their dealings with Rome they 
tried to carry water on both shoulders; helping Titus against Jeru- 


salem, but supporting the Parthians against Rome as occasion offered. 
This conflict of interests was terminated in 105 A. D., when Trajan 
reduced them to subjection (Dio Cassius, LXVIII, 14). After that 
time Petra declined; the ship of the desert was blanketed by the ship 
of the sea; and when the overland trade revived, toward the end of 
the 2d century, it was Palmyra which reaped the advantage. 

19. Malichas. — The mention of this king of the Nabataeans is 
important in fixing the date of the text. Ordinarily the name might 
be accepted as a transcription of the Arabic word malik — Hebrew 
melech, king, which appears in such Hebrew names as Abimelech" ' 
and Melchizedek;" but according to the writings of Josephus, who 
as a Jew would have been likely to distinguish between the name and 
the title, there were kings having that name in what he called the 
"country of Arabia," which was certainly the same as that of the 
Nabataeans. In his Antiquities of the Jews (XIV, 14, 1) he men- 
tions Malchus, King of Arabia, who had befriended Herod and 
who had loaned him money just before his case was taken up by 
Mark Antony, and the Roman Senate agreed to make him King of 
the Jews. This occurred in the year 38 B. C. This same Mal- 
chus loaned cavalry to Julius Caesar for his siege of Alexandria (Aulus 
Hirtius, Bell. J lex., I, i) ; and subsequently sent auxiliaries to 
Pacorus, the Parthian emperor, for which Mark Antony compelled 
him to pay an indemnity. 

This Malchus can not, of course, be the one mentioned in the 
Periplus. But Josephus {Jewish War, III, 4, 2) mentions a King 
of Arabia, Malchus, who sent a thousand horsemen and five thousand 
footmen to the assistance of Titus in his attack upon Jerusalem. These 
events were in the year 70 A. D., and this King Malchus can hardly 
be other than the Malichas mentioned in the text. See also Vogiie, 
Syrie Centrale, who quotes inscriptions of this Malichas or Malik, and 
of his father Aretas Philodemus, or Hareth, a contemporary of Tibe- 
rius and Caligula. 

19. Small vessels from Arabia.— Strabo (XVI, IV, 24) has 
the following account of this trade : 

"Merchandise is conveyed from Leuce Come to Petra, thence 
to Rhinocolura in Phoenicia near Egypt, and thence to other nations. 
But at present the greater part is transported by the Nile to Alexandria. 
It is brought from Arabia and India to Myos Hormus, and is then 
conveyed on camels to Coptus of the Thebais, situated on a canal of 
the Nile, and to Alexandria. " 

The policy of the Ptolemies, in seeking to free Egypt from com- 
mercial dependence on Yemen, and to encourage direct communica- 


tion with India, had been continued by Rome at the expense of the 
Arabs. The small vessels" of § 19 from Muza to the Nabataean 
port are to be contrasted with the large vessels" of § 10 that traded 
from Mosyllum to Egypt. The caravan trade could not be reached 
in the same way, and along the Red Sea the camel could always com- 
pete with the ship. This remained in Arabian hands for another half- 
century, when the Emperor Trajan reduced the Nabatasans to sub- 
jection to Rome. 

19. Centurion. — Vincent assumes that this was a Roman 
officer, but the text does not indicate it. At this time the kingdom 
of the Nabataeans was independent, powerful and prosperous; as it 
might well have been, from the 25 per cent duty our author tells us 
it levied on the rich trade between Arabia and Rome. 

20. Arabia. — Two meanings are attached to this word in the 
text; in this § 20 and in § 49 it refers to the entire peninsula; in every 
other instance it means Yemen, the Homerite-Sabaite kingdom as 
distinguished from the other kingdoms and political divisions of the 

20. Differing in their speech. — In the north the Naba- 
taeans spoke a dialect of the Aramaic ; along the coast the Carnaites' ' 
spoke various Ishmaelite dialects, out of which has grown the modern 
Arabic; at the trading-posts of the true Minaeans, their own lan- 
guage, allied to Hadramitic, was spoken; on reaching Yemen, the 
speech was Himyaritic. 

20. Similarly, that is, to the opposite coast below Berenice, 
described at the beginning of the first voyage, in § 2. 

20. Rascally men. — Compare the observations of other 
writers concerning these same Beduin robbers: 

The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them : 
and the Sabeans fell upon them, and took them away; yea, they 
have slain the servants with the edge of the sword." (Job I, 14-15. 
These are not the Sabaeans of Yemen, but men of Saba in Central 
Arabia, the nation tall and smooth" of Isaiah XVIII.) 

The Beduins have reduced robbery in all its branches to a 
complete and regular system, which offers many interesting details." 
TBurckhardt. ) 

Before we lightly condemn the robber we must realize his sore 
need. According to Doughty and other travelers three-fourths of the 
Beduins of northwest Arabia suffer continual famine. In the long 
summer drought when pastures fail and the gaunt camel-herds give 
no milk the\ are in a very sorry plight; then it is that the housewife 
cooks her slender mess of rice secretly, lest some would-be guest 


should smell the pot. The hungry gnawing of the Arab' s stomach is 
lessened by the cofFee-cup and the ceaseless 'tobacco-drinking' from 
the nomad's precious pipe." (Zwemer, Arabia the Cradle of Islam, 
p. 157.) 

Thou shalt call his name Ishmael; because the Lord hath heard 
thy affliction. And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against 
e\ery man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in 
the presence of all his brethren." (Gen. XVI, 11-12.) 

20. Garnaites. — These wild tribes are called in the text Can- 
raiti-s, which cannot be identified with any other contemporary record. 
Some commentators would change the name to Cassanites; and Fabri- 
cius, following Sprenger, substitutes Cananites. Glaser's suggestion is 
certainly preferable {Siizze, 165-6). He thinks that the n and r 
should be reversed, making Camattes; Kama being one of the north- 
ern settlements of the ancient kingdom of the Minaeans, to which 
the neighboring Beduin tribes were nominally subject. Pliny (VI, 
32) and Ptolemy both mention this place as a city of the Minaeans; 
whom Pliny describes as the oldest commercial people in Arabia, 
having a monopoly in the trade in myrrh and frankincense, through 
their control of the caravan-routes from the producing regions. He 
refers doubtfully to their legend of the relationship of Minaeans and 
Rhadamaeans to Minos of Crete and his brother Rhadamanthus. 
Pliny need not have doubted, and is to be thanked for preserving this 
evidence of early Arabian trade in the Mediterranean. Ptolemy adds 
his testimony to the wide extent of this early Arabian trade, when 
he describes the people called Rhamnae who dwelt in the extreme 
east near the banks of the Purali, and who planted their capital at a 
place called Rhambacia. ' ' From Crete to the borders of India was 
no mean sphere of activity. Compare Ezekiel XXVII, 22 : The 
merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy merchants: they 
occupied in thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious 
stones, and gold. " 

Strabo also (XVI, III, 1) describes "the Minaei in the part 
toward the Red Sea, whose largest city is Carna; next to them are the 
Sabaeans, whose chief city is Mariaba. 

At the time of the Periplus the term Minaean" was no longer 
limited to the southern traders, but had been extended to include the 
nomadic Ishmaelites over whom their settlements along the caravan- 
routes exerted a varying measure of authority. 

The Minasan kingdom had long since lost its identity, having 
been conquered by the Sabaeans. When Saba fell before Himyar its 
allegiance was transferred likewise; but we may assume that at the 


date of the Periplus it was almost independent. When the Homerite 
dynasty became powerful, it asserted its authority over most of the 
Hejaz; when the Abyssinians conquered Yemen their rule was not 
acknowledged so far north. The insurgence of the Ishmaelites under 
the spur of Islam was a logical consequence of centuries of civil war 
among their former overlords in Yemen. 

20. Burnt Island is identified by Ritter and Miiller with Jebel 
Tair, 15° 35' N., 41° 50' E. ; a volcanic island in the direct course 
from Berenice to Aluza. Fabricius prefers Disan, the most northerly 
of the Farsan group, 16° 45' N., 41° 40' E. ; but this location is 
improbable, as being out of the course straight down the middle of 
the gulf," and in the midst of "foul waters." 

20. Chiefs and Kings of Arabia. — The turmoil in South 
Arabia at this time has already been mentioned. Within a few years 
the Habashat had been driven to Africa, Kataban and Saba had suc- 
cumbed, and Hadramaut and Himyar remained. The Homerite 
dynasty was not yet firmly established, and the condition of the country 
was feudal, each tribe enjoying a large measure of independence. 
Such is the condition here described, where Mapharitis, nominally 
Homerite, le\ied its own taxes on commerce, and maintained its own 
colonial enterprise in Azania. 

21. Muza, mentioned by our author as a seaport, is identified 
with the modern Mocha (13° 19' N. , 43° 20' E. ). According to 
Pliny and Ptolemy, the market-town was some miles inland, probably 
at the modern village of JVlauza; and Pliny distinguishes the seaport 
as Masala. Both names still exist (Glaser, Skizze, 138-40; 168j. 
In the Periplus the name of the city is, apparently, extended to include 
the port. 

21. Twelve thousand stadia. — The actual distance is about 
800 miles or 8000 stadia. It may be a mistake in the text (a very 
easy matter with Greek numerals), or, as Bunbury suggests (History 
of Ancient Geography, II, 455) our author may have calculated the dis- 
tance as so many days' sail of 500 stadia each. No calls being made 
on the coast, contrary winds might readily cause such an error in cal- 
culation. Where no instruments existed for measuring distances, 
estimates would necessarily be rather general. 

21. Sending their own ships, — to the Somali coast and 
India in competition with the Egyptian Greeks; down the east Afri- 
can coast to their own possessions (§ 16) where they doubtless en- 
joyed special privileges. Foreign shipping was unwelcome at Muza, 
which preferred to supply the north-bound caravans. Roman subjects, 
such as our author, had to pay dearly, in the form of gifts to the rulers, 


for permission to trade there; Hindu shipping was stopped at Ocelis 

22. Saua is identified by Sprenger with the Sa'b of Ibn Mogawir, 
(13° N., 44° E.). Ritter and Miiller, following Niebuhr, prefer 
the modern Ta'is,(13° 35' N., 43 55' E. ), in the mountains about 
40 miles above Mocha. 

11. Mapharitis is the country of the Ma'afir, a tribe belonging 
to the Himyaritic stock, whose chief or sheikh had, evidently, especial 
privileges from his "lawful king" (§ 23) Charibael. Their location 
was in the southern Tehama. 

22. Cholaebus is the Arabic Kula' ib. 

23. Saphar, mentioned by Arabian geographers as Zafar, is 
located by Niebuhr about 100 miles N. E. of Mocha on the road to 
Sanaa, near the modern town of Yerim, some miles southeast of 
which, on the summit of a circular hill, its ruins still exist. Zafar 
was the capital of the Homerite dynasty, displacing Marib, that of the 
Sabaean, Timna of the Gebanite, and Carna of the Minaean. Here, 
in the 4th century A. D., a Christian church was built, following 
negotiations between the Roman Emperor Constantius and the Ho- 
merite King Tubba ibn Hassan, who had embraced Judaism. In the 
6th century it was the seat of a bishopric, one incumbent of which, 
St. Gregentius, resenting a profanation of the church at Sanaa by cer- 
tain of the Koreish, inspired the Abyssinian government, then ruling 
in Yemen, to undertake a disastrous expedition against Mecca. 

23. Charibael. — This is the Arabic Kariba-il, and means 
"God blessed (him)." (Hommel, The Ancient Hebrew Tradition, 
p. 84. ) Glaser has shown this to be a royal title, rather than a name, 
and has edited numerous inscriptions of a king named Kariba-il Watar 
Juhan'im who ruled about 40-70 A. D., and whom he identifies with 
this Charibael. (Die Jbessinier in Arabien und Afrika, pp. 37-8.) 

23. Homerites and Sabaites. — Both were of the Joktanite 
race of South Arabia, the former being the younger branch. In the 
tribal genealogy in Genesis X, we are shown their relation to the 
Semites of the North. Three of the children of Shem are given as 
Elam, Asshur, and Arphaxad. Arphaxad's son was Salah, and his 
grandson Eber. These names are associated with Babylonia and 
Chaldsea. Eber's second son was Joktan, of which the Arabic form 
is Kahtan, which appears farther south along the Persian Gulf, in the 
peninsula of El Katan. Of the sons of Joktan, most are identified 
with the southern coast; two of them being Hazarmaveth (Hadra- 
maut), and Jerah (cf. the Jerakon Kome o[ Ptolemy, north of Dhofar). 
The last-named the Arabs call Yarab: his son was Yashhab {cf. 


the Asabi in Oman, § 35), and his grandson "Saba the Great" (sur- 
named Abd-es-Shems) is said to have founded the city of Marib, and 
to have begun its great dam, on which the irrigation of the vicinity 
depended. The Sabaeans are thus connected with this Saba, a de- 
scendant of Jerah, and not with Sheba, son of Joktan, who is referred 
rather to Central Arabia; whom Glaser and Hommel would make a 
colony from Yemen, while Weber would reverse the process, having 
the Sabaeans migrate southward for the conquest of the Minaeans. 

According to Arab accounts the dam at Marib was finished by a cer- 
tain King Zul Karnain, suggesting the primacy of the Minaean dynasty 
at that time; but from about the 7th century B. C. the Sabaeans were 
supreme in all southern Arabia, controlling the caravan-routes, and 
forcing the wild tribes into caravan service. Colonies and resting- 
stations were established at intervals along the routes. We learn from 
the Koran (Chap. XXXIV) that the journey was easy between these 
cities, and travel secure by night or by day; the distances being so 
short that the heat of the day might be passed in one, and the night 
in the next, so that provisions need not be carried. The number of 
such settlements may be inferred from Strabo' s statement that the cara- 
vans took seventy days between Minaea and Aelana ; and all the Greek 
and Roman writers, from Eratosthenes to Pliny, testify to the value 
of the trade, the wealth of those who controlled it, and their jealous 
hindrance of all competition. 

The entry of the fleets of the Ptolemies into the Red Sea, and 
their estabhshment of colonies along its shores, dealt a hard blow to 
the caravan-trade. If we sift fact from homily in the same chapter 
of the Koran, we find that the result was abandonment of many 
of the caravan-stations, and a consequent increase in the cost of 
camel-hire and of the provisions which now had to be carried; im- 
poverishment, dispersion and rebellion of the dwellers in the stations, 
so that finally most of the cities which were between Saba and Syria 
were ruined and abandoned," and a few years later than the Periplus, 
Marib itself, stripped of its revenues and unable to maintain its public 
works, was visited with an inundation which carried away its famous 
reservoir-dam, making the city uninhabitable and forcing the disper- 
sion of its people. Many of them seem to have migrated northward 
and to have settled in the country southeast of Judaea, founding the 
kingdom of the Ghassanids, which was for generations a bulwark of 
the Roman Empire at its eastern boundary. 

The great expedition against Sabaea by the Romans under Aelius 
Gallus, rStrabo, XVI, IV, 22-4; Pliny, VI, 32) never got beyond 
the valley of the Minaeans; turning back thence, as Mncent surmised 


(II, 306-311), and as Glaser proves (Skizze, 56-9), without reaching 
Marib, and probably without inflicting any lasting injury on the tribes 
along their route. It was the merchant-shipping of the Romans, and 
not their soldiery, that undermined the power of the Sabaeans. 

As the wealth of Marib declined, its power was resolved into 
its elements, and was reorganized by a neighbor of the same blood. 
The oldest son of Saba the Great, founder of Marib, was Himyar, 
whose descendants included most of the town-folk of the southwest 
corner of Arabia. Two sons of Himyar, Malik and Arib, had carried 
the Joktanite arms back toward the east again, subduing the earlier 
inhabitants of the frankincense region north of Dhofar. The center 
of the tribe was at Zafar, southwest of Marib, and some days' journey 
nearer the sea. Allied with the sheikh at Zafar was he of the Ma'afir, 
controlling the port of Muza. This combination was able to over- 
throw the old order, Zafar supplanting Marib, and Muza stripping Aden 
of its trade and its privileges along the African coast. Thereafter the 
Himyarite dynasty — the Homerite kings — assumed the title "Kings 
of Saba and Raidan." This was during the first century B. C. 

The subsequent policy of the Kariba-ils of Zafar was to expand 
both north and east, to regain the old supremacy over the ' 'Carnaites' ' 
along the caravan-routes, and to control the shipping from the east. 

(See Prof. D. H. Miiller's article, Yemen, in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, 9th Edition; Glaser, Ski%-ze znA Die Abessinier, etc. ; 
Weber, Arabien vor dem Islam in Der alte Orient, III, Leipzig, 1901; 
Prof. Hommel's chapter, Arabia, in Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible 
Lands, Phila., 1903; Hogarth, The Penetration of Arabia, N. Y., 
1904; and the reports of the Austrian South-Arabian Expedition.) 

23. Embassies and gifts. — This wooing of Yemen by Rome 
was soon ended. It was no part of the Arab policy, whether Ho- 
merite, Minaean, or Nabataean, to let Rome cultivate direct relations 
with India, and as the empire expanded stronger measures were 
necessary. Fifty years later than the Periplus, Trajan had captured 
Petra, and Abyssinia was being subsidized to attack Yemen. 

23. A friend of the Emperors. — Some commentators sup- 
pose that this refers to a time when two Roman emperors ruled 
together, thus dating the Periplus well into the 2d century A. D. , but 
there is nothing in the text to require it. The Homerite king, who 
began to rule, probably, in the last days of Claudius, was simply, 
(in the mind of our author, writing early in the reign of Nero), the 
friend of both those Roman Emperors, as he was also of several others 
whose short reigns coincided with his. A list of the Emperors of 
the 1st and 2d centuries confirms this ; 




B.C. A.D. 


39- 14 

Augustus Caesar 

Phia..tfs IV 

37- 2 


B.C. A.D. 

14- 37 



2- .? 

37- 41 


Orodes 11 

41- 54 


\'onones I 

?- 16 

54- 68 


Artabanus III 

16- 42 

68- 69 



42- 46 




46- 51 



\'onones II 


69- 79 


\'olagases I 

51- 7.S 

79- 81 




81- 96 




96- 98 

Ner\ a 

Volagases II 



Antoninus Pius 

Volagases III 
\'olagases IV 
disputed succession : 



( Marcus Aurelius 
1 Lucius Verus 

Volagases V 
Artabanus III 




Marcus Aurelius 

Artabanus III 





of Parthian Emp 




Didius Julianas 
Septimius Severus 


f Caracalla 
( Geta 








Alexander Severus 

Two Roman Emperors serving together: 
Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus — 161-169. 
Caracalla, Geta — 211-212. 
Valerian, Gallienus — 253-259. 

Diocletian, Maximian — 286-305, and through se\eral succeed- 
ing reigns. 

24. Saffron (Crocus sativus, Linn., order Iridacea). — The part 
that entered into trade was the stamens and pistils of the flower, 
which were used medicinally, as a paint or dye, a seasoning in cook- 
ery, and a perfume or ingredient of ointments. 

As a Derfume, halls, theatres and courts were strewed with the 


plant, and it entered into the composition of many spirituous extracts, 
which retained the same scent. (See Pliny, XIII, 2. ) 

Lucan (Pkarsa/ia, IX, 809) refers to the sweet-smelling essence 
of saffron that issues from the limbs of a statue." 

Saffron also entered into many of the scented salves or balsams. 
It was much adulterated by adding the stigmata of other plants, such as 
the safflower {Carthamus tinctorius, order Composita), and the marigold 
(Calendula officinalis, order Composita). 

Pliny (XXI, 81) says. Saffron is blended with wine or water 
and is extremely useful in medicine. It is generally kept in horn 
boxes. Applied with egg it disperses all kinds of inflammations, those 
of the eyes in particular; it is employed also for hysterical suffoca- 
tions, and for ulcerations of the stomach, chest, kidneys, liver, lungs, 
and bladder. It is particularly useful in cases of inflammation of those 

parts, and for cough and pleurisy The flower is used locally 

with Cimolian chalk for erysipelas." (See also Beckmann, op. ctt., 
I, 175-7.) 

24. Sweet rush. — The text is kypens. There is much con- 
fusion among the Roman writers between various species of aromatic 
rush, some including the calamus of the Hebrew anointing oil (Exodus 
XXX), which was probably Acorus calamus, Linn., order Aroidea; a 
semi-aquatic sub-tropical herb, useful medicinally and as a flavor. 
But Pliny (XIII, 2) distinguishes between "Syrian calamus" and 
"Syrian sweet-rush," both components of the Parthian "regal oint- 
ment;" so that sweet-rush may rather have been Andropogon schcenan- 
thus, Linn. , order Graminea. An account of its production is given 
by Pliny (XII, 48), and of its medicinal properties (XXI, 70). That 
most highly esteemed, he says, came from near the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon in Egypt; the next best from Rhodes. It had an odor re- 
sembling that of nard; and aside from its use in perfumes and oint- 
ments, it was employed as a diuretic, and with wine and vinegar for 
throat ulcers, or in liniments for ulcerous sores generally. 

It is possible, also, that the kyperos of the text may have been the 
Egyptian papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Linn., order Cyperacea); used, 
according to Pliny (XIII, 21-2) for boat-building, sails and mats, 
cloths, coverlets and ropes, and the roots for fuel. He notes it as a 
product of Syria, growing in conjunction with the sweet calamus, and 
much favored by King Antiochus for cordage for his navy, instead of 
spartum, which was preferred by the Romans. Again (XXXIII, 
30) he says papyrus was used for smelting copper and iron, being 
favored next to pine wood. 


The suggestion in the text is, however, for an aromatic rather 
than cordage or fuel, so that Andropogon schoenanthus is the more prob- 
able identification. 

McCrindle's suggestions of turmeric (^Curcuma longa, Linn., order 
Zingiheracea) and galangal {Alpinia officinarum, Hance, order Zingi- 
beraceic) are not borne out by Pliny's descriptions; and these are both 
products of the Far East, while the text indicates an Egyptian or 
Mediterranean product. 

24. Fragrant ointments. — Pliny (XIII, 1) says that "lux- 
ury thought fit to mingle all known fragrant odors, and to make one 
single odor of the whole; hence the invention of ointments. The 
Persians use them extensively, and they quite soak themselves in it, 
and so, by an adventitious recommendation, counteract the bad odors 
which are produced by dirt." 

His account of the manufacture of ointments (XIII, 2) throws 
light on numerous articles of trade in his time. There were two 
principal components. They consisted of oils or juices, and solids: 
the former known as stymmata, the latter as hedysmata. A third ele- 
ment was the coloring matter, usually cinnabar or alkanet. Resin and 
gum were added to fix the odor. Among the stymmata were oil of 
roses, sweet-rush, sweet calamus, xylo-balsamum, myrtle, cypress, 
mastich, pomegranate-rind, saffron oil, lilies, fenugreek, myrrh, cassia, 
nard, and cinnamon. The hedysmata included amomum, nard, myrrh, 
balsam, costus, and marjoram. 

Myrrh used by itself, without oil, formed an ointment, but it was 
stacte only that must be used, for otherwise it would be too bitter. 

The formula of the regal ointment," made for the Parthian 
Kings, included myrobalanus, costus, amomum, cinnamon, comacum, 
cardamom, spikenard, marum, myrrh, cassia, storax, ladanum, opo- 
balsamum, Syrian calamus and Syrian sweet-rush, cenanthe, malabath- 
rum, serichatum, cypress, aspralathus, panax, saffron, cypirus, sweet 
marjoram, lotus, honey and wine. 

The Mendesian ointment included resin and myrrh, oil of bala- 
nus, metopion (Egyptian oil of bitter almonds), omphacium, carda- 
mom, sweet-rush, honey, wine, myrrh, seed of balsamum, galbanum, 
and resin of terebinth. 

Another included oils (the common kinds), sampsuchum, lilies, 
fenugreek, myrrh, cassia, nard, sweet-rush, and cinnamon. 

24. Myrrh, — a gum exuded from the bark of a small tree, native 
in South Arabia, and to some extent in Oman, and the Somali coast 
of Africa; classified as Bahamodendron Myrrha (Nees), or Commiphora 
Ahyssinica (Engl. ), order Burseracea. It forms the underwood of 


forests of acacia, moringa, and euphorbia. From earliest times it has 
been, together with frankincense, a constituent of incense, perfumes, 
and ointments. It was an ingredient of the Hebrew anointing oil 
(Exod. XXX), and was also one of the numerous components of the 
celebrated kyphi of the Egyptians, a preparation used in fumigations, 
medicine, and embalming. It was the object of numerous trading 
expeditions of the Egyptian kings to the Land of Punt. " A monu- 
ment of Sahure, 28th century B. C. , records receipts of 80,000 
measures of myrrh from Punt. The expedition of Hatshepsut f 15th 
century B. C. ) again records myrrh as the most important cargo; its 
list of the marvels of the country of Punt" was as follows: All 
goodly fragrant woods of God's Land, heaps of myrrh-resin, fresh 
myrrh trees, ebony, pure ivory, green gold of Emu, cinnamon wood, 
khesyt wood, ihmut incense, sonter incense, eye cosmetic, apes, 
monkeys, dogs, skins of southern panther, natives and their children. 
The inscription adds: "Never was brought the like of this for any 
king who has been since the beginning. " (Breasted, Ancient Records 
of Egypt, II, 109; Flilckiger and Hanbury, op. cit., 140-6.) 

Pliny (XII, 35) gives a clear account of the gathering of the 
gum : ' 'Incisions are made in the myrrh-tree twice a year, and at the 
same season as in the incense-tree; but in the case of the myrrh-tree 
they are made all the way up from the root as far as the branches 
which are able to bear it. The tree spontaneously exudes, before the 
incision is made, a liquid which bears the name of stacte {stazo, to 
drop) and to which there is no myrrh that is superior. Second only 
in quality to this is the cultivated myrrh; of the wild or forest kind, 
the best is that which is gathered in summer." 

Stacte, he says, sold as high as 40 denarii the pound; cultivated 
myrrh, at a maximum of 11 denarii; Erythraean at 16, and odoraria 
at 14. And he continues: "They give no tithes of myrrh to the god, 
because it is the produce of other countries as well; but the growers 
pay the fourth part of it to the king of the Gebanitae. Myrrh is 
bought up indiscriminately by the common people and then packed 
into bags; but our perfumers separate it without any diiBculty, the 
principal tests of its goodness being its unctuousness and its aromatic 

"There are several kinds of myrrh: the first among the wild 
myrrhs is the Troglodytic ; and the next are the Minaean, which in- 
cludes the aromatic, and that of Ausaritis, in the kingdom of the 
Gebanita. A third kind is the Dianitic, and a fourth is the mixed 
myrrh or collatitia . a fifth again is the Sambracenian, which is 

brought from a city in the kingdom of the Sabaei, near the sea; and a 


sixth is known by the name of Ausaritic. There is a white myrrh 
also which is produced in only one spot, and is carried for sale to the 
city of Messalum." (This is the same as the port of Masala or 
Muza. See Glaser, Ski%z£, 138. ,) 

The name myrrh is from the Hebrew and Arabic mur, meaning 
' 'bitter. ' ' The ancient Egyptian word was bola or hal, and the San- 
scrit was vola. The modern Persian and Indian call it bol or bola. 

24. Gebanite-Minaean stacte. — The text is corrupt, having 

gabeirminaia : Miiller and Fab ricius alter this to "Abiraea and Minaea, " 
which appear in Sprenger's map of Arabia, but not in the myrrh dis- 
trict. Stacte has already been described as the gum yielded by natural 
exudation from wild trees, as distinguished from that coming from 
incisions on trees either wild or cultivated; while the qualifying ad- 
jective can hardly be other than Gebanite-Minaean, which was among 
the best varieties in Pliny's classification. (See also Glaser, Ski%ze, 
88-9. ) 

24. Alabaster. — Pliny (XIII, 3), says, "Ointments keep best 
in boxes of alabaster, and perfumes when mixed with oil, which con- 
duces all the more to their durability the thicker it is, such as the oil 
of almonds, for instance. Ointments, too, improve with age; but 
the sun is apt to spoil them, for which reason they are usually stowed 
away in a shady place in vessels of lead." (See also Pliny, XXXVI, 
12; Mark, XIV, 7; John, XII, 3. ) 

24. Avalites and the far-side coast. — The text is corrupt, 
having Adulh; Fabricius translates aus dem gegeniiber gelegenen 
Adulis. ' ' But Adulis was not opposite Muza, its exports were quite 
different, and it is not mentioned that they went to Muza. The rela- 
tions of Habash and Himyar, at the date of the Periplus, were not 
those of friendly commerce, and Adulis was distinctly an Egyptian 
trading-station. On the other hand, the text describes, in § 7, the 
articles carried by the Berbers from Avalites to Ocelis and Muza for 
sale there; to which this passage refers as already mentioned." 
We must conclude, therefore, that the scribe copied "Adulis" 
instead of Avalites," which was what our author wrote. 

25. A narrow strait. — This is, of course, the strait of Bab- 
el-Mandeb, or "Gate of Tears" (12° 35' N., 43° 12' E. j, so called 
because of its treacherous winds and currents. 

25. The island Diodorus is the modern Perim (12° 38' N., 
43° 18' E.). 

25. Ocelis is the Acila of Strabo, Artemidorus and Pliny; the 
name surviving in the modern Cella. Forster traces in this name the 


tribe of Uzal, son of Joktan (Genesis X, 27) with whom he also 
connects Ausar (Ausal or Ausan) in the Frankincense Country — 
which survives in the modern Ras el Sair. This is the district which 
at onetime held the 'Ausanitic coast" near Zanzibar, as stated in 
§15. The ancient city of Uzal is the modern Sanaa. 

Ocelis is identified by Glaser with a bay on the northern side of 
the promontory of Sheikh Sa'id (12° 48' N., 43° 28' E. ), a volcanic 
formation which juts out from the Arabian shore and is separated by 
a narrow channel from the island of Perim. He notes the probability 
that Indian ships were permitted to go no further than this place, 
whence their cargoes went by land to Muza. The text says merely 
that it was not a market-town, but the first landing for those sailing 
into the gulf;" but Pliny (VI, 104) states on the authority of Onesi- 
critus, that Ocelis was the most convenient port for those coming 
from India. He mentions two other ports, Muza (Masala) and 
Cana, which were not frequented by Indian travellers, but were only 
for the merchants dealing in frankincense and Arabian spices. 

26. Eudaemon Arabia is the modem Aden (12° 48' N., 
45° 0' E. ), from very early times an important trade center, where 
goods from the east were trans-shipped for the Mediterranean markets. 
It was, probably, the Eden of Ezekiel XXVII, 3, and the chief port 
of the Minaean and Sabaean dynasties. While temporarily in eclipse 
under the Homerite kings, it had regained its position by the 4th cen- 
tury A. D. when Constantius negotiated for a church to be built there; 
and the Arabian geographers and Marco Polo refer to its activities in 
terms almost as glowing as those of Agatharchides. 

The Periplus gives the port the name of the entire district; 
Eudamon like Felix, being an attempt at translating Yemen, the country 
to the right hand' ' (as one faces the east) ; the Arabic, hke the Greek 
and Latin, attaching the idea of good fortune to the fight hand. Eden 
had the same significance, of good fortune. 

26. Charibael destroyed the place. — The text is corrupt, 
having Casar. It is quite certain that no Roman emperor attacked 
this place during the 1st century, and the title is equally suspicious, 
our author having more correctly referred to his sovereign, in § 2,^, 
as autokrator. Miiller and Fabricius substitute Elisor, retaining the 
second syllable of the word, and suppose him to have been a king of 
the Frankincense Country. But Schwanbeck {Rheinischen Museum 
fur Philologie, VII. Jahrgang, 1850) prefers Charibael, and Glaser sup- 
ports him by proving that Eleazus, and not EUsar, was the name of 
the king mentioned in § 27. 

The indications are against a westward movement by the mon- 


arch at Sabbatha; his outlook was in the other direction. The Peri- 
plus indicates his control of the fertile frankincense valleys far beyond 
the account of Strabo, who knew Chatramotitis as a producer of myrrh 
only; this movement followed the Habash migration. The Chatra- 
motitae had, it is true, to cope with an alliance of Homerites and Per- 
sians which ultimately pressed them on either side and engulfed them; 
but this was in a later century. Saphar and Sabbatha were not yet 
beyond the period of expansion within their respective spheres. 
From the Red Sea to the summits of the Arabian Alps was that of the 
former; the Wadi Hadramaut, on the eastern slope, that of the latter. 
Between the two lay precipitous mountains. Topography and history 
alike discredit an attack upon Aden by the Chatramotitas. 

But in the alliance of Muza with Saphar we have the motive for 
the destruction of Aden. The foreign trade was centered at the 
Homerite port, and Cholaebus gained for his merchants the rights 
which those of Aden had enjoyed under the Sabasan kings. The loss 
was not great; Ibn Khaldun (Kay's edition, p. 158) tells us that the 
city was built mostly of reeds, so that conflagrations by night were 
common there. It involved hardly more than the discontinuance of 
an annual fair, as described in the account by Lieut. Cruttenden at 
Berbera, quoted under § 14. 

11 . Cana may be identified with Hisn Ghorab ( 14° 10' N., 
48° 20' E. ), a fine harbor, protected from all winds by projecting 
capes on either side and by islands in the offing, as described in the 
text. Here are numerous ruins and one famous Himyaritic inscrip- 
tion, of which a version is given by Forster. The "Island of Birds" 
is described by Miiller as 450 feet high, covered with guano, and thus 
has its name from the same cause as the promontory Hisn Ghorab 
(Raven Castle). The modern town is called Bir AH. 

Fabricius (pp. 141-2), following Sprenger and Ritter, locates 
Cana slightly farther west, at Ba-l-Haf. This seems not to accord 
with the text, which says the port was "just beyond the cape pro- 
jecting from this bay," while Ba-I-Haf would be "just before." The 
identification depends too literally on the stated distance of the islands 
and fails to take into account that they are described as "facing the 
port." This is true of Hisn Ghorab and not of Ba-l-Haf. 

MiiUer (p. 278) and Glaser {Ski%%e, pp. 174-5) support the 
Hisn Ghorab location by comparison of the distances given by Ptolemy 
(VI, 7, 10) between his Kane emporion and the neighboring ports. 

From Hisn Ghorab the way to the interior leads up the Wadi 
Maifa, which empties into the ocean a short distance to the east. 


The Cana of the Periplus is probably the same as the Canneh of 
Ezekiel XXYU, 23. 

The trade which it formerly enjoyed passes now through the port 
of Makalla, some distance to the east, and the capital of the country 
has shifted in like manner eastward to the modern city of Shibam. 

27. Eleazus, King of the Frankincense Country— This 

is the Arabic Ili-azzu, "my God is mighty," a name which Glaser 
shows to have belonged to several kings of the Hadramaut; and this 
Eleazus he identifies with Ili-azzu Jalit, of whose reign, dating about 
25-65 A. D., he gives an inscription (Die Jbessinier, 34, etc.). 

The name given the kingdom, "Frankincense Country," is 
notable, being a translation of the "Incense-Land" of the Habashat, 
or Aethiopians, already mentioned. This ancient object of contention 
among the nations was now divided between Hadramaut and Parthia, 
and its name was, apparently, assumed by the king of the Hadramaut; 
perhaps officially, but certainly by the popular voice, and by merchants 
such as the author of the Periplus, interested in the product of the 
country and not in its politics. 

A glance at the topography of this Incense-Land will help toward 
an understanding of its dealings with its neighbors. The southern 
coast of Arabia from Bab el Mandeb to Ras el Hadd has a length of 
about 1200 miles, divided almost equally in climatic conditions. The 
western half is largely sandstone bluff, sun-scorched and arid; cut, 
however, by occasional ravines which bring down scanty rains during 
the monsoon to fertilize a broad strip of coast plain. On the western 
edge the mountains of Yemen, rising above 10,000 feet, attract a 
good rainfall which waters the western slope toward the Red Sea. 
On the eastern slope the water-courses are soon lost in the sand, 
but on the upper levels the valleys are protected and fertile. Such 
were the Nejran, the Minaean Jauf, and the valley of the Sabaeans, 
which last was made rich by the great dam that stored its waters for 
irrigation; and these three valleys, the centers of caravan-trade bound 
north toward the Nile and Euphrates, owed their prosperity mainly to 
their position above the greatest of all the east-flowing courses, the 
Valley of Hadramaut. This great cleft in the sandstone rock, (origin- 
ally. Bent believes an arm of the sea, now silted up), which gathers 
the streams from the highest peaks, runs parallel with the coast 
for more than 200 miles, fertile and productive for nearly the entire 
distance; then it turns to the south and its waters are lost, the mouth 
of the valley being desert like the cliffs that line its course. This was 
one of the best frankincense districts. 

Beyond the mouth of the Wadi Hadramaut \i Ras laitak, nearly 


north of Cape Guardafui. Here the climate changes; the monsoon, 
no longer checked by the African coast, leaves its effect on the coastal 
hills, which gradually rise above 4000 feet, clothed with tropical 
vegetation; while the coast plains are narrowr and broken. The north- 
ern slopes of these mountains (known to our author as Asich, § 33) 
feed the water-course now known as the Wadi Rekot, about 100 miles 
long, which enipties into the Kuria Muria Bay; beyond which are 
fertile coast plains as far as Ras el Hadd. These mountains, and 
the Dhofar and Jenaba districts, facing which lie the Kuria Muria 
islands, were the oldest and perhaps the most productive of the frank- 
incense districts of Arabia; and it was always the ambition of the 
various powers of that region to extend their rule so as to include the 
Dhofar mountains, the Hadramaut valley, and the opposite Somali 
coast of Africa — thus controlling the production and commanding the 
price; in short, forming a frankincense trust." The restricted area 
of the Arabian incense-lands, bordered as they were by the steppe and 
the 'desert, made them constantly subject to attack and control by 
different wandering tribes; while at the same time their local con- 
ditions, of intensive cultivation of a controlled product of great and 
constant value, made for a peculiarly ordered state of society — for a 
development of caste unusual in Semitic lands, and in which the cul- 
tivator, the warrior, and the privileged slave, had their place in the 
order given. 

Of the age-long struggle for control of these sacred lands we 
know today little more than the Greek writers of two thousand years 
ago. The modern world takes its little supply of frankincense from 
the Arab vessels that carry it to Bombay or Aden; its armies are sent 
to the conquest or defence of lands in other lines of productivity — of 
a Kimberley, a Witwatersrand, a Manchuria. But to the ancient 
world the Incense-Land was a true Eldorado, sought by the great 
empires and fought for by every Arab tribe that managed to enrich 
itself by trading incense for temple-service on the Nile or Euphrates, 
on Mount Zion, or in Persia, India, or China. The archaeological 
expedition that shall finally succeed in penetrating these forbidden 
regions, and recovering the records of their past, cannot fail to add 
greatly to our store of knowledge of the surrounding civilizations, by 
showing the complement to such records as those of Hatshepsut in 
Egypt and Tiglath-Pileser III in Assyria, and by giving the groundwork 
for the treasured scraps of information preserved by Herodotus, Theo- 
phrastus, Eratosthenes, Agatharchides, Strabo, Pliny, and Pto!em\ . 
At present we must be satisfied with such knowledge of the Incense- 
Land as may be had from these, and from inscriptions found by 


Halevy and Glaser in the homes of its neighbors, the Alinaans and 

During the 2d and 1st centuries B. C, the greater part of the 
Incense-Land was held by the Incense-People, the Aethiopians or 
Habashat. Pressure by the Parthians on the East forced an alliance, 
of w hich Glaser found the record at Marib, between the Habashat, 
Hadramaut and Saba on one hand, against Himyar and Raidan on the 
other. This was not far from 50 B. C. Soon afterwards we find 
the Habashat gone into their African outposts, and Marib ruled by 
Kings of Saba and Raidan;" while after a couple of generations 
more the Periplus shows us a Homerite king who rules also over Saba 
and Raidan and the East African coast; and a king of the Hadramaut 
whose title is expanded to "King of the Frankincense Country," and 
whose rule extends over the islands of Kuria Muria, Socotra and 
Masira, all former dependencies of the Habashat. 

By the 4th century A. D. the kings at Zafar had absorbed the 
whole, being known as "Kings of Saba, Raidan, Hadramaut and Yem- 
en;" while the Abyssinian kings, who regained a foothold in Arabia 
during that century, were known as "Kings of Axum, Himyar, Rai- 
dan, Habashat, Saba, ' ' etc. 

The name Hadramaut," the Hazarmaveth of Genesis X, means 
Enclosure of Death," referring probably to the crater of Bir Barhut, 
whose rumblings were held to be the groans of lost souls (^V. Rob- 
ertson Smith : Religion of the Semites, p. 134, and authorities there qjoted). 
(See Wellsted: Narrative of a Journey to the Ruins of Nakeb cl 
Hajar, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, VII, 20; H. von 
Maltzan: Reisen in Arabien, Braunschweig, 1873; L. W. C. \"an den 
Berg : Le Hadramaut et les Colonies Arabes dans I' Archipel Indien, Ba- 
tavia, 1886; J. Theodore Bent: The Hadramaut, u Journey, Nine- 
teenth Century, 1894; Expedition to the Hadramaut, Geographical 
Journal, IV, 313; L. Hirsch: Reisen in Sild-Arabien, AInhra-lMnd 
und Had/iramut, Leiden, 1897 ; the works already cited of Glaser, 
Hommel, Weber, Hogarth, and Zwemer; and the Austrian Expedi- 
tion Reports. ) 

27. Sabbatha. — The native name of this capital of the Chatra- 
motitae was Shabwa. It lies in the Wadi Rakhiya, some distance 
above the Wadi Hadramaut, and about 60 miles west of the present 
capital, Shibam. According to Bent {Geographical Journal, IV, 413: 
1894) it is now deserted, save for a few Beduins, who work the salt 
mines in the vicinity; while the natives are now all in the lower 
Hadramaut valley. 


This is the Sabota of Pliny (VI, 32) "with sixty temples within 
its walls. 

27 Frankincense, one of the most ancient and precious 
articles of commerce, is a resin exuded from various species of Bos- 
wellia, order Burseracea, native in Somaliland and South Arabia. 
Birdwood (Trans. Linn. Soc. , XXVII, 1871), distinguishes particu- 
larly B. Frereana, B. Bhau-Dajiana (the mocrotu of § 9), and B. Car- 
terii, the last-named yielding the best incense. B. thur'tfera, native in 
India, yields a resin of less fragrance, much used as an adulterant. 
Irankincense is thus closely allied to myrrh, bdellium, and benzoin. 

The Greek word is libanos, from Hebrew lebonah, Arabic luban, 
meaning white"; cf. laben, the Somali word for cream, and "milk- 
perfume, '" which is the Chinese term for frankincense. Marco Polo 
always calls it white incense." 

Another Hebrew name was shekheleth, Ethiopic sekhin, which 
Hommel would connect with the ' Bay of Sachalites" of § 29. 

Frankincense trees, frnm the Punt Reliefs in the Deir el Bahri temple at Thebes; 
dating- from the 15th century B. C. After Naville. 

The inscriptions of the early Egyptian dynasties contain, as we 
might expect, few references to the trade in incense, which was 
brought overland to the upper Nile by the "people of Punt and God's 
Land' ' and not sought out by the Pharaohs. That incense was in 
use is sufficiently clear from the early ritual. The expedition to the 


Incense-Land under Sahure, in the Vth dynasty (28th century B. C.) 
was a notable exception. In the Vlth dynasty, under Pepi II (26th 
century B. C), a royal officer Sebni, sent to the Tigre highlands, 
records how he "descended to Wawat and Uthek, and sent on the 
royal attendant Iri, with tWo others, bearing incense, clothing (probably 
cotton), one tusk, and one hide" (as specimens). In the XItu dy- 
nasty, under Mentuhotep IV (21st century B. C), a record of the 
completion of a royal sarcophagus states that "Cattle were slaugh- 
tered, goats were slain, incense was put on the fire. Behold, an army 
of 3000 sailors of the nomes of the Northland (Delta of the Nile) 
followed it in safety to Egypt." And in the Xllth dynasty, under 
Amenemhet I (20th century B. C. ), another royal officer named Intef 
was sent for stone to Hammamat along what was, in the time of the 
Periplus, the caravan-route from Coptos to Berenice. He sought 
for it eight days without success, then prostrated himself "to Min, to 

Mut, to Great-in-Magic, and-all the gods of this highland, giving 

to them incense upon the fire. . Then all scattered in search, 
and I found it, and the entire army was praising, it rejoiced with obei- 
sance; I gave praise to Montu." 

Then followed a period of disorder and Arabian domination in 
Egypt, during which Arab merchants controlled the trade. This was 
the condition described in Genesis XXXVII, 25, when "a traveling 
company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing 
spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.'' It 
was ended by a native reaction under the great Pharaohs of the 
X\'IIIth or Theban dynasty, under whom the land increased in power in 
all directions. These monarchs were not content to remain in com- 
mercial dependence upon Arabia, but organized great fleets which went 
to the "Land of Punt" each season and brought back unprecedented 
treasure. This land in former times, according to the Deir el Bahri 
reliefs, "the people knevy not; it was heard of from mouth to mouth 
by hearsay of the ancestors. The marvels brought thence under thy 
fathers, the kings of Lower Egypt, were brought from one to another, 
and since the time of the ancestors of the kings of Upper Egypt, who 
were of old, as a return for many payments; none reaching them 
except thy carriers. " But Amon-Re, so the inscription continues, 
led the Egyptian army by land and sea, until it came to the Incense- 
Lan^. and brought back great store of myrrh, ebony and ivory, gold, 
cinnamon, incense, eye-paint, apes, monkeys, dogs, panther-skins, 
natives and their children. "Never was brought the like of this for 
any king who has been since the beginning." Incense -trees were 
planted in the court of the temple; "heaven and earth are flooded 


with incense; odors are in the Great House," and the heart of Anion 
was made glad. 

Then followed a series of campaigns in Syria, resulting in the 
submission of that country, and annual remittances of great quantities 
of Arabian and Eastern treasure — incense, oil, grain, wine, gold and 
silver, precious stones — while even the Chief of Shinar" at Babylon 
sent gifts of lapis lazuli, and the "Genabti" of the Incense-Land 
came direct, offering their tribute. The sudden opulence of the 
Theban dynast\' made possible a great enrichment in the worship of 
Amon, and the setting aside of enormous endowments for the tem- 
ples, as well as annual gifts of princely value. So Rameses II, of the 
XlXth dynasty ( 1292-1225 B. C. j, "founded for his father offerings 
forhisi-a — wine, incense, all fruit, cultivated trees, growing for him;" 
while the court responded that Rameses himself was "the god of all 
people, that they may awake, to give to thee incense." His successor 
Merneptah was bidden by the AU^Lord to set free multitudes who 
are bound in every district, to give offerings to the temples, to send 
in incense before the god." And in the XXth dynasty, under Ra- 
meses III (1198-1167 B. C. ), it seemed as if the resources of the 
nation were poured bodily into the lap of Amon. The god opened 
for the Pharaoh the ways of Punt, with myrrh and incense for thy 
serpent diadem;" the Sand-Dwellers came bowing down to thy 
name" And in the Pa/ijrz/j ii/<7rr/,f, that great record of his gifts and 
endowments to Amon, compiled for his tomb, there are such entries 
every year as ' gold, silver, lapis lazuli, malachite, precious stones, 
copper, garments oT royal linen, jars, fowl; myrrh, 21,140 deben, 
white incense 2,159 jars, cinnamon 246 measures, incense 304,093 
various measures;" stored of necessity, in a special Incense House.' ' 
(The quotations are from Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt.) 
At this time the Hebrews ended their servitude in Egypt and 
migrated to Palestine ; and naturally among them also frankincense 
was counted holy. The sacred incense of the priests (Exod. XXX, 
34-5) was composed of sweet spices, stacte, onycha, galbanum, with 
pure frankincense; of each a like weight a perfume pure 

and holy. ' And when any will offer a meat offering (Levit. II, 
1-3) it shall be of fine flavor, and he shall pour oil upon it, and put 
frankincense thereon and the priest shall burn the memorial 

upon the altar, to be an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto 
the Lord." There were special rooms in the temple at Jerusalem 
for storing it under priestly guard 'I Chron. IX, 26-30); and later, 
when one of these rooms was occupied as a dwelling, it was con- 
sidered a sacrilege (Nehemiah XIII, 4-9j. The trade in the days of 


Israel's prosperity was important: Who is this that cometh out of 
the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frank- 
incense, with all powders of the merchant?" (Song of Solomon III, 
6.) "The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of 
Midian and Ephah : all they from Sheba shall come ; they shall bring 
gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the Lord." 
(Isaiah LX, 6.) And the Queen of Sheba "gave the king an hun- 
dred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices a very great store, and 
precious stones; there came no more such abundance of spices as 
these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon." (1 Kings 
X, 10.) 

The Nimrud Inscription of the great Assyrian monarch Tiglath- 
Pileser III, tells how ' 'fear of the brilliance of Ashur, my lord, over- 
came Merodach-baladan, of Yakin, King of the Sea-Country," and 
how he came and made submission, bringing as tribute ' gold — the 
dust of his land — in abundance, vessels of gold, necklaces of gold, 
precious stones, the product of the sea (pearls.'), beams of ushu-wooA, 
ellutu-vfoo6., party-colored clothing, spices of all kinds." 

In the Persian empire frankincense was equally treasured. Hero- 
dotus tells us that the Arabs brought a tribute of 1000 talents' weight 
every year to Darius (III, 97), and that a similar quantity was burnt 
every year by the Chaldaeans on their great altar to Bel at Babylon 
(I, 183). From the spoils of Gaza in Syria, 500 talents' weight of 
frankincense was sent by Alexander the Great to his tutor Leonidas 
(Plutarch, Lives') who had rebuked him for loading the Macedonian 
altars too lavishly, remarking that he must be more economical until 
he had conquered the countries that produced the frankincense ! 
(Pliny XII, 32.) The temple of Apollo in Miletus was presented 
with 10 talents' weight in 243 B. C. , by Seleucus II, King of Syria, 
and his brother Antiochus Hierax, King of Cilicia. The temple of 
Venus af Paphos was fragrant with frankincense : 

"Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit, sedesque revisit 
Laeta suas ubi templum illi, centumque Sabseo 
Ture calent arae sertisque recentibus halant." 

— Virgil, Jeneid, I, 416. 

And to the infant Saviour in Bethlehem came "three wise men 
from the east, with gifts, — gold, frankincense, and myrrh" (Matt. II, 
11), signifying, according to a Persian legend quoted by Yule, "the 
gold the kingship, the frankincense the divinity, the myrrh the healing 
powers of the Child." 


Likewise in funerals were its virtues required. The priests 
of Amon under the XVIIIth dynasty were instructed to be vigi- 
lant concerning your duty, be ye not careless concerning any of 
your rules; be ye pure, be ye clean concerning divine things . 
bring ye up for me that which came forth before, put on the gar- 
ments of my statues, consisting of linen ; offer ye to me of all fruit, 
give ye me shoulders of beef, fill ye for me the altar with milk, let 
incense be heaped thereon. " (Breasted, op. cit., II, 571.) They 
buried him in his own sepulchres and laid him in the bed which 

was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the 
apothecaries' art; and they made a very great burning for him." 
(II Chron. XVI, 14j. At the time of the Periplus this was par- 
ticularly the fashion in Rome, as Pliny observes with disapproval 
(VII, 42): — 

"It is the luxury which is displayed by man, even in the para- 
phernalia of death, that has rendered Arabia thus 'happy;" and 
which prompts him to bury with the dead what was originally under- 
stood to have been produced for the service of the gods. Those who 
are likely to be the best acquainted with the matter, assert that this 
country does not produce, in a whole year, so large a quantity of per- 
fumes as was burnt by the Emperor Nero at the funeral obsequies of 
his wife Poppaea. And then let us only take into account the vast 
number of funerals that are celebrated throughout the whole world 
each year, and the heaps of odors that are piled up in honor of the 
bodies of the dead; the vast quantities, too, that are offered to the 
gods in single grains; and yet, when men were in the habit of offer- 
ing up to them the salted cake, they did not show themselves any the 
less propitious; nay, rather, as the facts themselves prove, they were 
even more favorable to us then than they are now. How large a 
portion, too, I should like to know, of all these perfumes really comes 
to the gods of heaven, and the deities of the shades below.? " 

The customs ruling the gathering and shipment of frankincense 
are carefully described by Pliny (XII, 30), as follows: 

"There is no country in the world," (forgetting, however, 
the Somali peninsula), "that produces frankincense except Arabia, 
and indeed not the whole of that. Almost in the very center of 
that region are the Atramitae, a community of the Sabsi, the capital 
of whose kingdom is Sabota, a place situate on a lofty mountain. At 
a distance of eight stations from this is the incense-bearing region, 
known by the name of Saba {.Abasa'O. This district is inaccessible 
because of rocks on every side, while it is bounded on the right by 
the sea, from which it is shut out by tremendously high cliffs. 


The forests extend 20 schoeni in length and 10 schoeni in breadth. 
(A schcenus = 40 stadia = 4 English miles. ) 

Adjoining are the Minaei, a people of another community, 
through whose country is the sole transit for the frankincense, along a 
single narrow road. The Minaei were the first people who carried on 
any traffic in frankincense. It is the Sabaei alone, and no other 

people among the Arabians, that behold the incense- tree;* and not all 
of them, for not over 3000 families have a right to that privilege by 
hereditary succession; for this reason these persons are called sacred, 
and are not allowed, while pruning the trees or gathering the harvest, 
to receive any pollution, either by intercourse with women or coming 
in contact with the dead; by these religious observances it is that the 
price of the commodity is so enhanced. 

"The natural vintage takes place about the rising of the Dog-star, 
a period when the heat is most intense; on which occasion they cut 
the tree where the bark appears to be the fullest of juice, and ex- 
tremely thin, from being distended to the greatest extent. The in- 
cision thus made is gradually extended, but nothing is removed; the 
consequence of which is, that an unctuous foam oozes forth, which 
gradually coagulates and thickens. When the nature of the locality 
requires it, this juice is received upon mats of palm-leaves, though in 
some places the space around the tree is made hard by being well 
rammed down for the purpose. The frankincense that is gathered 
after the former method is in the purest state, though that which falls 
upon the ground is the heaviest in weight. 

"The forest is allotted in certain portions, and such is the mutual 
probity of the owners, that it is quite safe from all depredation; indeed, 
there is no one left to watch the tree after the incisions are made, and 
yet no one is ever known to plunder his neighbor. But, by Hercules! 
at Alexandria, where the incense is dressed for sale, the workshops 
can never be guarded with sufficient care; a seal is even placed upon 
the workmen's aprons and a mask put upon the head, or else a net 
with very close meshes, while the people are stripped naked before 
they are allowed to leave work. So true it is that punishments afford 
less security among us than is to be found by these Arabians amid 
their woods and forests! 

"The incense which has accumulated during the summer is gath- 

*Cf. Virgil, Georf(ia II, 116-117: 

Divisae arboribus patriae. Sola India nigrum 
Fert ebenum, .solis est turea virga Sabseis. 

And again, I, 57: 

India mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabaei. 


ered in the autumn; it is the purest of all, and is of a white color. 
The second gathering takes place in the spring, incisions being made 
in the bark for that purpose during the winter; this, however, is of a 
red color, and not to be compared with the other incense.' ' 

And of the storage of all the incense of the country in the capital, 
Pliny gives a further account i XII, 32) ; 

"The incense after being collected, is carried on camels' backs 
to Sabota, of which place a single gate is left open for its admission. 
To de\ iate from the high road while carrying it, the laws have made 
a capital offense. At this place the priests take by measure, and not 
by weight, a tenth part in honor of their god, whom they call Sabis; 
indeed, it is not allowable to dispose of it before this has been done; 
out of this tenth the public expenses are defrayed, for the divinity 
generously entertains all those strangers who have made a certain 
number of days' journey in coming thither. The incense can only 
be exported through the country of the Gebanitae, and for this reason 
it is that a certain tax is paid to their king as well. 

"There are certain portions also of the frankincense which are 
given to the priests and king's secretaries: and in addition to these, 
the keepers of it, as well as the soldiers who guard it, the gate-keepers 
and various other employees, have their share as well. And then be- 
sides, all along the route, there is at one place water to pay for, at 
another fodder, lodging of the stations and various taxes and imposts 
besides; the consequence of which is, that the expense for each 
camel before it arrives at the shores of our sea fthe Mediterranean) 
is 688 denarii; after all this, too, there are certain payments still to 
be made to the farmers of the revenue of our empire. 

Hence a pound of the best incense sells at 6 denarii, of the 
second quality at 5, and of the third quality at 3 denarii." 

27. To Cana on rafts. — This was the Dhofar, or "Sacha- 
litic" frankincense, as distinguished from that of the Hadramaut 
valley, which would naturally go by camel direct to Sabbatha. Pliny 
(VI, 34) doubts the story of the inflated rafts, derived, he thinks, 
from a fancied resemblance to the name given the African tribe 
tribe using them — A settee ; the Greek word a^/^w meaning "bladder." 
But the Ascitae, as already shown, were from Asich (§ 33) and were 
the founders of Axum. And the inflated raft is authentic, being the 
well-known kelck, a type still in general use on the Euphrates, whence 
the migrating Arabs no doubt brought it to the south coast. This is 
probably, also, the cargo-ship" of § 33, sent from Cana to Masira 
Island for tortoise-shell. 


Inflated raft, from a relief at Nineveh. After Layard. 

27. The neighboring coast of Persia means that part of 
the South Arabian coast between Kuria Muria Bay and Ras el Hadd, 
which had recently been conquered by the Parthian Empire. The 
word Parthia" our author avoids, and it is likely that this coast 
did likewise, knowing rather the independent sphere of influence of 
the constituent Kingdom of Persia; which, while an integral part of 
the Arsacid possessions, maintained its local government to an extent 
never allowed the districts nearer- Ctesiphon. 

28. Imported into this place. — The list of imports indicates 
the nature of the trade : a little wheat, wine, and cheap clothing for 
the Hadramaut, and graven images for the household worship of its 
king; and the Mediterranean products, copper, tin, coral and storax, 
for re-shipment to India, where they were in demand (§ 49), and 
whither they went in Hadramaut shipping (§ 57), along with the 
frankincense produced in the country. The outlook of Hadramaut, 
then as now, was toward India by sea, and toward Egypt by land. 
Bent found the same conditions; the capital full of Parsee merchants, 
the natives going to India, the Straits and Java, and returning when 
they had amassed a competence; the English protectorate accepted 
because of England's domination of India, in the face of the religious 
convictions of rulers and people {^Geographical Journal, IV, 322). 
Maltzan described the Hadrami traders in Cairo as the keenest of the 
lot, and spoke of their activities in the East; while the Dutch gov- 
ernment, finding the islands of Java and Sumatra overrun with Ha- 
dramaut Arabs, stimulated inquiries of them in Batavia, which re- 
sulted in Van den Berg' s book on their country, comprising more 
details than Bent could gather on the spot! An enterprising and 
uncompromising people, these Chatramotitae, who may have been the 


active power in the Minaean dynasty and the Sabaean that followed it, 
both of whom subsisted mainly on the carriage of frankincense to the 
north, in which they were the mediators between the profane world 
and the unpolluted caste of those who were able by propitiating the 
spirit of the sacred tree, to shed and gather its blood for the purifica- 
tion of mankinJ. 

28. Coral. — This was the red coral of the Mediterranean, which 
commanded a high price in India and China, and was one of the 
principal Roman exports thither, being shipped to Barbaricum, Bary- 
gaza and Aluziris. (See §§ 39, 49, and 56. ) As an import at Cana 
it was intended for reshipment to India in Arab or Hindu bottoms. 

28. Storax in Roman times meant two different things: one, a 
solid, was the resin of Styrax officinalis, order Styracacece, somewhat 
resembling benzoin, and used in incense. Liquid storax was the sap 
of Liquidambar orientalis, order Hamamelidacea, nati\e in S. ^^^ Asia 
Minor, and exported, according to Fliickiger and Hanbury (^Pharma- 
cographia, pp. 271-6), as far as China. It was an expectorant and 
stimulant, useful in chronic bronchial affections. The Periplus does 
net distinguish between them, but Fluckiger thinks that the storax dealt 
in at Cana was the liquid storax, destined for India and China; which 
would have had little use for an incense of less value than their own. 

There was, however, a local use for storax in defending the frank- 
incense gatherers from the ' serpents" guarding the trees; see pp. 131-2. 

Hirth in his China and the Roman Orient quotes Chinese annals 
covering this period, which state that the Syrians collect all kinds of 
fragrant substances, the juice of which they boil into su-ho" — which 
he identifies with storax. Later annals, referring to the 6th century, 
are more complete. Storax is made by mixing and boiling the juice 
of various fragrant trees; it is not a natural product. It is further said 
that the inhabitants of Ta-ts'in (Syria) gather the storax (plant, or parts 
of itj, squeeze the juice out, and thus make a balsam {hsiang-kao) ; they 
then sell its dregs to the traders of other countries; it thus goes 
through many hands before reaching China, and, when arriving here, 
is not very fragrant. " 

These references indicate that the Chinese su-ho may not have 
been the product of one particular tree. 

Glaser notes the name su-ho, which the Chinese annals further 
state to have been the name of the country producing the storax, and 
connect with the city Li-kan, supposed to be the same as Rekam or 
Petra, which was a point of shipment. He compares this with the 
usu-vfooA mentioned in several Assyrian inscriptions a tribute received 
from Arabia, and with a city called Usuu, placed by Delitzsch south 


of Akko on the sea — but Glaser thinks it may have been farther north, 
near Tyre. 

28. Aloes, a bitter cathartic, being the dried juice exuded 
from Aloe Perryt, Baker, order LiliaceiE. This was from very early 
times an important article of commerce, and was produced almost 
entirely in Socotra. Another variety, less in demand, was from Aloe 
hepatica, native in South Arabia, particularly in the Hadramaut valley, 
but also as far as northern Oman. The failure of the Periplus to 
mention Socotrine aloes is surprising, unless the product of the island 
was monopolized in Cana. This is quite possible, as the island was 
subject to the Hadramaut. 

In modern times these and many other varieties are in use, both 
wild and cultivated, throughout the tropics. Bent {^Southern Arabia, 
p. 381) found very little aloes collected in Socotra, but many fields 
enclosed by walls, where it had formerly been produced. He de- 
scribes the ancient method still used to prepare the gum; the thick 
leaves piled up until the juice exudes of their own weight, then allowed 
to dry in the sun for six weeks and finally packed in skins for shipment. 

29. The Bay of Sachalites. — Until the Arabian coast was 
surveyed, there was an erroneous idea held by all the geographers, of 
a deep indentation in the coast-line between Ras el Kelb (14° 0' N., 
48° 45' E.) and Ras Hasik (17° 23' N., 55° 10' E.), midway be- 
tween which Ras Fartak, or Syagrus (14° 0' N., 52° 12' E. ) bisected 
the supposed gulf. The error is very evident in Ptolemy's observa- 
tions, which make Ras Fartak one of the most striking features of the 
coast, whereas its actual projection is unimportant, and its height less 
than that of the ranges farther east. 

The name as applied in § 29 seems to apply to this whole strip 
of coast; in § 32 that part of it lying east of Ras Fartak is subdivided 
as the district of Omana; but in § 33 the name is resumed. This 
accords with the Arabian geographers, whose Shehr extended beyond 

The word Sachalites is Hellenized from the Arabic Sahil, coast, " 
the same word that appears in East Africa as Sawahll, where the 
natives are called Swahili. This narrow strip of coast plain was dif- 
ferent topographically and ethnologically from the Valley of Hadra- 

The mediaeval form of the word was Sheher or Shehr, and the 
mediaeval port that replaced Cana was Es-shehr (the Escier of Marco 

Ibn Khaldun (Kay's translation, p. 180) has the following ac- 
count of this coast: "Ash-Shihr is, like Hijaz and Yaman, one of 


the kingdoms of the Arabian peninsula. It is separate from Hadra- 
maut and Oman. There is no cultivation, neither are there palm- 
trees in the country. The wealth of the inhabitants consists of camels 
and goats. Their food is flesh, preparations of milk and small fish, 
with which they also feed their beasts. The country is also known 
as that of Mahra, and the camels called Mahriyah camels are reared 
in it. Ash-Shihr is sometimes conjoined with Oman, but it is con- 
tiguous to Hadramaut, and it has been described as constituting the 
shores of that country. It produces frankincense, and on the seashore 
the Shihrite ambergris is found. The Indian Ocean extends along 
the south and on the north Hadramaut, as if Shihr were the sea-shore 
of the latter. Both are under one king. ' ' 

Hommel (in Hilprecht, op. cit. 700-1) argues for a derivation of 
this name from some word allied to the old Hebrew term for frankin- 
cense, shekheleth; which does not seem to have been in use on the 
south coast, while the evidence of the Arab writers is against him. (See 
also Glaser, Skizze, 178-9. ) The Periplus in § 32 is against him, 
by using the adjective &f^a/zftV as qualifying "frankincense," which 
would be quite redundant. 

Vaughn {,Pharm. Joum. XII, 1853) speaks of the Shaharree 
luhan from Arabia, as yielding higher prices than that produced in 
Africa; a term exactly corresponding to the Sachalitic frankincense" 
of the Periplus. 

29. Always fatal. — The reports of the unhealthy character of 
this coast, spread by the earliest traders, have been assumed to be their 
device to discourage competition. The fate of Niebuhr' s party in 
Yemen, and the more recent tragic outcome of Bent' s explorations, 
sufficiently confirm the dangers from malaria, dysentery and the scorch- 
ing sun. 

But aside from the question of physical health, the tapping of the 
frankincense tree was believed to be attended by special dangers, ex- 
pressed in the faith of the people, and arising from the supposed 
divinity of the tree itself. 

W Robertson Smith {Religion of the Semites, p. 427) recounts 
this belief as follows : 

"The religious value of incense was originally independent of 
animal sacrifice, for frankincense was the gum of a very holy species 
of tree, which was collected with religious precautions. Whether, 
therefore, the sacred odor was used in unguents or burned like an 
altar sacrifice, it appears to have owed its virtue, like the gum of the 
samora (acacia) tree, to the idea that it was the blood of an animate 
and divine plant." 


And again (p. 133) : In Hadramaut it is still dangerous to touch 
the sensitive mimosa, because the spirit that resides in the plant will 
avenge the injury. The same idea appears in the story of Harb b. 
Omajfya and Mirdas b. Abi Amir, historical persons who died a gen- 
eration before Mohammed. When these two men set fire to an un- 
trodden and tangled thicket, with the design to bring it under cultiva- 
tion, the demons of the place flew away with doleful cries in the shape 
of white serpents, and the intruders died soon afterwards. The Jinn 
it was believed slew them because they had set fire to their dwelling- 
place. Here the spirits of the trees take serpent form when they 
leave their natural seats, and similarly in Moslem superstition the jinn 
of the oshr and hamata are serpents which frequent trees of these 
species. But primarily supernatural life and power reside in the trees 
themselves, which are conceived as animate and even as rational 
Or again the value of the gum of the acacia as an amulet is connected 
with the idea that it is a clot of menstruous blood, i. e. , that the tree 
is a woman. And similarly the old Hebrew fables of trees that speak 
and act like human beings (Judg. IX, 8 ff. , 2 Kings XIV, 9) have 
their original source in the savage personification of vegetable species. ' ' 

The Romans and Greeks, it is well known, believed that the 
souls of the dead were incarnate in the bodies of serpents and revisited 
the earth in that form; hence, as Frazer has shown {Golden Bough, 
3d ed. , IV, 74), such practices as that described in the Baccha of 
Euripides, when nursing mothers entered the Dionysiac revels clad in 
deer-skins and girded with serpents, which they suckled. Hence, 
also, the Roman custom of keeping serpents in every household, and 
the serpent-worship connected with their god Aesculapius, to whose 
shrines, as well as to those of Adonis in Syria, childless women re- 
paired that they might be quickened by a dead saint, a. jinn, or by the 
god himself, in serpent form. Such was the belief concerning the 
births of Alexander of Macedon and the Emperor Augustus. 

Herodotus refers to this same belief in two passages (III, 107 
and II, 75) which have been laughed at as travellers' yarns. The 
Arabians gather frankincense," he says, "by burning styrax, which 
the Phcenicians import into Greece; for winged serpents, small in 
size and various in form, guard the trees that bear frankincense, a 
great number round each tree. These are the same serpents that in- 
vade Egypt. They are driven from the trees by nothing else but the 
smoke of the styrax." That is, the wrath of the incense-spirit was 
appeased by the perfume provided by the styrax-spirit. And every spring, 
he says, these winged serpents flew into Egypt through a narrow pass 
near Buto, where they were met by the ibis and defeated; hence the 


veneration for the ibis in Egypt. Here is evidently a belief that the 
tree-spirit hovered over its blood as the traders carried it to market, 
and that the danger that threatened the Egyptians was averted by the 
defensive power of their own sacred bird. The location of this Buto 
is disputed, but it was probably along some ancient desert trade-route 
such as that between Coptos and Berenice at the time of the Periplus. 
Buto was also the name of an Egyptian deity, borrowed from God' s 
Land" (Yemen;. 

Theophrastus has the same story of the tree guarded by winged 
serpents, but refers it to cinnamon {Hist. Plant., IX, 6). 

According to Herodotus, all the fragrant gums of Arabia were 
similarly guarded, except myrrh; which may suggest that myrrh was 
from a more purely Joktanite district, less imbued with the animism 
of the earlier races of Arabia. 

The same belief probably appears in the fiery flying serpents" 
of Isaiah XXX, 60. 

Medicinal waters were guarded by similar powers; a dragon 
sacred to Ares protected the sacred spring above Ismenian Apollo 
(Frazer, Pausanias, V, 43-5); while among the Arabs all medicinal 
waters were protected hy Jinns (W. Robertson Smith, op. «/.,168). 

The faith of the Incense-Land presents many features in com- 
mon with that of the Greeks. While Frazer is no doubt right in 
warning against indiscriminate assimilation of deities Greek, Egyptian 
and Semitic, there is certainly some truth in the words of Euripides' 
Bacchus (son of Jove and Semele, daughter of the Phoenician Cad- 
mus) who came to Greece having left the wealthy lands of the 
Lydians and Phrygians and the sun-parched plains of the Persians, 
and the Bactrian walls; and having come over the stormy land of the 
Medes, and t/ie happy Arabia, and all Asia which lies along the coast 
of the Salt Sea, there having established my mysteries" — and 

"every one of these foreign nations celebrates these orgies." 

According to Herodotus (III, 8 and I, 131), the only deities of 
the Incense-Land were Dionysus and Urania, whom they called 
Orotal and Ahlat; while the Semitic people of Meroe (II, 29) wor- 
shipped Zeus (Ammon) and Bacchus (Osiris) whom Glaser assimi- 
lates with the Katabanic gods 'Am and Uthirat {Punt und die Siidara- 
biichcn Reichc, 43 ). Now the invocations of Dionysus in the mys- 
teries were Evoe, Sabai, Bacchi, Hues, Attes, Attes, Hues!" and 
according to Cicero {De natura deorum, I, iii, 23) one of the names 
of Bacchus was Sabazjus; in whose mysteries at Alexandria, we are 
told by Clement ' Protrept. ii, 16) persons initiated had a serpent 
drawn through t'le bosom of their robes, and the reptile was identified 


with the god (Frazer, Golden Bough, IV, 76). Here seems to be 
some basis, at least, for identification of the god of the Incense-Land 
to whom Pliny gives the name Sabis; whom Glaser {Punt, etc., p. 
46) thinks identical with Shams, the Sabaean sun-god, and whose 
name appears also in the capital city, Sabota or Sabbatha (Shabwa). 

There is a suggestive similarity in the legions concerning the 
crater of Bir Barhut in the Hadramaut, and Aetna, on the top of 
which an ancient Latin poem describes the people offering incense to 
the celestial deities. Formerly, Frazer says, victims were sacrificed 
also, probably to appease the spirits who were supposed to dwell 

The Abyssinian Chronicle, tracing the descent of the monarchs 
of that people who migrated from the Incense -Land, heads the list 
with "Arwe the Serpent" (Salt, op. cit., p. 460). and Ludolfus in his 
Commentaries (III, 284) refers to the great dragon who lived at 
Axum,' ' said to have been burst asunder by the prayers of nine Chris- 
tian saints. (See also James Fergusson, Tree and Serpent IVorship; 
Plutarch, De hide et Ostride and De Defectu Oraculorum.^ 

30. Syagrus is unquestionably Ras Fartak, 15° 36' N., 52° 12' 
E. , a bluflf headland rising to a height of about 2500 feet, visible for 
many miles along the coast. This name, meaning wild boar" in 
Greek, is probably a corruption of the Arabic tribe-name saukar, plural 
saivakir, appearing also in Saukira Bay, and in the modern village of 
Saghar. This was an incense-gathering folk, whose name Pliny as- 
similates to the Greek for 'holy" — sacros, from sakr, the root-form 
of saukar. See Glaser, Siizze, 180. 

Yet the modern name Fartak, according to Forster {op. cit. 
II, 171), has the same meaning, "Wild Boar's Snout," the mediaeval 
Arabic geographers having possibly followed Ptolemy's nomenclature. 

30. Dioscorida, (nearer the Arabian coast than the African in 
point of population and language, if not in location as our author 
asserts), continues its name in the modern Socotra (12° 30' N. , 54° 
0' E. ) . Both forms are corruptions of the Sanscrit Dvipa Sukhadara, 
meaning "Island abode of bliss." Agatharchides refers to it as 
"Island of the Blest," a stopping-place for the voyagers between India 
and Arabia. How ancient the Hindu name maybe is unknown; the 
sense possibly antedates the language in which it is expressed. An 
Egyptian tale of the Xlllth Egyptian dynasty (18th century B. C. ), 
recounted by Golenischef ( Report of the Vth Congress of Oriental- 
ists, Berlin, 1881 ), speaks of it as "Island of the Genius, " Pa-anch, the 
home of the King of the Incense-Land; and in the "Genius" maybe 
recognized the^Vn^ or spirit of the sacred tree. There is good cause 


for believing that this is also the "Isle of the Blest," the farthest 
point reached by the wandering hero of that Babylonian Odyssey, the 
narrative of Gilgamesh; which joins to the story of a search over the 
known world for the soul of a departed friend, found in the end by 
•prayer offered to Nergal, god of the dead, the material record of an 
early migration around the shores of Arabia. The theory of this 
Cushite-Elamite migration, outlined by Glaser (Siizze, vol. II) is thus 
recounted by Hommel (^Ancient Hebrew Tradition, p. 39) : 

"Egyptian records furnish us with an important piece of ethno- 
logical evidence. From the Xllth dynasty (2200 B. C. .0 onwards 
a new race makes its appearance on the Egyptian horizon: the Kashi 
in Nubia. This name was originally applied to Elam (Babyl. kashu: 
cf. the KissiQi of Herodotus, the modern Khuzistan; cf. also Cutch 
and Kachh in India), and according to Hebrew translation, was 
afterwards given to various parts of central and southern Arabia; 
from this he argues that in very early times — prior to the 2d millen- 
nium B. C. — northeast Africa must have been colonized by the Elam- 
ites, wJio had to pass around Arabia on their way thither. This theory 
is supported by the fact that in the so-called Cushite languages of 
northeast Africa, such as the Galla, Somali, Beja, and other allied 
dialects, we find grammatical principles analogous to those of the early 
Egyptian and Semitic tongues combined with a totally dissimilar syn- 
tax presenting no analogy with that of the Semites or with any Negro 
tongue in Africa, but resembling closely the syntax of the Ural-altaic 
languages of Asia, to which . . . the Elamite language belongs. 
According to this view, the much-discussed Cushites (the Aethiopians 
of Homer and Herodotus) must originally have been Elamitic Kass- 
itcs, who were scattered over Arabia and found their way to Africa. 
It is interesting to note that the Bible calls Nimrod a son of Cush, and 
that the name Gilgamesh has an Elamitic termination. What the 
Nimrod epic tells us of his wanderings around Arabia must therefore 
be regarded as a legendary version of the historical migration of the 
Kassites from Elam into East Africa. Nimrod is merely a personifi- 
cation of the Elamitic race-element of which traces are still to be 
found both in Arabia and in Nubia." 

And in the same book, pp. 35-6, Hommel thus describes the 
references in the epic, which in its present form he dates at about 
2000 B. C. : 

"In the 9th canto we are told how he set out for the land of 
Mashu (central Arabia), the gate of which (the rocky pass formed by 
the cliffs of Aga and Salma), was guarded by legendary scorpion-men. 
(Hence perhaps the name "land of darkness" applied to Arabia in 


early Hebrew annals. ) For 12 miles the hero had to make his way 
through dense darkness; at length he came to an enclosed space by 
the sea-shore where dwelt the virgin goddess Sabitu; who tells hitn 
that no one since eternal days has ever crossed the sea, save Sha- 
mash, the hero. 

"Difficult is the crossing, and extremely dangerous the way, 

And closed are the Waters of Death which bolt its entrance; 

How, then, Gilgamesh, wilt thou cross the sea.'" 

But Gilgamesh is directed to Arad-Ea, the sailor of Per-napishtim, 
who is in the forest felling a cedar. Him he asks to ferry him across 
to the "Isle of the Blest." After cutting 120 timbers 60 cubits long 
(surely not "oars," as the translation has it, but rather logs for an 
inflated raft) and smearing them with pitch, 

"Then Gilgamesh and Arad-Ea embarked; ; 

The ship tossed to and fro while they were on their way. 
A journey of forty and five days they accomplished in three days, • 

And thus Arad-Ea arrived at the Waters of Death" — 

which may have been Bab el Mandeb, and at the "Isle of the Blest" 
where dwelt Shamash-Napishtim, great-grandfather of Gilgamesh. 

The island Pa-anch of the Egyptian tale is obviously the same as 
the incense-land Panchaia of Virgil {Georgics I, 213), and the tale 
itself indicates that Socotra was an important center of international 
trade not far from the time of Abraham. Here the occasional navies 
of Egypt met the peoples of Arabia and Africa and the traders of India, 
from the Gulf of Cambay and perhaps in greater numbers from the 
active ports in that ruined sea of past ages, the Rann of Cutch (the 
Eirinon of § 40); a condition not changed at the time of the Peri- 
plus, when the inhabitants were a "mixture of Arabs and Indians and 
Greeks," nor yet when Cosmas Indicopleustes visited the place, 
noting its conversion to Christianity, and observing that the Greek 
element was planted there by the Ptolemies. Marco Polo (III, 32) 
found still "a great deal of trade there, for many ships come from all 
quarters with goods to sell to the natives. A multitude of corsairs 
(called Bawarij, from Cutch and Gujarat) frequent the island; they 
come there and encamp and put up their plunder for sale; and this 
they do to good profit, for the Christians of the island purchase it 
knowing well that it is Saracen or Pagan gear." , 

The names Pa-anch and Panchaia Glaser would connect, as 
already noted, with such others as Pano and Opone, the land of Punt 
and the Puni or Phoenicians, whose sacred bird was likewise con- 
nected with Panchaia. Pliny gives the story (X, 2) : 

"The Phoenix, that famous bird of Arabia the size of an 

eagle, and has a brilliant golden plumage around the neck, while the 


rest of the body is of a purple color; except the tail, which is azure, 
with long feathers intermingled of a roseate hue; the throat is 
adorned with a crest, and the head with a tuft of feathers. It is 

sacred to the sun. . When old it builds a nest of cinnamon and 
sprigs of incense, which it fills with perfumes, and then lays its body 
upon them to die. From its bones and marrow there springs a small 
worm, which changes into a little bird ; the first thing that it does is 
to perform the obsequies of its predecessor, and to carry the nest 
entire to the City of the Sun near Panchaia, and there deposit it upon 
the altar of that divinity. The revolution of the great year is com- 
pleted with the life of this bird, and a new cycle comes round again 
with the same characteristics as the former one, in the seasons and 
appearance of the stars. 

SeyfEarth has supposed this to refer to the passage of Mercury ev ery 
625 years, and Glaser connects the legend with the hawk-faced 
Egyptian god Horus (Khor). Compare Job XXIX, 18: "Then I 
said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the PhcE- 
nix" (^Khor or Khot). The bird came from an Arabian land, hence 
his name from the people thereof; just as the Greeks gave the same 
name phoinix to the date-palm, native in that land; which may be 
assumed to have been the southern shore of the Persian Gulf, whence 
convulsions of nature, chmatic or political changes, drove its inhabit- 
ants in opposite directions, carrying their culture with them and dupli- 
cating Persian Gulf place-names continuously in the Mediterranean 
and Erythraean Seas. 

(See the introduction Ueber die l^ilker und Sprachen Afrikas in 
Lepsius' Nubische Grammatik; Glaser, Punt und die Sudarahischen 
R£iche, and the reports of the Austrian South Arabian Expedition. ) 

.30. Great lizards, of which the flesh is eaten. — These 

are probably laranus niloticus, family Varanida:, order Laeertilla, native 
throughout the African region, and attaining a length of more than 
five feet. Another species, V. salvator, while somewhat larger, seems 
to be native only in India and farther east. The flesh of all the Var- 
anidce, although offensive to the smell, is eaten by the natives, and 
considered equal to that of fowls. The name J'aranus is from the 
Arabic Ouaran, lizard; which by a mistaken resemblance to the Eng- 
lish warn" has been rendered into a popular Latin name. Monitor. 
{Cambridze Natural History, VIII, 542-5.) 

30. Tortoise. — It is uncertain what species are meant. The 
tortoise-shell of commerce is from Chelone imbricata, family Chelonida, 
the so-called hawks-bill" turtle, found in all tropical waters, but sel- 
dom reaching a length of more than thirty inches. This is a "true 


sea-tortoise," as our author puts it, but he goes on to describe a 
' 'mountain-tortoise, the largest and with the thickest shell," which may 
be Chelone my das, the green turtle" (also a sea-tortoise), but is more 
likely one of the gigantic land-tortoises (family Testudinida:) which ap- 
pear in many of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean; of which 
most are now extinct, {Testudo grandidieri only recently in Mada- 
gascar), while others, like T. gigantea and T. daudini, are still found 
in less frequented islands. The land-tortoise" and the "white- 
tortoise" may include several species of Cinyxis, Pyxis and Testudo. 
(See Cambridge Natural History, VIII, 364-387.) 

30. Cinnabar, that called Indian. — ( Dragon 's blood. ) The 
confusion between dragon's blood (the exudation of a dracaena) and 
our cinnabar (red sulphide of mercury) is of long standing, but less 
absurd than it seems at first sight. The story is given by Pliny 
(XXXIII, 38, and VIII, 12). The word kinnabari, he says, is 
properly the name given to the thick matter which issues from the 
dragon when crushed beneath the weight of the dying elephant, mixed 
with the blood of either animal. The occasions were the continual 
combats which were believed to take place between the two. 
The dragon was said to have a passion for elephant's blood; he 
twined himself around the elephant's trunk, fixed his teeth behind the 
ear, and drained all the blood at a draught; when the elephant fell 
dead to the ground, in his fall crushing the now intoxicated dragon. 
Any thick red earth was thus attributed to such combats, and given 
the name kinnabari. Originally red ochre (peroxide of iron J, was 
probably the principal earth so named. Later the Spanish quicksilver 
earth (red sulphide of mercury), was given the same name and pre- 
ferred as a pigment to the iron. Later, again, the exudations of 
Dracana cinnabari in Socotra and Dracana schizantha in Somaliland 
and Hadramaut (order Dracanece) , and Calamus draco m India (order 
Palmea), were given the name kinnabari. Being of similar texture 
and appearance, the confusion is not surprising, as the Romans had 
no knowledge of chemistry. 

Pliny noted errors made by physicians in his day, of prescribing 
the poisonous Spanish cinnabar instead of the Indian; and proposed 
a solution of the problem by calling the mercury earth minium, the 
ochre miltos, and the vegetable product kinnabari, but usage did not 
follow him. We now give the mercury earth the old Greek name 
for dragon's blood, and the dried juice we give the same name in 

Wellsted {Travels in Arabia, 1838, II, 450-1) noted the two 
varieties of Dracana, one of which had leaves the camels could eat, 


while the other was too bitter. Bent (^Southern Arabia, 379, 381, 387) 
gives a good description of this peculiar tree, with its thick, twisted 
trunk and foliage resembling an umbrella turned inside out. He notes 
that very little is now exported from Socotra, the cultivated product 
from Sumatra and South America having superseded it. The method 
of gathering is the simplest possible, the dried juice deing knocked 
ofl the tree into bags, and the nicely-broken drops fetch the best price. 

According to the Century Dictionary the word cinnabar is 'of 
eastern origin: cf. Persian ■zinjarf, xinjafr, = Hindu shangarf, cin- 
nabar. ' ' 

The bit of folk-lore quoted by Pliny confirms the Indian con- 
nections of Socotra. Combats with a dragon or serpent for possession 
of a sacred place, or for the relief of a suffering people, appear in all 
the Mediterranean countries; such were related of Apollo at the 
oracle of Delphi, of Adonis in Syria (perpetuated in the modern faith 
in St. George in the same locality), to say nothing of Marduk and 
Tiamat in the Babylonian creation-story. But in all these legends, 
held by Semitic people or borrowed from them, the contender is a 
hero or a god; while in Socotra it is an elephant. Pliny offers a ma- 
teriaUstic explanation, which is unconvincing because elephants are 
not found in Socotra or in the neighboring parts of Africa. It is evi- 
dently a local faith rather than a natural fact, and light may be thrown 
upon it by Bent's observation {^Southern Arabia, 'i79) that dragon's 
blood is still called in Socotra blood of two brothers. ' ' 

In the Mediterranean world this gum was used medicinally and 
as a dye; in India it had also ceremonial uses. One must refer, not to 
the Buddhism of the Kushan dynasty, apparently dominant as far south 
as the modern Bombay at the time of the Periplus, but rather to the 
earlier faith — Brahmanism overlaid upon nature-worship, then preva- 
lent among the Dravidian races farther south. The members of the 
Brahman triad were Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the creator, preserver, 
and destroyer; they were worshipped especially at a shrine on an 
island in Bombay harbor, called Elephanta (in constant connection 
commercially with the Gulf of Aden), and an elephant's head was 
the visible emblem of the sacred syllable AUM, representing the 
triad, which was pronounced at the beginning and the end of any 
reading of the sacred books, and had many mystic properties. The 
elephant signified more particularly the first person of the triad, Brahma 
the creator, while the dragon or serpent, in the form of the cobra,' 
represented Siva the destroyer; and these combats of Pliny, between 
an elephant and a dragon, the blood from which was called "blood 


of two brothers," seem to be a reflection of the perpetual conflict be- 
tween the first and third persons of the Hindu triad. 

It is notable that the Hindu name for Socotra appears likewise 
among the mysterious names of the seven manifestations of the power 
of AUM in their ritual: "Earth, Sky, Heaven, Middle Region, Place 
of Births, Abode of the Blest, Abode of Truth;" indicating that the 
island had its name from the Indian merchants who had "emigrated 
to carry on trade there" (§ 30), especially in this legendary gum of 
the dracaena, and suggesting that the name is as old as the Xlllth 
dynasty tale and the Gilgamesh epic. 

Another survival of Hindu influence seems to be the mateb or 
blue silk neck-cord, the badge of baptism in modern Abyssinian 
Christianity, which suggests, more than any Arab custom, the zennar 
or sacred cord of the Brahman priest. 

(See the references in J. G. Frazer's Pausanias and Golden Bough; 
Yo't^hyry, de Jnt. Nymph., 26%; Asiatic Researches, Y , Mi; Maurice, 
Indian Antiquities . ) 

30. Yields no fruit. — This must be understood as referring 
to agriculture; this island was particularly rich in natural products of 
commercial value. Aloes, dragon's blood and frankincense were all 
plentiful, also myrrh and other gums; but owing to the monopoly of 
the Chatramotitae these went to market at Cana. Bent found many 
evidences of this early trade, but no present exploitation ; the walled 
aloe-fields deserted, the frankincense, myrrh and dragon's blood un- 
collected, and the energies of the people employed in the production 
of clarified butter. The island seemed full of cattle, and the Sultan 
kept a special dhow to carry the skins and jars of clarified butter to the 
mainland, where it was in demand as far as Muscat and Zanzibar. 
(Southern Arabia, p. 346). 

31. Subject to the Frankincense Country. — By speech, 
race and political allegiance Socotra has been joined to the Mahra 
district of South Arabia from rime immemorial. La Roque's map of 
1716 showed it depending upon the Kingdom of Fartach" (Ho- 
garth, op. cit., p. 45); '\\'ellsted, writing in 1838 (op. cit., 450-3) 
found it jealously mentioned as a dependency of the Sheikh of Kissin, 

formerly called King of Furtak;" and Bent found the same. (See 
also the numerous reports of the Austrian Expedition.) 

31. Garrisoned; for defence against the two enemies of the 
Chatramotitae, by whom they were hard pressed on either side: 
namely, the Homerites and the Parthians. 

32. The Bay of Omana, being that portion of the Bay of 
Sachalites lying east of Syagrus, is the modern Kamar Bay. (16° 


15' N. , 53° 30' E. ). The "mountains, high and rocky and steep, 
inhabited by cave-dwellers," are the modern Jebel Kamar and Jebel 
Gara, reaching altitudes of over 3,000 feet. 

The name ' Omana," the same as the modern Oman, seems 
to have extended at the time of the Periplus over a larger area, in- 
cluding much of the south shore of the Persian Gulf as well as the 
coast of South Arabia as far as Ras Hasik; all of which seems to have 
been subject to the Parthians, but recently — for Isidorus of Charax 
Spasini, writing in the time of Augustus, speaks of Goaesus, King 
of the Omanitae in the Frankincense Country." The coast between 
Ras Hasik and Ras Fartak, likewise associated with the name Omana 
in the Periplus, had fallen to the Chatramotitas in the recent partition 
of the Incense-Land. 

32. The harbor called Moscha. — This is identified with 
Khor Reiri (17° 2' N., 54° 26' E. ), a protected inlet (now closed 
at low tide by a sand-bar) ; into which empties the Wadi Dirbat. 
It is a couple of miles east of the modern tpwn of Taka, in the east- 
ern part of the plain of Dhofar, a fertile strip of some 50 miles along 
the coast between Ras Risut and Ras Mirbat, surrounded by the Gara 
Mountains. Marco Polo describes it (III, xxxviii) as a very good 
haven, so that there is a great traffic of shipping between this and 
India. " It is, no doubt, the harbor of the Abaseni ' ' of Stephanus 
Byzantius. The ancient capital, Saphar (whence the modern name 
of Dhofar, confused by many mediaeval geographers with Saphar or 
Zafar, the capital of the Homerites in Yemen) lay probably in the 
western part of the plain, near the modern Hafa. 

Saphar seems to mean no more than capital" or "royal resi- 
dence," so that the true name of the ancient city is unknown. 
Ptolemy calls it Abissa Polls, ' City of the Habashat. " 

The Plain of Dhofar, and the mountains behind it and for some 
distance beyond on either side, are the original, and perhaps always 
the most important, Incense-Land of Arabia. We are fortunate in 
having a vivid description of the whole region, by J. Theodore Bent 
{Geographical Journal, VI, 109-134, with a map facing page 204; re- 
printed in his Southern Arabia^ with careful corrections by Glaser 
(^Die Abessinier in Arabien und Afrika, 182-192 ). The plain is alluvial 
soil washed down from the mountains, which are of limestone, cav- 
ernous, and high enough to attract the rains; so that instead of the 
sandstone and volcanic rocks elsewhere on the south coast, here is 
one large oasis by the sea," abundantly v/atered the year round, and 
producing crops of all kinds. The encircling mountains are the source 
of many streams, gathering in lakes on the upper levels and falling to 


the plain through densely wooded valleys. Limes, cactus, aloes, and 
mimosa form on all sides a delightful forest, and the mountains above 
the lakes are clad almost to the summit with timber. Such a scene 
we never expected to witness in Arabia; it reminded us more of the 
rich valleys leading up to the tableland of Abyssinia. Sweet-scented 

white jessamine hung in garlands from the trees, and the air was fra- 
grant with the odor of many flowers. . . It is probable that a knowl- 
edge of such valleys as these gained for Arabia its ancient reputation 
for floral wealth." And following up the stream leading to the an- 
cient harbor, which falls over a remarkable limestone cliff, Bent found 
a broad grassy plain used for grazing, and in the midst a wooded lake, 
the center of the local faith of the Gara tribe; "they affirm that 
jinnies live in the water, and that whoever wets his feet here is sure 
to have fever. Every November a fair is held here, to which all 

the Beduins of the Gara tribe come and make merry. The fair of 
Dirbat is considered by them the great festival of the year. A round 
rock was shown us on which the chief magician sits to exorcise the 
jinni of the lake, and around him the people dance. " 

A short way up the mountain-side just back of Hafa, the 
modern town, is a great cave hung with stalactites, below which 
are the ruins of an ancient town, in the center of which is a natural 
hole 100 feet deep and about 50 in diameter; around this hole are 
the remains of walls, and the columns of a large entrance gate." 
This, the natives told Bent, was the well of the Adites, ' ' no doubt 
an ancient oracle, mentioned as such by Ptolemy, Ibn Batuta and 

Near Hafa are the ruins of the ancient capital, by the sea, 
around an acropolis some 100 feet in height, encircled by a moat still 
full of water; and in the center, still connected with the sea, but 
almost silted up, is a tiny harbor. The ground is covered with the 
remains of ancient temples, the architecture of which at once con- 
nects them with that of the columns at Adulis, Coloe and Axum — 
after seeing which no doubt can be entertained that the same people 
built them all." 

In Hafa the Bents found a bazaar with frankincense in piles 
ready for shipment, just as depicted in the Deir el Bahri temple, " 
while a large tract of country was still 'covered with frankincense 
trees, with their bright green leaves like ash trees, their small green 
flowers, and their insignificant fruit." (See later, p. 218.) 

This plain, with its ancient capital, Saphar, was the center of the 
ancient Cushite empire (or Adite, from Ad, grandson of Ham) which 
included most of Southern Arabia and much of East Africa; having a 


ci\ilization and religion similar to and derived from the Chaldasan. 
About 1800 B. C, according to the Arab historians, Joktanite tribes 
entered and conquered South Arabia, but were largely absorbed by the 
Cushite stock; as a result of which the second, or Sabasan, empire 
of Ad was formed, in which the Joktanites became the sacred and 
land-owning caste, while the political and economic activities remained 
with the Cushites. This was probably the power that dealt with the 
Egyptians under the XVIIIth dynasty, as pictured at Deir-el-Bahri; 
concerning which the publication of the Egypt Exploration Fund 
seems a little too positive that the Land of Punt' ' could not be in 
Arabia because the faces of the Punt people were not Semitic. The 
testimony of Arabia would be at fault if they were. Later the Sabaean 
Cushites, conquered by the Banu Ya rub, a Joktanite stock from Ye- 
men, migrated into Africa, and establishing themselves in Abyssinia, 
continued the ancient conflict for six centuries more. 

The account of Ibn Khaldun f Kay's edition, pp. 179-80) gives 
a hint of the northern origin of the Adites. " Hadramaut, Ash- 
Shihr and Oman, he says, originally belonged to Ad, from whose 
people it was conquered by the Banu Ya rub, son of Kahtan (Joktan). 
It is said that the Banu Ad were led thither by Rukaym son of Aram^ 
who had formerly visited the country in company with the Prophet 
Hud. He returned to the people of Ad and led them in ships to the 
country and to its invasion. They wrested it from the hands of its 
inhabitants, but they were themselves subsequently conquered by the 
Banu Ya rub, son of Kahtan. Kahtan ruled o^. er the country, and it 
was governed by his son Hadramaut, after whom it was named. " 

Makrizi varies the legend by making Ad son of Kahtan, by whom 
he was made ruler over Babylonia, and his brother Hadramaut over 
"Habassia;" and he preserves a memory of the trade of the Incense- 
Land with India, in the tale of a hero of that land who came by night 
to the land of the Indians in the form of a vulture, whence he re- 
turned bearing seeds of the green pepper, as proof of his journey. 

It is regrettable that Bent could not have learned more of the 
local faith of the Gara tribe, exemplified at the annual reunion at the 
Dirbat lakes, which is probably an interesting survival of the ancient 
faith. For as the Mahri represent the Himyarite conquerors of 
the incense coast-land, so do the Gara represent to some extent 
the earlier inhabitants. Bent found a state of armed truce under the 
restraining influence of Aluscat; Haines, Carter, and Cruttenden 
had found the villages of the plain fighting among themselves, and the 
mountain folk fighting with the plain, the gatherers with the o\er- 
lords, as of old. Bent tells enough, however, to indicate the worship 


of the spirit of the lake, the waters of which might not be polluted by 
the foot of man; the propitiation of the spirit by the "chief magi- 
cian" at the time of gathering the frankincense, and the celebration 
of the harvest by a tribal dance' ' probably reminiscent of baccha- 
nalian rites; after which the product is sent to Bombay for distribu- 
tion, that the rest of the world, in the words of Pausanias (IX, 30) 
may worship God with other people's incense." 

The name Moscha is another of those place-names that are re- 
peated along the coast from east to west, and survives in the modern 
Muscat, with which Miiller mistakenly identifies this port. According 
to Forster {op. cit., II, 174-5) this is an Arabic word meaning "in- 
flated skin," from the Genaba Fish-Eaters'' or floaters on skins. " 
The word continues in the Greek moschos, calf. Glaser supposes the 
word to be the same as Mocha, and to signify a commercial harbor, " 
and to the author of the Periplus, and to Ptolemy, it is probable that 
Moscha limen m&znX. Incense Harbor;" otojc^oj- meaning also 'musk,'' 
or in later Greek any perfume, even to that of strawberries; as indeed 
the same idea was uppermost with Camoes {Lusiad, X, 201) and with 
Milton: — 

Now gentle gales. 

Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense 

Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole 

Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail 

Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past 

Mozambic, off at sea northeast winds blow 

Sabean odors from the spicy shore 

Of Araby the Blest, with such delay 

Well pleased they slack their course, and many a league 

Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles : 

—Paradise Lost, IV, 156-165. 

(See the works already cited of Bent, Wellsted, Glaser, Hommel, 
Zwemer, and Hogarth; Lenormant and Chevalier, Manual of Ancient 
History of the East, VII, 1-2; also J. B. Haines, in the Journal of the 
Royal Geographical Society for 1839 and 1845; H. J. Carter, in Trans- 
actions of the Bombay Asiatic Society, for 1845, 1847, and 1851; 
Makrizi De Valle Hadramaut, Bonn, 1866; Wellhausen, Skizzen und 
Vorarheiten, III, 135-146.) 

32. The ship could not clear. — Compare the trading of the 
Egyptian expeditions with the "chiefs of the land of Punt" over these 
"heaps of incense," and again Marco Polo's description (III, xxxvii): 
''A great deal of white incense grows in this country, and brings in a 
great revenue to the Prince; for no one dares sell it to any one else; 
and whilst he takes it from the people at 10 livres of gold for the 


hundredweight, he sells it to the merchants at 60 livres, so his profit 
is immense. ' ' And according to the Marasid-al-Ittila' , an Arab geo- 
graphical dictionary of about the same period, "this incense is care- 
fully watched, and can be taken only to Dhafar, where the Sultan 
keeps the best part for himself; the rest is made over to the people. 
But any one who should carry it elsewhere than to Dhafar would be 
put to death. 

33. Seven Islands called Zenobian. — These are now called 
Kuria Muria, about 17° 20' N. , 56° E., and belong to England, 
which acquired them from the Sultan of Oman. In the time of the 
Periplus they belonged to their western neighbors, the Hadramaut. 

The name Zenobian is HeUenized from the Arabic Zenab or 
Genab; the tribe of Beni Genab having possessed the neighboring 
coast. This same tribal name, in the form of Genabti, appears in 
numerous Egyptian inscriptions as one of the peoples of the Land 
of Punt.'' (See Glaser, Punt und die Siidarahischen Reiche, p. 10.) 

Concerning the relation of these islands to the early frankincense 
trade, a bit of folk-lore preserved by Marco Polo is particularly im- 
portant. Pauthier in his French text rightly connects the story with 
the Kuria Muria group because of its geographical position; Yule and 
Cordier repudiate it as nonsense. Vincent, in his edition of the Peri- 
plus (II, 347) refers the ' fable," without explanation, to these 
islands. Its actual source, so far as known, has not been observed. 

About half-way between Makran and Socotra, Marco Polo says 
(III, xxxi), are the two islands '"called Male and Female, lying 
about 30 miles distant from one another. In the island called 

Male dwell the men alone, without their wives or any other women. 
Every year when the month of March arrives the men all set out for 
the other island, and tarry there for three months, to wit, March, 
April, May, dwelling with their wives for that space. At the end of 
these three months they return to their own island, and pursue their 
husbandry and trade for the other nine months. . As for the 

children which their wives bear to them, if they be girls they abide 
with their mothers; but if they be boys the mothers bring them up 
till they are fourteen, and then send them to the fathers. Such is the 
custom of these two islands. The wives do nothing but nurse their 
children and gather such fruits as their island produces; for their 
husbands do furnish them with all necessaries. " (Yule's Marco Polo, 
Cordier' s edition, II, 404-6.) 

This story is a reflection of the belief, already noted from Pliny, 
that the ceremonial value of the incense depended on the personal 
purity of the gatherers, who were considered sacred. No man touch- 


ing the tree, whether a proprietor according to the caste system of the 
Incense-Land, or a farmer or gatherer, slave or free, might undergo 
pollution through the presence of women or of the dead. The spirit 
of the tree was a woman, and the protecting serpents were the souls 
of the dead. If gathered without pollution, the incense constituted 
the most effective vehicle of prayer, and had also certain sovereign 
uses in purification after conjugal intercourse, availed of by both 
Arabians and Babylonians, as described by Herodotus (I, 198) and 
Strabo (XVI, i, 20). 

Pliny's account of the Ascitas, swimming to the mainland on 
inflated skins, has been noted. Stephanus Byzantius, writing in the 
4th century A. D., says beyond the Sabsi and the Chatramotitae 
dwell the Abaseni, whose land yields myrrh, aloes, frankincense, 
cinnamon and the red plant which resembles the color of Tyrian 
purple (dragon's blood)." Pausanias in the 2d century {^de situ 
Grades, VI, 269) mentions a deep bay of the Erythraean Sea 
having islands, Abasa and Sacaea," which were the home of these 
same Ascitae. Bent {Southern Arabia, p. 230) describes the "Jenefa" 
tribe on these Kuria Muria islands, pursuing sharks on inflated skins, 
and Wellsted {op. cit., Ghap. V) found the Beni Geneba" spread 
all along the coasts of South Arabia and Oman, shark-fishers swim- 
ming on inflated skins, and pastoral folk, living in skin tents, but 
under the S. W. monsoon retreating -to caves," as noted in § 32. 
Lieut. Cruttenden (Trans. Bombay Geog. Soc. , VII, 121; 1846) 
and General Miles (J. Geog. Soc, 1872) observe that the coast of 
South Arabia "is visited every season by parties of Somalis, who pay 
the Arabs for the privilege of collecting the frankincense. ' ' 

Here is obviously the foundation for Marco Polo's tale. The 
wandering Beni Genab, whose locality included the Kuria Muria 
islands and the coast north and east thereof, would act as fishermen 
and herdsmen during certain seasons, while during the remainder of 
the year they would engage in the more profitable occupation of in- 
cense gathering; in which they were subjected to the rigid rules 
maintained by the Sayyid or saintly caste of landed proprietors, them- 
selves too dighified to do the work (Van den Berg, op. cit., 40-44). 
When the first rush of sap occurred in the spring they left their wives 
perforce, to gather the best of the white gum, remaining on the 
incense-terraces for later gatherings until the trees became dormant 
again when their work for that year was over and they returned home. 
And their sons would naturally remain with their mothers only during 
childhood ; past which they would be under the same tabu as the 
grown men, and would begin work as gatherers. 


Far from being a fairy tale, it is quite possible that at the time 
Marco Polo wrote — the caste-system of the Hadramaut being fully 
crystalized under the rule of Islam — this story of the Christian dwellers 
on the "Male and Female Islands" was literally true, as it was in the 
earlier times in the race-conflict between Joktanite overlords and 
Cushite gatherers. 

The "Male Island" was, of course, the coast, and the Female 
included the entire group of islands; the Arabic dialects failing to dis- 
tinguish between "coast" and island." 

33. Beyond Moscha. — The 'mountain range along the 
shore" is the modern Jebel Samhan, and the name Asich is preserved 
in the modern Ras Hasik, 17° 23' N., 55° 20' E., as well as in the 
westernmost of the Kuria Muria Islands, which faces it. 

33. Sarapis is the modern Masira Island, 20° 20' N. , 58° 40' 
E. , the first syllable only being from the native name, which our 
author assimilates to that of the Alexandrian Osiris of the bull-worship, 
Osor-Hapi, Sarapis, or in the Latin, Serapis. (Concerning this wor- 
ship, in high favor at the time of the Periplus, see Strabo, book XVII, 
Plutarch, de hide et Osiride, Maspero, Histoire Ancienne, pp. 30 ff., 
Frazer's Pausanias, II, 175-6.) 

The syllable &r-apis or Ma-j/V-a is probably the same as the 
tribe-name Au-.f<7r or Ausan mentioned in § 15. 

This island is curiously confused by Pausanias (VI, lb) with the 
Seres. After describing the Chinese silk culture, he observes: the 
island of Seria is known to be situated in a recess of the Red Sea. 
But I have also heard that the island is formed, not by the Red Sea, 
but by a river named the Ser (this being Masira Channel), just as the 
Delta of Egypt is surrounded by the Nile and not by a sea; such also, 
it is said, is the island of Seria. Both the Seres and the inhabitants 
of the neighboring islands of Abasa and Sacaea are of the Aethiopian 
race ; some say, however, that they are not Aethiopians, but a mixture 
of Scythians and Indians." 

Here are confirmations of the Periplus, as to the possession of 
Masira and Kuria Muria by the Habashat, and as to the commercial 
activity of the Indo-Scythians, then in possession of the Indus valley. 

The use of the Arabian language" (Himyaritic or Hadramitic, 
represented by the modern Mahri), noted in § ii, confirms the ac- 
companying statement that the island was then subject to Hadramaut, 
and its trade controlled from Cana. Ordinarily the connection would 
be rather with the ' Fish- Eaters ' ' of the adjoining Genaba coast, 
subject at that time to the Parthians, so that the language spoken 
would have been Aethiopic or Geez. 


34. A barbarous region which now belongs to Persia. 

The Arabian coast beyond the Kuria Muria Islands, being now recently 
conquered by the Parthian Empire, at war with Rome, was inaccessi- 
ble to the author of the Periplus and is described by him briefly and 
apparently from hearsay. His own saihng-course carried him "well 
out at sea" from Kuria Muria to Masira, and thence direct to the 
mouth of the Indus. 

34. Calaei Islands. — These are the Daimaniyat Islands N. W. 
of Muscat (23° 48' N., 58° 0' E. ), the distance being calculated 
from Masira. The name is obviously the same as the modern Kalhat, 
just north of Sur (22° 35' N., 59° 29' E. ) an ancient trading port, 
mentioned by Pliny (VI, 32) as Acila (not to be confused with 
Ocelis in Yemen), a city of the Sabasi (Asabi) a nation of tent 
dwellers, with numerous islands. This is their mart, from which 
persons embark for India." 

On this coast, between Ras el Had and Muscat, are the modern 
ports of Kuryat and Sur, which, in the words of General Miles jour- 
nal of an Excursion in Oman, Geographical Journal, VII, 335-6) 'are 
the Karteia and Tsor, the Carthage and Tyre, of the race whom we 
know as Phoenicians, and who, earlier than the time of Solomon, 
had trading-stations along the southern coast of Arabia. Their con- 
venient and important position just opposite India must have led to 
their early occupation by the merchants of those times who were en- 
gaged in exchanging the productions of the East and \^ est. " 

An eastern migration of this tribe-name is strongly suggested in 
Kalat, city and district, in eastern Beluchistan. 

34. Very little civilized. — This follows Fabricius' reading 
of a doubtful passage in the text; that offered by Miiller, "who do 
not see well in the daytime," while less probable, recalls the fact noted 
by numerous observers in Oman, that a good proportion of the in- 
habitants suffer from ophthalmia or total blindness, due, largely, to the 
terrific heat of this coast; which wrs picturesquely described by Abd- 
sr-Razzak, a 15th century Persian, as follows: 

The heat was so intense that it burned the marrow in the 
bones; the sword in its scabbard melted like wax, and the gems which 
adorned the handle of the dagger were reduced to coal. In the plains 
the chase became a matter of perfect ease, for the desert was filled 
with roasted gazelles. ' ' ( Quoted from Curzon : Persia and the Persian 
Question. See also Haklu3rt Society's ed. , XXII, 9. ^ 

35. Galon mountain. — While the name has a Greek form, 
and was supposed to mean fair," it is the same as that of the islands 
and is probably a tribal name: mountains of the Kalhat." 


The range is the Jebel Akhdar, or Green Mountains," behind 
Muscat, and about 10,000 feet in altitude. Good descriptions are 
gi\en by \\'elisted, Zwemer, and Hogarth, and of especial interest is 
the account of the fertile and populous Wadi Tyin, enclosed by these 
mountains, visited by General S. B. Miles (op. cit.). 

35. The pearl-mussel, Mekagrina margaritifera, Ham., family 
Jviculida, is found in many parts of the Indian Ocean, but particularly 
on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf and in the shallow water 
between India and Ceylon. The pearl is a deposit formed around a 
foreign substance in the mantle of the mussel, generally a parasitic 
larva. Examination by Prof. Herdman at the Manaar fisheries indicated 
that the nucleus of the pearl was generally a Platyhelminthian parasite, 
which he identified as the larval condition of a cestode or tapeworm. 
This cestode passes from the body of the pearl mussel into that of a 
file-fish and thence into some larger animal, possibly the large Trygon 
or ray. ("Watt, op. cit., pp. 557-8; Cambridge Natural History, III, 
100, 449.) 

35. Asabon mountains. — This is another tribal name, 
"mountains of the Asabi," or Beni Assab, whom W ellsted described 
as still living there (op. cit., I, 239-242), a people very different from 
the other tribes of Oman, living in exclusion in their mountains; and 
whom Zwemer {,Oman and Eastern Arabia, in the Bulletin of the 
American Geographical Society, T907; pp. 597-606) considers a 
remnant of the aboriginal race of South Arabia, their speech being 
allied to the Mahri and both to the ancient Himyaritic; who were 
probably not as Zwemer thinks, driven northward by Semitic mi- 
gration," but represent rather a relic of that pre-Joktanite southward 
migration around this very coast. 

The mountain preserves the name, being now the Jebel Sibi, 
2800 feet, 26° 20' N., 56° 25' E., continued at the end of the cape 
in the promontory of Ras Musandum. 

35. A round and high mountain called Semiramis. 
Fabricius, following Sprenger and Ritter, identifies this with K6h-i- 
mubarak, "Mountain of the Blest" (25° 50' N., 57° 19' E. ), which, 
while not high, being only about 600 feet, is of the shape here described 
and directly, on the strait. 

Fabricius (p. 146) suggests that the name Semiramis is probably 
the Arabic Shamarida held precious." Ras Musandum has been a 
sacred spot to Arabian navigators from time immemorial. The classic 
geographers describe some of the practices of the ship-captains passing 
it, and \'incent tells of those in his time as follows (II, 354) : All 
the Arabian ships take their departure from it with some ceremonies 


of superstition, imploring a blessing on their voyage, and setting afloat 
a toy, like a vessel rigged and decorated, which, if it is dashed to 
pieces by the rocks, is to be accepted by the ocean as an offering for 
the escape of the vessel. " 

35. ApologUS. — This was the city known as Obollah, which 
was an important port during Saracen times, and from which caravan- 
routes led in all directions. As "Ubulu, in the land of Bit-Yakin" 
it figures in many of the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. It 
was among the conquered places named in the Nimrud Inscription of 
Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 B. C. ) whose arms were carried from 
Bit-Yakin "as far as the river Uknu (Cynos, Wadi ed Dawasir.O 
on the coast of the Lower Sea," and who received from Merodach- 
Baladan, of Yakin, king of the sea, a tribute of "gold — the dust of 
his land — precious stones, timber, striped clothing, spices of all kinds, 
cattle and sheep." 

The location of Obollah seems always to have given it importance 
as a commercial center. Under the Seleucidae, and in the time of 
Strabo, Teredon was the leading port; while in the time of the 
Periplus Obollah had regained, its former position. 

The name seems derived from Obal, son of Joktan (Gen. X, 28). 

35. Charax Spasini is the modern Mohammarah (30° 24' N. , 
48° 18' E. ), on the Shatt-el-Arab, at its confluence with the Karun. 
Phny says (VI, 31) that it was founded by Alexander the Great, whose 
name it bore; destroyed by inundations of the rivers, rebuilt by Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes under the name of Antiochia, again overflowed, and 
again restored, protected by three miles of embankments, by Spasinus, 
"king of the neighboring Arabians, whom Juba has incorrectly de- 
scribed as a satrap of King Antiochus. " Formerly, Pliny says, it 
stood near the shore and had a harbor of its own ; but now stands a 
considerable distance from the sea. In no part of the world have 
alluvial deposits been formed by the rivers more rapidly and to a greater 
extent than here." (At the present day it is about 40 miles from the 

Pliny's reference to the possession of the lower Tigris by an 
Arabian chieftain, the name of whose city he extends to the "Chara- 
cene' ' district of Elymais, or Elam, indicates how large a part in the 
affairs of the Parthian Empire may have been played, at the date of 
the Periplus, by its subjects south of the Persian Gulf. Charax was an 
important stronghold of the Parthian Empire, protecting its shipping 
trade; and was the home of that Isidorus whose works, written in the 
time of the Roman Emperor Augustus, include the Mamiones Parthkce, 
a detailed account of the overland caravan-route from Antioch in Syria 


to the borders of India; the same, probably, as the author of the 
description of the world" mentioned by PHny (VI, 31) who was 
commissioned by Augustus to gather all necessary information in the 
east, when his eldest son was about to set out for Armenia to take the 
command against the Parthians and Arabians." 

36. A market-town of Persia called Ommana. — The 

Roman geographers were much confused by similar statements con- 
cerning this port, and supposed that it was geographically, instead of 
politically, ' of Persia," and that the six days' sail" from the straits 
of Hormus mentioned in the Periplus, was eastward along the coast 
of Makran. But Pliny this time is better informed, and locates it on 
the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf, between the Peninsula of El 
Katar and Ras Alusandum, then a Persian or Parthian dependency. 
Beyond the river Cynos ( Wadi ed Dawasir.O he says (VI, 32) "the 
navigation is impracticable on that side, according to Juba, on account 
of the rocks; and he has omitted all mention of Batrasave, a town of 
the Omani, and of the city of Omana, which former writers have made 
out to be a famous port of Carmania; as also of Homna and Attana, 
towns which at the present day, our merchants say, are by far the 
most famous ones in the Persian Sea. " 

The spelling Ommana," as distinct from ' Omana," is due to 
Ptolemy, and, while perhaps incorrect for the Periplus, it conven- 
iently distinguishes between the two districts. Both are certainly 
the same as the modern Oman, which maintains a nominal, as 
a century ago a real, dominion over the whole coast-land from the 
bay of El Katan to that of Kuria \Iuria. This was no doubt the 
dominion of that Goarsus mentioned by Isidorus of Charax Spasini, 
"King of the Omanitae in the Incense-Land," and had only re- 
cently come under the Parthian control. After numerous alterna- 
tions between dependence and freedom the whole country submitted 
again to Persia in 1650, remaining under Persian control until 1741. 

The exact location of the port of Ommana is uncertain owing 
to the limited knowledge yet at hand concerning this coast. Ptolemy 
confirms Pliny in locating it east of the peninsula, by a river Ommano, 
(possibly the Wadi Yabrin, an important trade-route) and Glaser 
argues strongly for the bay of El Katan. (Siizze, pp. 189-194. ) Al- 
most any location between Abu Thabi (24° 30' N., 54° 21' E. ), and 
Khor ed Duan (24° 17' N., 51° 27' E. ) might be possible, but the 
distance stated, six days, or 3000 stadia, from the straits, indicates 
Abu Thanni or Sabakha, at both of which there are fertile spots on 
the coast; El Mukabber on the Sabakha coast (24° N. , 51° 45' E.) 
being perhaps more closely in accord with Ptolemy. 


Aside from the obvious linking of Apologus and Ommana as 
Persian Gulf ports, in §§ 35 and 36, the text gives two further proofs. 
The sewed boats" are such as are still made along this coast, and 
the wine mentioned in § 36 as an export to India is referred to in 
§49 as an import at Barygaza yrawz Arabia. The "many pearls" 
exported, and in fact the whole list of imports and exports in § 36, 
suggest such a trade as now centers at Bahrein. 

Miiller, Fabricius, and McCrindle locate Ommana in the bay of 
Chahbar on the Makran coast (25° 15' N., 60° 30' E.), reckoning 
the six days' sail eastward from the Straits of Hormus; and Sir Thomas 
Holdich followed them in his Notes on Ancient and Meditxval Makran 
(Geographical Journal, 1896; VII, 393-6). It is notable that in his 
Gates of India, 1910, (pp. 299-300) he abandons this position and refers 
the activity of the Chahbar ports to the mediseval period. General 
S. B. Miles (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, N. S. , X, pp. 
164-5) argues for Sohar, on the Batineh coast of Oman, north of 
Muscat, the ocean terminus of an ancient and important caravan-route; 
but the location does not tally with the statement in the text, that 
Ommana was six days through, or beyond, the Straits. 

Ommana was the center of an active and extensive shipping trade 
with India, conveniently located with reference to the trans-Arabian 
caravan-routes; and Glaser points out the probability that this coast of 
El Katan was also the land of Ophir" of King Solomon's trading- 
voyages ; a trading center where the products of the East were re- 
ceived and reshipped, or sent overland, to the Mediterranean. 

36. Copper is here mentioned as an article of export from 
India to the Persian Gulf. It is no longer extensively produced in 
India, but was formerly smelted in considerable quantities in South 
India, Rajputana, and at various parts of the outer Himalaya, where 
a killas-like rock persists along the whole range and is known to be 
copper-bearing in Kullu, Garhwal, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. See 
the authorities cited in Watt, Commercial Products of India, p. 401. 

But it is possible that this copper imported at Ommana included 
also European copper, exported from Cana (§ 28) to the Indus mouth 
and Barygaza (§§ 39 and 49) and thence reshipped to the Persian 
Gulf. During the suspension of trade between the Roman and Par- 
thian Empires, owing to war, this would have been a natural trade 

Pliny ( VI, 26) speaks of copper, iron, arsenic, and red lead, as 
exports of Carmania, whence they were shipped to Persian Gulf and 
Red Sea ports for distribution; indicating again that Ommana was no 
Carmanian port. 


36. Sandal'WOOd. — tantalum album, Linn., order Santalaceie. 
A small evergreen tree native in the dry regions of South India (as the 
Western Ghats, Mysore, and Coimbatore); in North India chiefly as 
a cultivated plant. Sandalwood has been known in India from the 
most ancient times, the Sanskrit authors distinguishing various woods 
according to color. Chandana is the name for the series, srikhanda 
the tree, or white, sandal, and pitachandana the inferior, or yellow, 
sandal, both being derived from Santalum album. They distinguish 
two kinds of red sandal or raktachandana, namely, Pterocarpus santalinus 
and Ccesalpima sappan. 

This mention in the Periplus seems to be the earliest Roman 
reference to sandalwood. It is mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes 
(6th century A. D. ) under the name T%andana; and thereafter fre- 
quently by the early Arab traders who visited India and China. Cos- 
mas and the Arabs attributed it to China, this mistake arising, as Watt 
points out {op. cit., p. 976) from the fact that Chinese vessels at this 
time made the voyage between China and the Persian Gulf, stopping 
to trade in Ceylon and India, and disposing of their cargoes finally to 
the Bagdad merchants. The wood is not native of China. 

According to experiments at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Cal- 
cutta, sandalwood is a root-parasite on many plants. 

For further references see Lassen: Indische Alurthumskunde, 
I, 287. 

36. XealfWOOd. — Tectona grandis, Linn. , order Verbenaceie. A 
large deciduous tree indigenous in both peninsulas of India. The 
wood is that chiefly exported from India at the present time, particu- 
larly from Burma, and is the most important building timber of the 

Watt, {op. cit., p. 1068), quoting Gamble, says that the western 
Indian teak region has for its northern limit the Narbada and Ma- 
hanadi rivers, although it is occasionally found farther north. Climatic 
changes since the date of the Periplus have probably restricted its 
area. It is plentiful in Bombay and Travancore. 

The wood owes its value to its great durability, ascribed to the 
fact that it contains a large quantity of fluid resinous matter, which 
fills up the pores and resists the action of water. Watt mentions one 
structure known to be over 2000 years old, and the discovery of teak 
in the Mugheir ruins indicates its use there under Nabonidus (6th 
century B. C), and possibly very much earlier. 

36. Black'wood. — The text is sasamin, which Fabricius alters 
and translates white mulberry, " from conjecture only. McCrindle 
shows that the text refers to the wood still known in India as sisam, 


which Watt describes {.op. at., pp. 484-5) as one of the best hard- 
woods of the Panjab and Western India. It is very durable, does 
not warp or split, and is highly esteemed for all purposes where 
strength and elasticity are required — agricultural implements, carriage- 
frames and wheels, boat-building, etc. — as well as furniture and 
wood-carving. In Upper India the sisam takes the place of rosewood, 
to which it is closely related. 

Watt distinguishes the true sisam or blackwood, Dalbergia sissoo, 
order Leguminosa. The Indian rosewood, native somewhat farther 
south, is Dalbergia latifolia. D. sissoo is described as sub-Himalayan, 
gregarious on the banks of sandy, stony, torrential rivers, such as the 
Indus and Narbada, from which the Periplus says it was exported. 

36. Ebony. — Diospyros, Linn., order Ebenacea. Diospyros 
'.benum and D. melanoxylon are the leading varieties producing ebony 
wood; India has also D. embryopteris and D. tomentosa. 

This fine black heart-wood (from the date plum tree) has been 
in favor since the dawn of civilization. An Egyptian inscription of 
King Mernere, Vlth dynasty (B. C. about 2500), mentions ebony as 
a product brought down from the negro-land" on the Upper 
Nile; and the expedition of Queen Hatshepsut (XVIIIth dynasty, 
B. C. about 1500) brought it from the "Land of Punt," in this case 
probably from the Abyssinian highlands, although it might have come 
from India. 

The earliest definite Old Testament reference is in Ezekiel 
XXVII, where it appears as a commodity in the trade of Tyre : the 
men of Dedan were they merchants; many isles were the merchan- 
dise of thine hand ; they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and 
ebony." If the Oxford editor's identification of Dedan with the 
south shore of the Persian Gulf be correct, this passage indicates a 
steady trade in ebony from India prior to the 7th century B. C. , and 
exactly confirms the statement of the Periplus that it was shipped 
from Barygaza to Ommana and Apologus. 

Pliny (XII, 8, 9) says that ebony came to Rome from both India 
and Egypt, and that the trade began after the victories of Pompey the 
Great in Asia. He notes two kinds, one precious, the other ordinary. 
Virgil {Georgics II, 116-117) speaks in glowing terms of the 
ebony tree, as peculiar to India. Herodotus, however, has preferred 
to ascribe it (III, 97) to Aethiopia, and states that the people of that 
country were in the habit of paying to the King of Persia, every third 
year, by way of tribute, 100 billets of ebony-wood, together with a 
certain quantity of gold and ivory. 


36. Sewed boats known as madarata. — Glaser {Skkze, 
p. 190 j shows this to be the Arabic OTWii'izrr^'fl^, "fastened with palm 
fiber," which included, first, the fibers sheathing the base of the 
petioles of the date; and second, those taken from the husks of the 
cocoanut. This latter is what Marco Polo calls ' Indian nut." It 
was a later cultivation in Arabia than the date, and the Periplus does 
not include it among Arabian exports, although noting it in § 33 as a 
product of Sarapis or Alasira Island. 

The text notes that these sewed boats were exported to Arabia, ' ' 
meaning the South Coast, Yemen and Hadramaut. 

Marco Polo (I, xixj gives a description of these craft, as follows: 
"Their ships are wretched affairs, and many of them get lost; 
for they have no iron fastenings, and are only stitched together with 
twine made from the husk of the Indian nut. They beat this nut 
until it becomes like horse-hair, and from that they spin twine, and 
with this stitch the planks of the ships together. It keeps well and is 
not corroded by the sea-water, but it will not stand well in a storm. 
The ships are not pitched, but are rubbed with fish-oil. They have 


one mast, one sail, and one rudder, and have no deck, but only a 
cover spread over the cargo when loaded. This cover consists of 
hides, and on the top of these hides they put the horses which they 
take to India for sale. They have no iron to make nails of, and for 
this reason they use only wooden trenails in their shipbuilding, and 
then stitch the planks with twine as I have told you. Hence 'tis a 
perilous business to go a voyage in one of those ships, and many of 
them are lost, for in that Sea of India the storms are often terrible. ' ' 

Gemelli Carreri, who visited this coast in 1693-9, gives a similar 
description, quoted by Capt. A. W. Stiffe : Former Trading Centers of 
the Persian Gulf: Geographical Journal, XIII, 294 : 

' 'Instead of nails, which they are without, they use pegs of bam- 
boo or cane, and further join the planks with strings made of rushes. 
For anchor, they have a large stone with a hole, and for oars, a stout 
stick with a little round plank attached to the end. ' ' 

"Stitched vessels," Sir B. Frere writes (Yule' s Afarco Po/o, Cor- 
dier's Ed., I, 117), "are still used. I have seen them of 200 tons 
burden, but they are being driven out by iron- fastened vessels, as iron 
gets cheaper, except where (as on the Malabar and Coromandel 
coasts) the pliancy of a stitched boat is useful in a surf." But the 
stitched build in the Gulf is now confined to fishing-boats. 

The lish-oil used to rub the ships was whale-oil. The old Arab 
voyagers of the 9th century describe the fishermen of Siraf in the Gulf 
as cutting up the whale-blubber and drawing the oil from it, which 
was mixed with other stuff, and used to rub the joints of ships' plank- 
ing. (Reinaud, Relation des Voyages, I, 146.) 

Friar Odoric (Journal, Chap. II), Writing of "Ormes," says 
"here also they use a kind of barque or ship called Jase, being com- 
pact together only with cords. And I went on board into one of 
them, wherein I could not find any iron at all, and in the space of 
twenty-eight days I arrived at the city of Thana" (on Salsette Island, 
a short distance north of Bombay), wherein four of our friars were 
martyred for the faith of Christ. ' ' 

Jase, Cordier observes, is the Arabic Djehaz. 

"Sir John Mandeville" gives a legend arising from this method 
of construction (Voyage and Travel, Chap. LIII, p. 125, Ashton's 
edition. ) ' 'Near that isle (Hormus) there are ships without nails of iron 
or bonds, on account of the ro<:ks of adamants (loadstones), for they 
are all-abundant there in that sea that it is marvellous to speak of, and 
if a ship passed there that had iron bonds or iron nails it would perish, 
for the adamant, by its nature, draws iron to it, and so it would draw 
the ship that it should never depart from it." 


Theodore Bent {^Southern Arabia, p. 8) describes these boats as 
having very long-pointed bows, elegantly carved and decorated with 
shells. When the wind is contrary they are propelled by poles or 
paddles, consisting of boards of any shape, tied to the end of the poles 
with twine, and the oarsman always seats himself on the gunwales." 

Zwemer, {,op. cit., p. 101), further confirms the Periplus: 

"Even Sinbad the Sailor might recognize every rope and the odd 
spoon-shaped oars. All the boats have good lines and are well buUt 
by the natives of Indian timber. For the rest, all is of Bahrein manu- 
facture except their pulley-blocks, which come from Bombay. Sail- 
cloth is woven at Menamah and ropes are twisted of date-fiber in rude 
ropewalks which have no machinery worth mentioning. Even the 
long soft iron nails are hammered out on the anvil one by one. 

"Each boat has a sort of figurehead called the kubait, generally 
covered with the skin of a sheep or goat which was sacrificed when 
the boat was first launched. This blood-sacrifice Islam has never 
uprooted. The larger boats used in diving hold from twenty to forty 
men — less than half of whom are divers, while the others are rope- 
holders and oarsmen." 

36. Pearls inferior to those of India. — This is said still to 
be the case, the Bahrein pearls being of a yellower tint than those of 
the Manaar fisheries, but holding their lustre better, particularly in 
tropical climates, and therefore always in demand in India. 

36. Purple. — A dye derived from various species of Murex, 
family Muriddte, and Purpura, family Buccinida. Pliny (IX, 60-63) 
tells of its use at the time of our author : The purple has that ex- 
quisite juice which is so greatly sought after for the purpose of dyeing 
cloth. . . . This secretion consists of a tiny drop contained in a white 
vein, from which the precious liquid used for dyeing is distilled, being 
of the tint of a rose somewhat inclining to black. The rest of the 
body is entirely destitute of this juice. It is a great point to take the 
fish alive; for when it dies it spits out this juice. From the larger 
ones it is extracted after taking off the shell; but the smaller fish are 
crushed alive, together with the shells, upon which they eject this 

"In Asia the best purple is that of Tyre, in Africa that of Meninx 
and Gaetulia, and in Europe that of Laconia. . 

After it is taken the vein is extracted and salt is added. They are 
left to steep for three days, and are then boiled in vessels of tin, by 
moderate heat; while thus boiling the liquor is skimmed from time to 
time. About the tenth day the whole contents of the cauldron are in 
a liquid state; but until the color satisfies the liquor is still kept on the 


boil. The tint that inclines to red is looked upon as inferior to- that 
which is of a blackish hue. 

The wool is left to lie in soak for five hours, and then, after 
carding it, it is thrown in again, until it has fully imbibed the color. 
The proper proportions for mixing are, for fifty pounds of wool, two 
hundred pounds of juice of the buccinum and one hundred and eleven 
of the juice of the pelagia. From this combination is produced the 
admirable tint known as amethyst color. To produce the Tyrian hue 
the wool is soaked in the juice of the pelagi'a while the mixture is in 
an uncooked and raw state; after which its tint is changed by being 
dipped in the juice of the buccinum. It is considered of the best 
quality when it has exactly the color of clotted blood, and is of a 
blackish hue to the sight, but of a shining appearance when held up 
to the light; hence it is that we find Homer speaking of purple blood. 
{Iliad, E. 83; P, 360.) 

"Cornelius Nepos, who died in the reign of the late emperor 
Augustus, has left the following remarks : In the days of my youth 
the violet purple was in favor, a pound of which used to sell at 100 
denarii; and not long after the Tarentine red was all the fashion. 
This last was succeeded by the Tyrian dihapha (double dyed) which 
could not be bought for even 1000 denarii per pound. Nowadays 
who is there who does not have purple hangings and coverings to his 
banqueting couches, even.-" 

36. \Vine. — This was probably date wine. Its destination, ac- 
cording to § 49, was India. 

Sir B. Frere {Jmoen. Exot., 750, quoted in Yule's Marco Polo, 
Cordier's edition, I, 115) says "a spirit is still distilled from dates. It 
is mentioned by Strabo and Dioscorides, according to Kampfer, who 
says it was in his time made under the name of a medicinal stomachic; 
the rich added radix China (rhubarb root), ambergris, and aromatic 
spices; the poor, licorice and Persian absinth." 

This may, however, have included grape wine also, the moun- 
tain valleys of Oman having been the region originally producing the 
muscatel grape. 

36. Dates. — Phoenix dactylifera, Linn., order Palmea. Ac- 
cording to De Candolle {U Origine des Plantes Cultiv'ees, 240), it has 
existed from prehistoric times in the warm, dry zone which extends 
from Senegal to the Indus basin, principally between the parallels 15° 
and 20° It was an important article of cultivation in Egypt, Arabia, 
Mesopotamia, and the Indus valley, for its wood, fiber, juice, and 


Date-wine is mentioned as an Egyptian product shipped up the 
Nile to the negro-land," in an inscription of the reign of Mernere, 
Vlth dynasty, about 2600 B. C- (Breasted, Ancient Records, I, 336. ) 
Dates appear as food, in an Abydos inscription of the reign of Khen- 
zer, 17th century B. C. (I, 785). In the coronation inscription of 
Thothmes III and Queen Hatshepsut, XVIIIth dynasty, 15th cen- 
tury B. C. , divine offerings to Amon-Re included wine, fowl, fruit, 
bread, vegetables, and dates (II, 159). Similar lists appear among 
the feasts and offerings from conquests during the same reign. Under 
Rameses III (IV, 244, 295, 299, 347) the Papyrus Harris notes as 
"offerings for new feasts," dates, 65,480 measures, 3,100 cut 
branches; again, 241,500 measures; and as offerings to the Nile- 
god," dried dates, 11,871 measures, 1,396 jars; dates, 2,396 meas- 
ures. Later, under Psamtik II, XXVIth dynasty, 6th century B. C. 
(IV, 944) the Adoption Stela of Nitocris says: "Sail was set; the 
great men took their weapons, and every noble had his provision, 
supplied with every good thing: bread, beer, oxen, dates, herbs." 

The Greek name for the date, phoinix, was the same as that 
given the traders from Sidon and Tyre — Phoenicians — Phoinikes, 
whence numerous commentators, including Movers himself {Die 
Phinizier, II, i, 1) suppose the name of race and country to have 
been derived from the date, which was one of the leading exports to 
the northern Mediterranean; noting that the date-palm was a symbol 
of that race. But this in itself is better evidence that the tree received 
the name of the race, being truly, for Mediterranean peoples, the 
tree of the Phoenicians." (So Lepsius in the introduction to his 
Nubian Grammar, Ueber die Vilker und Sprachen Afrikas, and Glaser, 
Punt und die Sildarabischen Reiche, 66-9). 

Pliny (XIII, 7) has a long description of the date-palm and its 
numerous uses; he says the Arabian date was the best, and describes 
fully the different sexes of the trees, and the pollination of the flowers. 
A specially fine variety of dates comes from the southern parts, 
called Syagri," which Pliny translates "wild boar," ascribing such a 
taste to the fruit; but as he connects it with the story of the phoenix, 
his account means no more, probably, than that the fruit came from 
the southern coast of Arabia. (See under § 30. ) 

The date-palm being dioecious, the flowers must be artificially 
fertilized in order to ripen the fruit, and this involves a knowledge of 
the habit of the tree, and regular cultivation, in favorable surroundings, 
including intense heat and drought during the fruiting season. These 
conditions are only partially fulfilled on the Syrian coast, and not at 
all on the Northern Mediterranean. They exist to perfection around 


the Persian Gulf, still the principal, and probably the earliest, source 
of supply. When the cultivation became important in Egypt is un- 
certain. The earliest inscription, in the Vlth dynasty, refers not to 
the fruit, but to wine (made from the sap), and the time is centuries 
later than the first Egyptian Punt-voyages. Not until the 17th cen- 
tury does the Egyptian date-fruit appear as food, and not until the 
15th as temple-offering. It is by no means impossible that Egypt 
owed this cultivation to its intercourse with Southern Arabia (the 
Poen-land) whence it had come in turn from the Persian Gulf, that 
original Phoenician, Erythraean, or in a larger sense Arabian, Sea. 

Among the classical references to this home-land of the Phoeni- 
cians may be cited the Odyssey, IV, 81-5, where Sidonia and Aethi- 
opia are conjoined, both clearly Arabian, (cf. Strabo, I, ii, 34-5; XVI, 
iii, 4, iv, 27.) The Old Testament gives numerous accounts of 
later migrations from that quarter to Palestine; e. g., Zechariah IX, 
6; Ezra IV, 9. The historian Justin (XVIII, 3, 2) gives the reason 
for the earlier migration : the people of Tyre were sprung from the 
Phoenicians, who left their own land, being greatly distressed by earth- 
quakes, and dwelt some time in the marsh-land of Babylonia, but 
later by the shores of the (Mediterranean) Sea, where they built a 
town which they called Sidon because of the abundance of the fish; 
for sidon is the Phoenician word for fish." For the relation of this 
legend to the fish-god of Chaldaea, Oannes, see WiUiam Simpson, 
T/ie Jonah Legend. The connection is noted by the poet Priscian, 

sed litora iuxta 

Phoenices vivunt, veteri cognomine dicti, 
Quos misit quondam mare rubrum laudibus auctos, 
Chaldaeo nimium decoratam sanguine gentem, 
Arcanisque Dei celebratam legibus unam. 

According to Eiselen, Sidon, p. 12: (N. Y., 1907), the word 
udm means to hunt rather than to ftsh; but Simpson shows how 
readily the whole legend changed according to the surroundings of 
the people. 

As to the race-origin of the Phoenicians, Syncellus derives them 
from "ludadan," and Josephus {Antiq. Jud., I, 6, 2) from Dedan, 
who was a son of Raamah, the son of Cush, according to the gene- 
alogy of Genesis X. A later account {Chron. Pasch., I, 54) derives 
them from Jobab, whom that genealogy makes a son of Joktan. This 
would indicate for Phoenicia precisely the same experience as that of 
Southern Arabia : succeeding waves of migration, the later tending to 
become absorbed by the earlier. 


It is significant that even the Greeks knew Phoenice as Canaan. 
Hecataeus refers to "Chna, as Phoenice was formerly called," and the 
name survived as late as an inscription of Antiochus Epiphanes, being 
connected with the legendary hero Chna, who can be no other than 
the Canaan of Genesis X, a brother to Cush, and who "begot Sidon, 
his firstborn." This word, according to Movers, means lowland," 
particularly a strip of coast under the hills; and the same meaning is 
attached to Cush, Cutch, or in its Indian form, Kachh (Holdich, 
Gates of India, 35), and to the modern Sawahil of East Africa, and 
Shehr of South Arabia, the Sachalites of the Periplus. 

Another derivation of "Phoenician" from >/4o«;o/, (bloody, mur- 
derous), rests on the activities of that people as sea-folk, traders and 
pirates. So do the habits of the race survive in the puns of the Greeks. 
The author of the Periplus (§ 33) found the dwellers on Sarapis Island 
anthropois ponerois, and the Roman shipping out of Egypt had always 
to go armed or under convoy. 

36. Gold. — The Periplus mentions gold coin as an export from 
Rome to India, but gold itself as an export from Ommana only, and 
as a product of the Ganges region. 

Gold was an important product of Eastern Arabia, the best fields 
being in the middle courses of the Wadi er Rumma, the Wadi ed 
Dawasir, and the Wadi Yabrin. Glaser {Skizze, 347-9) locates alto- 
gether ten Arabian gold-fields. It was this production that led the 
Assyrian Tiglath-Pileser III to refer to gold as the dust of the coun- 
try" of Merodach-Baladan, king of Bit-Yakin, and to make the Per- 
sian Gulf ports centers also for the gold produced farther to the east, 
in Persia, Carmania, and the Himalayas. The watercourses of north- 
eastern Arabia were probably the producing areas of the land of 
Havilah" of Genesis II, 11-12, which could readily supply caravans 
for Chaldaea or Canaan; while El-Yemama and the southern fields, of 
richer yield, were probably the land of Ophir' ' of Solomon' s voyages 
(I Kings X) ; and according to the tribal genealogy (Genesis X, 29) 
Ophir was a son of Joktan and therefore purely Arabian. Into this 
\oluminous controversy it is not necessary to go farther; the evidence 
is summed up by Glaser {Skizze, 357-388). 

To the Greeks and Romans the gold of Ophir" was known as 
apyron, which Diodorus Siculus (II, 50) assumes to be a Greek word, 
"without fire," and goes on to explain that it was not reduced by 
roasting the ores, but was found in the earth in shining lumps the size 
of chestnuts. Agatharchides and Pliny (XXI, 11) are both acquainted 
with this apyron gold, and Pliny (VI, 23) mentions also a river Apirus 


in Carmania, in a region previously described by Alexander's admiral, 
Onesicritus, as gold-producing. 

To the mixed Cushite-Joktanite Havilah of Genesis, the Joktanite- 
Ophir of I Kings, and the Cushite Raamah of Ezekiel XXVII, the 
cosmopolitan Ommana of the Periplus, under Parthian rule, was the 
lineal successor. 

36. Slaves. — The Arabs were inveterate slave-traders then as 
now, and the ports of Oman were always active slave-markets. Ara- 
bian dominion along the African coast had this as one of its principal 
results, until checked by international agreement after European occu- 

il. The Country of the Parsidae, of another kingdom. 

The author of the Periplus gives the name Persis, or Persia, to the 
whole Parthian Empire and refers to the recent conquests of that 
power in East and South Arabia. This ' 'country of the Parsidae' ' is 
Persia proper, including Carmania; a vassal state in the Arsacid fol- 
lowing, which would not have shared, as a state, in the Arabian spoils 
of the empire. Ommana was subject to the Parthian monarchy, not 
to Persia proper. 

Pliny (VI, 28) says 'Persia is a country opulent even to luxury, 
but has long since changed its name for that of Parthia.' " Strabo 
(VI, iii, 24) observes more exactly, "at present the Persians are a 
separate people, governed by kings who are subject to other kings; 
to the kings of Macedon in former times, but now to those of Parthia. 

37. The Bay of Gedrosia, while hardly a separate bay at 
all, may be assumed to be that bounded by the strip of coast between 
Ras Nuh (25° 7' N., 62° 18' E.) and Cape Monze (24° 45' N., 
66° 40' E. ), while the "jutting cape" is Ras Ormara (25° 6' N., 
64° 36' E.). 

37. Oraea. — The bay is the modern Sonmiani Bay (25° 0' N., 
66° 15' E. ), and the river is the Purali. According to Holdich, the 
Purali at the time of the Periplus emptied into a bay running some 
distance inland, and now silted up to the coast lines. These are the 
people described by Arrian {Anabasis of Alexander, VI, 21-2; Indka, 
XXI, XXIV, XXV) under the name of Oritae or Oritians, their country 
being called Ora. The river was called Arabis, and on its eastern 
bank dwelt "an Indian nation called Arabians;" while the Oritae on 
the western bank were "dressed like the Indians and equipped with 
similar weapons, but their language and customs were different. " 
Their coast-line ran westward from the Arabis 160 miles ; or, accord- 
ing to Pliny (VI, 25-6), 200 miles. They dwelt on the inland hills, 


and along the shore, the latter being distinguished as Fish-Eaters. 
Alexander conquered the hiU-folk and colonized their capital, Rham- 
bacia, under his own name (Diodorus Siculus, XVI, 104); while 
Nearchus fought the coast-folk, reporting them "covered with hair 
on the body, their nails like wild birds' claws, used like iron for kill- 
ing and splitting fish, and cutting softwood; other things they cut 
with sharp stones, having no iron." Strabo (XV, ii, 2) describes 
their dwellings, made of the bones of whales and great shells; the 
ribs being used for beams and rafters, and the jawbones for doorways. 

Here are more echoes of the early migrations that radiated out- 
ward from the Persian Gulf. The river Arabis and the Arabians are 
sufficiently reminiscent of Arabia, while the capital, Rhambacia, ap- 
pears in Ptolemy as a city of the Rhamnae, derived from the same 
source. The Oritas are represented by the modern Brahui. Both 
names have the same meaning, "hill-folk," one in Greek and the 
other in Persian; but this is probably no more than a punning trans- 
lation, like that of Makran into Mahi Khuran, Ichthyophagi, "fish- 
eaters." The country of Ora is rather related to the Uru of Chal- 
daean place-names; being connected with the sun-worship that survived 
well into the Christian era. The Brahui are a Dravidian tribe left 
behind by their race on its way to Southern India; in earlier days the 
connection of both with the Persian Gulf was less broken. The 
name ' Makran," as shown by Curzon {Geographical Journal, VII, 
557) is Dravidian; while "Brahui" is thought to refer to the hero of 
the tribe, Braho, a name having the same root as Abraham {Imperial 
Gazetteer of India, IX, 15-17). These people are probably the same 
as those called by Herodotus (III, 94) "Asiatic Aethiopians,' ' and 
again (VII, 70) as 'Aethiopians from the sunrise, " who were similar 
to the Aethiopians of Southern Arabia, both peoples being represented 
in the Persian army, and both having presumably sprung from the 
same stock; as witness the record in Genesis X, 7, the sons of 
Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; 
and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan. " The Cushite name 
seems to survive in Kej, in the valley of Makran; the Kesmacoran" 
of Marco Polo. 

The names of the Pharaohs of the XXVth or "Aethiopian" 
dynasty in Egypt, point to a like origin : Kashta, Shabaka, Piankhi 
{cf. Pa-anch, Poen, etc.), and Taharka {cf. Katar, Socotra). 

Wellsted (I, ch. v) noted the strong racial similarity between the 
Beni Genab in South Arabia and the people found on the Makran 
coast. Holdich {Geographical Journal, VII, 388) finds the island of 
Haftalu off the Makran coast — the Astola of Ptolemy, a center of the 


sun-worship — locally known as Serandip; a name which the Saracens 
gave to Ceylon, but which, apart from its last syllable, the Sanscrit 
dv'ipa, island, seems to be related to the island of Sera, Sarapis, or 
Masira, off the Arabian coast. 

The evident connection between both wings of this system is 
generalized by Gotz iFerkehrswege im Dienste des If'elthandeh, 33-117) 
as ' 'Turanian-Hamitic. ' ' 

Holdich (^Gates of India, 36) seems to have in mind a race re- 
sembling African negroes as the original of the ' ' Asiatic Aethiopi- 
ans" in Makran. But their descent should have been from the 
Persian Gulf. Sir John Mandeville " (chap, xxiv) gives a legend 
which in some ways seems nearer the truth: 

Noah had three sons, Shem, Cham and Japhet Cham, 

for his cruelty, took the greater and the best part, toward the east, that 
is clept Asia, and Shem took Africa, and Japhet took Europe . . . 
Cham was the greatest and the most mighty, and of him came more 
generations than of the other. And of his son Chuse was engen- 
dered Nimrod the giant, that began the foundation of- the tower of 
Babylon And of the generation of Cham be come the Paynims 

and divers folk that be in isles of the sea by all Ind. " 

See also Lassen, op. cit., II, 187-191; Sir Thomas Holdich, Gates 
of India, pp. 146-161; and Gen. M. R. Haig, Geographical Journal, 
VII, 668-674. 

37. Rhambacia. — The name of the capital is not given in the 
text, but Miiller fills the lacuna with that mentioned by Arrian. Fabri- 
cius prefers Parsis, the capital of Gedrosia according to Ptolemy; but 
this place was probably much farther west. 

Rhambacia was at no great distance from the modern Las Bela 
(26° 26' N., 66° 20' K). According to Holdich {Gates of India, 
320, 'ill), this whole neighborhood is full of evidences of early 
Arabian occupation; but the exact site is undetermined (150-1). 

The tribe-name, Rhamnae, Lassen connects with the Sanscrit 
ramana, happy; which, while possibly a mere pun, may explain the 
Hindu name "blessed" for Socotra, which had been identified with 
Raamah, or Cushite stock generally. The root of So-co/r-a is evidently 
the same as El Katar peninsula, adjoining Bahrein. 

Shamartda, "precious," an Arabic name for the mountain at the 
Straits of Hormus; the Island of the Blest" of the Babylonian 
Gilgamesh epic ; may these reflect a Cushite race-appellation, like 
the "chosen people" of the Hebrevys.? 

,^ 37. Bdellium is an aromatic gum exuded from Balsanwdendron 
mukul, order Burseracea, a small tree native in northwestern India, 


Beluchistan, Arabia, and East Africa; closely allied to myrrh and 
frankincense, and similarly employed from a very early date. Ac- 
cording to Pliny (XII, 19) the best sort came from Bactria, and the 
inferior from India and Arabia, Media and Babylonia. The gum, he 
says, ought to be transparent and the color of wax, odoriferous, 
unctuous when subjected to friction, and bitter to the taste, though 
without the slightest acidity. When used for sacred purposes it is 
steeped in wine, upon which it emits a still more powerful odor." 
The price in Rome he states as 3 denarii per pound, making it equal 
only to the poorest quality of myrrh. 

Bdellium was particularly the product of the hills between the 
Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean, and found its way westward 
through the Persian Gulf ports or overland through Babylonia. Arrian 
{Jnahasis, VI, 22) tells how the army of Alexander, returning through 
the country of the Oritae, came upon many myrrh trees, larger than 
usual," from which the Phoenician traders accompanying the army 
gathered the gum and carried it away. It is probably the hdolach of 
Genesis II, 12, which reached the Hebrews from the "land of 
Havilah," the south shore of the Persian Gulf, the district of Ommana 
of § 36. Bdolach, however, is thought by some Hebrew authorities 
to be a crj'stalline gem; while the same word is used in the Itinerary 
of Benjamin of Tudela (Adler's edition, p. 98) for the pearls of the 
Bahrein fisheries, and with the same meaning in the Meadows of Gold 
of Mas'udi (Sprenger's translation, p. 544). See also Watt, op. cit., 
p. 400; Lassen, op. cit., 1,290; Glaser, Skizxe, 324-5, 364-7. 

A passage in the Book of Numbers (XI, 7) is perhaps of interest 
as reflecting the ancient classification of fragrant gums by size and 
shape of the piece, rather than by distinguishing the tree. The 
manna of the Israelites is there said (in the R. V. ) to have been "like 
coriander seed," and the appearance thereof as the appearance of 
bdellium.' ' The A. V. has the "color as the color of bdellium," in 
contradiction to Exodus XVI, 31, where the color was said to be 
white; bdellium being brown, like myrrh. The marginal note in 
the Revised Version, ' Hebrew, eye, " points to the true meaning. 
Glaser has already shown the anti incense of the Egyptian Punt Reliefs 
to be an Arabian word, a-a-nete, tree-eyes" {Punt und die Siidarah- 
isclien Reiche, p. 7 ) , and to refer to the large lumps, exuded through 
cracks in the bark, or through substantial incisions, as distinguished 
from the small round drops, which were supposed to be tree-tears 
(§ 29) or the the tree-blood (as shown under § 29). The Hebrews 
after the Exodus would have had the same classification; so we nvy 
conclude that the author of Numbers meant to compare the small 


crystalline particles of the tamarisk-root syrup, which this manna prob- 
ably was, to the coriander seed, white," while the larger and coarser 
efflorescence was likened to the lumps of bdellium (or myrrh) with 
which he was familiar in the Levitical ritual. 

38. River Sinthus. — The Sanscrit is Sindhu, and this form 
Sinthus is unusual in Greek, the river being generally known as Indus. 
Hindu names reaching the West generally drop the j- and substitute h 
in Persian mouths. Sayce, in his Hibbert Lectures (pp. 136-138), 
argues on that basis for an ancient sea-trade between India and the 
Euphrates, from the word sindhu, or muslin, mentioned in an ancient 
Babylonian list of clothing. This is the ^adtn of the Old Testament, 
the sindon of the Greeks. 

38. The greatest river. — The Indus is exceeded by the 
Yangtse, Mekong, Irawadi, Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Shatt-el-Arab 
(none of which had been seen by the author of the Periplus). Its 
mean discharge is greater than that of the Hoang-ho. The sediment 
brought down is very great, forming in a single year an island 65 
square miles in area and 1 yard deep. The delta projects little beyond 
the normal coast-line, owing to the distribution of silt along shore by 
the ocean currents, and to the deposit of the remainder in a vast sub- 
marine trough 1200 feet deep and upwards, due south of the river 
mouths. (Reclus, Asia, III, 139.) 

38.. Graae is the Sanscrit fr<?^a. The presence of great water- 
snakes is still observed along these coasts, in the bays and at the mouths 
of rivers. 

38. Barbaricum. — This name is evidently Hellenized from 
some Hindu word — one suspects Bandar, port, or possibly some name 
such as Bahardipur, which survives in the modern Delta. With the 
steady silting of the Delta, the remains of this port are probably yards 
deep in the soft alluvium, and very likely quite away from any of the 
present branches of the river. 

Shah-bandar (Royal Port), formerly accessible to men-of-war, 
now lies far inland to the east of the present main channel of the 
Indus, while a similar fate has overtaken Ghora Bari or Vikkar, Keti, 
and other places. Since the opening of the Karachi railway most 
of these fever-stricken towns have been abandoned. 

38. Minnagara was a name given temporarily to several cities 
of India during the period of the occupation by the Scyths (the Saka 
and Yueh-chi). After the collapse of the Indo-Scythian power these 
cities resumed their former names with their autonomy. 


This iVIinnagara may be identified with the Patala of Alexander' s 
expedition — the capital of the delta country. Vincent Smith locates 
it at Bahmanabad, 25° 50' N. , 68° 50' E. , about six miles west of 
the modern Mansuriyah. The site was discovered by M. Bellasis in 
1854, and includes extensive prehistoric remains. The Indus delta 
has grown greatly since our author's time, and the courses of the 
Indus and all its tributaries have changed repeatedly. Vincent Smith 
says that the apex of the delta was probably about forty miles north of 
that place, approximately 26° 40' N., 68 30 E. He cites numerous 
facts to prove that the coast-line has advanced anywhere from 20 to 
40 miles since Alexander's time. The Rann of Cutch (EirinonJ, 
now a salt marsh, he thinks was a broad open arm of the sea running 
to 25° N., with the eastern branch of the Indus emptying into it. 
Silt brought down by the river and formed into great bars washed 
southward by the violent tides, has now closed the mouth of the Rann 
almost entirely. The coast-line he thinks may have averaged 25° N. 
from Karachi to the Rann of Cutch. 

Reclus {Asia, III, 142-5) says the Rann was probably open sea 
until about the 4th century, when a series of violent earthquakes ele- 
vated this whole region considerably. He reports ruins at Nagar 
Parkar, at the northeast corner, indicating a large sea-port trade there. 

These changes may have been one cause of the great migration 
from this region to Java in the 6th and 7th centuries A. D. 

38. Parthian princes. — The reference to the rule of "Par- 
thian princes" over the metropolis of Scythia" is very interesting. 
The first horde from Central Asia to overrun the Pamirs was the 
Saka, fleeing before the Yueh-chi. They settled in the Cabul valley, 
Seistan (SakasteneJ, and the lower Indus. By about 120 B. C. their 
leader Manes had established a kingdom at Cabul, subject to Parthia; 
his fine was known as the 'Indo-Parthian, " but his race was, roughly 
speaking, Scythian. ' ' Gradually the Yueh-chi pursued the Saka, 
first conquering Greek Bactria (they are referred to in this text, § 47, 
as the 'very warlike nation of the Bactrians, " living in the interior). 
Their king, Kadphises I, conquered Cashmere and the upper Indus; 
his son, Kadphises II, who acceded about 85 A. D., after a disastrous 
defeat at Kuche by the pursuer of the Yueh-chi, the Chinese con- 
quering general Pan-Chao — about 90 A. D. — directed his armies 
southward and rapidly overran the Panjab and the lower Indus, and 
then reached the upper Ganges and interior points like Indore. 

Both races were called by the Sanscrit 'Min" or Scyths; the 
Periplus shows the Indo-Parthians ruling in the metropolis of 
Scythia," then at the apex of the Indus delta; showing their power 


in the Kabul valley to have been broken already by the Yueh-chi or 
Kushan' ' dynasty, but their subsequent complete conquest by the 
Yueh-chi had not yet been consummated. 

The political conditions described in the Periplus were probably 
those that followed the death of Gondophares, the last powerful Indo- 
Parthian ruler in the Panjab. This is supposed to have occurred about 
51 A. D. After some years of anarchy and civil war, the Saka power 
was again consolidated under two lines of rulers; the "Northern Sa- 
traps" from the Indus to the Jumna, and the "Western Satraps" in 
Kathiawar, Gujarat and Malwa. Both these dynasties were at first 
tributary, and later subject to the Kushan power. 

More distant southern raiding by the Indo-Parthians led to the 
"Pallava" dynasties along the west coast, which after a couple of 
centuries succeeded in gaining control of much of Southern India. 
These princes were thought by labricius to be the ones referred to 
in § 52 as ruling in Calliena, near Bombay. 

39. Figured linens. — The text is polymita. Pliny (VIII, 74) 
says: Babylon was very famous for making embroidery in difFerent 
colors, and hence stuffs of this kind have obtained the name of 
Babylonian. The method of weaving cloth with more than two 
threads was invented at Alexandria; these cloths are c?i!\^A polymita ; 
it was in Gaul that they were first divided into chequers. " 

Martial's epigram, " Cubicularia polymita" (XIV, 150) indicates 
that the Egyptian tissue was formed in a loom, like tapestry, and that 
the Babylonian was embroidered with the needle. 

39. Topaz. The text is chrysolithos. This stone, according to 
Pliny, came from Aethiopia (Abyssinia) and islands in the Red Sea; 
and he adds that the best sort came from India. Here is a confusion be- 
tween two kinds of stone; the Red Sea gem being the true topaz and 
the Indian either chrysolite or yellow sapphire. The knowledge of 
the Romans in regard to precious stones was vague, and we are apt to 
be led astray by assuming that because we have borrowed the Greek 
or Latin name we have applied it to the same stone. 

The chrysolithos mentioned in the text was almost certainly our 
topaz, which was produced in abundance in the Red Sea islands, being 
an important item in the east-bound exports of Egypt, under the 
Ptolemies and Rome. 

Strabosays: (XVI, iv, 6) "After Berenice is the island Ophiodes. 
It was cleared of the serpents by the king, on account of the topazes 
found there. . . A body of men was appointed and maintained by the 
kings of Egypt to guard and maintain the place where these stones 
were found, and superintend the collection of them. " 


It is remarkable that the Periplus does not mention emeralds also 
as an export from Berenice to India. There was a large production 
from mines in the hills just west of our author's home. They may 
have fetched better prices in Rome than in India, where they would 
have had to compete with the native beryls. 

For a description of these mines, as well as of the present appear- 
ance of the site of Berenice, see Bent, Southern Arabia, 291-7. 

39. Coral. See also §§ 28 and 49. This was the red coral of 
the Western Mediterranean, which was one of the principal assets of 
the Roman Empire in its trade with the East. Pliny observes with 
some surprise (XXXII, 11) that coral was as highly prized in India 
as were pearls at Rome. The Gauls formerly ornamented their 
swords, shields and helmets with coral, but after the Indian trade was 
opened and its export value increased, it became extremely scarce 
with them. 

Tavernier ( Travels in India, II, xxiii) found the same conditions 
in his time : Although coral does not rank among precious stones 
in Europe, it is nevertheless held in high esteem in the other quarters 
of the globe, and it is one of the most beautiful of nature's produc- 
tions, so that there are some nations who prefer it to precious stones.' ' 

Ball, in his notes on Tavernier (II, 136), ascribes the preference 
for coral to "the way its tints adapt themselves to set off a dark skin, 
and also look well with a white garment. " 

It was also valued for its supposed sacred properties, and the be- 
lief in its uses as a charm continued through the Middle Ages, and 
even to the present day in Italy, where it is worn as a protection 
against the evil eye. 

The principal red coral fisheries, then as now, were in Sicily, 
Sardinia and Corsica, near Naples, Leghorn and Genoa, in Catalonia, 
the Balearic Islands and the coasts of Tunis, Algeria and Morocco. 
Tavernier describes the method of fishing by swabs" — crossed 
rafters, weighted, and bound with twisted hemp, which were let down 
and entangled amongst the coral on the rocky bottom, breaking more 
than they caught. For a fuller description, see Encyclopedia Britannica, 
art. Coral. 

Red coral is Corallium rubrum, family Gorgonidie. 

There was black coral in abundance in the Red Sea, and others 
along the Arabian coast, but these were not prized so highly. See 
Haeckel, Arabiiche Korallen. 

39. CostUS. — This is the cut root of Saussurea lappa, order Com- 
posita, a tall perennial, growing on the open slopes of the vale of 
Kashmir, and other high valleys of that region, at elevations of 8,000 


to 13,000 feet. In the Roman Empire it was used as a culinary 
spice, also as a perfume, entering into many of the ointnlents, though 
in less quantity than pepper and cinnamon. The Revised Version 
gives it as a marginal reading for Exodus XXX, 24, in place of cassia, 
as one of the ingredients of the anointing oil of the Hebrew priests. 

The root was dug up and cut into small pieces, and shipped to 
both Rome and China. Vincent describes the root as being the size 
of a finger; a yellowish woody part within a whitish bark. The 
cortex is brittle, warm, bitterish, and aromatic, of an agreeable smell, 
resembling orris. 

Chishull (^Antiq. Asiat., 71) notes that the gifts from Seleucu? 
Calhnicus to the Milesians included frankincense, 10 talents; myrrh, 
1 talent; cassia, 2 pounds; cinnamon, 2 pounds; costus, 1 pound. 

By the Romans costus was often called simply radix, the root, as 
distinguished from nard, which was caWsA folium, the leaf. The price 
in Rome is stated by Pliny (XII, 25) to have been 5 denarii per 

In modern Kashmir the collection of costus is a State monopoly, 
the product being sent to Calcutta and Bombay, for shipment to China 
and Red Sea ports. In China it is used in perfumes and as incense. 
In Kashmir it is used by shawl merchants to protect their fabrics from 

The word costus is from the Sanscrit kushtha, standing in the 

See Watt, op. cit., 980; Lassen, op. at., I, 287-8. 

39. Lycium. — This was derived from varieties of the barberry 
growing in the Himalayas, at elevations of 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 
Berberis lycium, also B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. vulgaris, order Ber- 

From the roots and stems a yellow dye was prepared; while 
from the stem, fruit and root-bark was made an astringent medicine, 
the preparation of which is described by Pliny (XXIV, 77). "The 
branches and roots, which are intensely bitter, are pounded and then 
boiled for three days in a copper vessel; the woody parts then re- 
moved, and the decoction boiled again to the thickness of honey. It 
is mixed with various bitter extracts, and with a murca of olive oil, 
and ox-gall. The froth of this decoction is used as an ingredient in 
compositions for the eyes, and the other part as a face cosmetic, and 
for the cure of corroding sores, fluxes, and suppurations, for diseases 
of the throat and gums, for coughs, and locally for dressing open 
wounds. " Many empty lycium pots have been found in the ruins of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. (See also Watt, op. cit., 130.) 


39. Nard (the root, from the lowlands, as distingfuished from 
spikenard, the leaf or flower, from the mountains, a totally different 
species). This is the root of the ginger-grass, Cymbopogon schoenan- 
thus, order Graminea, native in the Western Panjab, India, Beluchis- 
tan and Persia, and the allied species, C jwarancusa, native more to 
the east and south. It is closely allied to the Ceylon citronella, C. 

From the root of this grass was derived an oil which was used in 
Roman commerce medicinally and as a perfume, and as an astringent 
in ointments. 

This is no doubt the nard found by the army of Alexander on its 
homeward march, in the country of the Gedrosians, of which Arrian 
says {Anabasis, VI, 22): "This desert produces many odoriferous 
roots of nard, which the Phoenicians gathered; but much of it was 
trampled down by the army, and a sweet perfume was diffused far 
and wide over the land by the trampling; so great was the abundance 
of it." 

39. Turquoise. — The text has calUan stone, which seems the 
same as Pliny's callaina (XXXVII, 33), a stone that came from "the 
countries lying back of India," or more definitely, Khorassan. His 
description of the stone itself identifies it with our turquoise, which 
occurs abundantly in volcanic rocks intruding into sedimentary rocks 
in that district. The finest stones came from the mines near Maaden, 
about 48 miles north of Nishapur (the Nisasa of Alexander, 36° 30' 
N., 58° 50' E. ). A natural trade-route from this locality would have 
been down the Kabul river, thence by the Indus to its mouth, where 
the author of the Periplus found the stones offered for sale. 

(See also Heyd, Commerce du Levant au Moyen Age, II, 653 
Ritter, Erdkunde, 325-330; Yule's Marco Polo, Cordier's ed., I, 92 
Goodchild, Precious Stones, 284; Tavernier, Travels in India, II, xix 
"Turquoise is only found in Persia . . in two mines, one near 
Nishapur, the other five days' journey from it;" Lansdell, Russian 
Centra I- Asia, 515. ) 

39. Lapis lazuli. — The word in the text is sappheiros, and a 
natural inclination would be to assume this to be the same as our 
sapphire, which is also a product of India; but according to Pliny 
f XXXVII, 39) the stone known to the Romans as sapphire was an 
opaque blue stone with golden spots, which came from Media, that is, 
in a general way, from the country we call Persia. It was not suited 
for engraving because it was intersected with hard crystalline particles. 
This can be nothing but our lapis lazuli, which has been in demand 
from a very early time for ornament and also as a pigment, ultra- 


marine, which was so extensively used by the Egyptians in their public 
buildings. Our sapphire seems to have been rather a product of 
southern India and Ceylon, and would hardly have been exported 
from the Indus valley. 

Dionysius Periegetes refers to the underlying rocks which gave 
birth to the beauteous tablets of the golden hued and azure sapphire 
stone which they detach from the parent rock, " which seems to indi- 
cate lapis lazuli rather than our sapphire. 

Goodchild {Precious Stones, p. 240), also thinks that this stone was 
almost certainly the sapphire of Theophrastus and other ancient 
writers. He says, It has been known from very remote times, 
being much used by the Egyptians, and to a lesser extent by the 
Assyrians. Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, says the Tables of the 
Law given to Moses were inscribed on lapis lazuli. The Romans 
used it to some extent as a material for engraving on. 

Lassen is of the same opinion. Beckmann {Hist. Inv., 1, 467 J 
writing in the 18th century, says that the real lapis lazuli came from 
Bokhara, particularly at Kalab and Badakshan; that it was sent thence 
to India, and from India to Europe. Some came also through Russia 
via Orenburg, but less than formerly. (The first route corresponds 
with the Periplus. ) I consider it as the sapphire of the ancients" — 
quoting Pliny, Isidori Orig. XVI, 9; Theophrast. de Lapid. ; § 43; 
Dioscorides, V, 157; Dionys., Orb. Desc.,V, 1105; Epiphanius a'^ 
xii zemmis,% 5; MzxhoAeus de Lapidibus, 55. 

Tavernier, {Travels in India, II, xxv) speaks of a "mountain 
beyond Kashmir producing lapis," which Bali {Economic Geology of 
India, 529) locates near Firgamu in Badakshan, 36° 10' N., 71° W 
For a fuller description see Holdich, Gates of India, 426, 507. 

Ultramarine was probably not the caruleum of the Romans, which 
was rather copper ochre. Their blue glass was rather cobalt. 

39. Seric skins.— Pliny (XXXIV, 41) says, "of all the dif- 
ferent kinds of iron, the palm of excellence is awarded to that which 
is made- by the Seres, who send it to us with their tissues and skins; 
next to which, in quality, is the Parthian iron." And again 
(XXXVII, 11^ "the most valuable products furnished by the cover- 
ings of animals are the skins which the Seres dye." 

These passages are sufficient answer to those who have doubted 
this statement in the Periplus. (Vincent, II, 390; Miilier I, 288, 
opposed to whom see Fabricius, p. 151.) There is no more reason why 
furs should not have been sent overland across Asia in the 1st century 
than in the 16th to the 19th, when the trade was most important. Con- 
sider, for instance, the difficulty even to-day, in getting Russian sables 


to market, and how much easier to get the various wild animal skins 
from Tibet and Turkestan to the Indus mouth ! 

As to the "most excellent iron of the Seres" mentioned by Pliny, 
it is open to question whether this was not Indian steel, more cor- 
rectly described in the Periplus as coming from the Gulf of Cambay 
to the Somali coast — and Egypt It was produced in Haidarabad, a 
short distance north of Golconda, and was shipped to the Panjab and 
Persia to be made into steel; the famous Damascus blades of the 
middle ages being derived mainly from this source. (Tavernier, 
Travels, Ball's ed., I, 157.) See also under § 6. 

39- Cloth. — It is uncertain whether this should be connected 
with the following item, yarn, both being silk, or whether it is a 
separate item. If the latter, as seems probable, it would be muslin, 
as noted under §38 — the s'lndon of the Greeks, long a staple product 
of the Panjab and Sind. 

39. Silk yarn. — According to the Periplus, the Roman traders 
found silk at the mouths of the Indus and Ganges, at the Gulf of 
Cambay, and in Travancore, whither it had been brought by various 
routes from N. W. China. 

The principal highway for silk, at this time as well as later, was 
through Turkestan and Parthia. As the demand in Mediterranean 
countries grew more insistent, the restrictions of the Parthian govern- 
ment became more severe, and quarrels over the silk trade were at 
the root of more than one war between Rome and Parthia, or later 
between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanian Persia. This eflort of 
Constantinople to reach China direct, without dependence on Meso- 
potamia, led to alliances with Abyssinia, for the sea trade, and with 
the Turks, for a route north of the Caspian ; but no permanent result 
was reached until the 6th century, when a couple of Christian monks 
under Justinian succeeded in bringing back from China the jealously- 
guarded silk-worm' s eggs, from which the silk culture was introduced 
into Greece, and imports from the East diminished. 

At the time of the Periplus, Rome and Parthia being at war, the 
sea-route was the only one open to the Roman silk traders. 

See also under §§ 49, 56 and 64. 

39. Indigo, a dye produced from Indigofera tinctoria, Linn., 
order Leguminosa ; and allied species, of which about 25 exist in ^^ est- 
ern India alone, and about 300 in other tropical regions. Concerning 
the modern production see Watt {op. cit., 664). It was valued in 
Western Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean countries as a dye and 
a medicine. Pliny says (XXXV, 25-7) : 


We have indicum, a substance imported from India, with the 
composition of which I am unacquainted. When broken small it is 
of a black appearance, but when diluted it exhibits a wondrous com- 
bination of purple and deep azure. There is another kind of it which 
floats in the caldrons in the purple dye-houses, and is the scum of the 
purple dye. . If used as a medicine, indicum acts as a sedative 

for ague and other shivering fits and desiccates sores. ' ' 

Marco Polo says (III, xxii) it is made of a certain herb which 
is gathered, and (after the roots have been removed) is put into great 
vessels upon which they pour water and lave it until the whole of 
the plant is decomposed. They then put this liquid in the sun, which 
is tremendously hot there, so that it boils and coagulates, and becomes 
such as we see it. They then divide it into pieces of four ounces 
each, and in that form it is exported to our ports. " 

40. The Gulf of Eirinon is the strange expanse now known 
as the Rinn or Rann (Wilderness) of Cutch, the name coming from 
the crescent-shaped rocky island bordering it on the south. It is a 
uniform saline plain about 140 miles long, and reaching 60 miles from 
shore to shore; and in the dry season (of the N. E. monsoon) it is 
dry and firm, 10 to 20 inches above sea-level. It opens seaward by a 
narrow channel, and west of Cutch the northern Rann communi- 
cates through a second channel with the Rann, which is connected 
with the low-lying- coast of the Gulf of Cutch. In the rainy season 
(of the S. W. monsoon) the sea is driven through these channels by 
the wind, and the rain descending from the hills also flows into it, 
forming a sheet of stagnant water about 3 feet deep. But the ground 
is so level that the Rann is never deep enough to stop the camel cara- 
vans, which cross it at all seasons, traveling by night, to avoid the 
terrible heat and refraction, and the illusions of the mirages which 
constantly hover over the Rann. The guidance of stars and compass 
is preferred. 

This saline plain was certainly at one time flooded by the sea, 
as shown by the abundance of salt and by the remains of vessels dug 
up near the neighboring villages. Old harbor works are obser\ed 
near Nagar Parkar, on the eastern side of the Rann. Within his- 
torical times it was probably the scene of an active sea-trade; even in 
modern times the port of Mandavi, on the southern coast of Cutch, 
carries on a direct trade with Zanzibar, in small vessels averaging 50 
tons, of less than 10 feet draught. 

We are here again reminded of the ancient Turanian (Accadian- 
Dravidian) sea trade, which must have centered in these bays. 

The whole area was probably raised by some great earthquake. 


The upheaval is too regular to have occurred by ordinary causes. At 
the time of the Periplus it seems to have been open vy^ater, although 
shoal, with a clear opening into the ocean below the Indus delta, and 
with a branch of the Indus running into it. Now the Indus delta is 
pushed very much farther south, and the scour of the tides has carried 
its alluvium along the coast, almost blocking up the Rann; while the 
branch that watered it no longer flows in that direction. 

One is led to surmise that the great migration from Cutch and 
Gujarat to Java, which occurred in the 6th and 7th centuries, and 
which led to the establishment of Buddhist kingdoms there (surviving 
in the tremendous temples of Boroboedor and Brambanan) may have 
been due even more to this cause than to the invasion of hostile Aryan 
tribes from the upper Indus. The conversion of a navigable bay into 
a salt desert, and the diversion of the rivers that watered it, must have 
spelled ruin and starvation to multitudes of its agricultural and seafar- 
ing inhabitants, who would have been forced to migrate on a scale 
unusual in history. 

Geological considerations tend to confirm the tradition, other- 
wise unsupported by historic evidence, that the Indus was formerly 
deflected by the Rohri Hills directly into the Rann of Cutch, where 
it was joined by the river which was supposed to have formed a con- 
tinuation of the Sutlej and Sarasvati through the now dried-up Hakra 
f Wahind) canal. During exceptional floods the waters of the Indus 
still overflow into the eastern desert and even into the Rann. Other 
channels traversing the desert farther south still attest the incessant shift- 
ing of the main stream in its search for the most favorable seaward out- 
let. According to Burns, a branch of the Indus known as the Purana, or 
"Ancient," still flowed in 1672 about 120 miles east of the present 

The constant shiftings of the river-bed toward the west have 
rendered the eastern regions continually more arid, and have changed 
many river-channels into salt-pits. In the year 1909 a city of 25,000 
inhabitants, Dera Ghazi Khan, was almost annihilated by the Indus. 

The name Eirinon, Rinn or Rann is from the Sanscrit aranya or 
irina, a waste or swamp. 

40. The Gulf of Baraca is the modern Gulf of Cutch. 
Whether the name sur\ives in the modern Dwarka (22° 22' X., 
69° 5' E. ), is uncertain. It seems to be the same as Bahlika^ which 
is associated with Surashtra in the Mahahharata, the Ramayana and 
the Vishnu Purana. 

41. Ariaca. — This word in the text is very uncertain. Lassen 
thinks that the name is properly the Sanscrit Latica (pronounced Larica) 


and included the land on both sides of the Gulf of Cambay. Ptolemy 
also gives the name Larica. An inscription of Asoka mentions Latica. 
The earliest form seems to have been Rastika or Rashtrika, belong- 
ing to the kingdom. " This word appears also in Syrastrene. The 
Prakrit form of this word Rdshtra survives also in the modern Maratha 
{Maharashtra). (Lassen, I, 108.) Another explanation derives 
Ariaca from Apardntika, an old name for the western seaboard. 

(Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji, m Indian Antiquary, VII, 259-263.) 
According to Reclus (Asia, III, 165) both Cutch and Kathiawar 
(Baraca and Syrastrene) were originally islands. This whole area 
has been raised in historical times. The land connecting Kathiawar 
with the mainland is not over 50 feet above sea-level and is full of 
marine remains. 

Its position seaward made it early a centre of trade, and a great 
mixture of races — also an asylum for refugees, political and religious. 

41. Nambanus. — The text is Alamharus. This is probably 
the same as the Saka ruler Nahapana. See under § 52. 

41. Abiria. — This is the native Abhira, which Lassen (I, 
538-9), argues must have been the Biblical Ophir. In the account 
of the Ophir trade given in I Kings, IX, 26-28; I Kings, X, 11; 
II Chronicles VIII, 17, and IX, 10, the products mentioned are 
gold, sandalwood (.0, precious stones, ivory, silver, apes and pea- 
cocks. The word translated ape, Lassen remarks, is kophi, not a 
Hebrew word, but derived from the Sanscrit word kapi. The word 
for ivory is noted under § 49. The word for peacock, tukhi-im, is 
the Sanscrit sikhi, called in Malabar, togei. 

Sandalwood, Lassen thinks, was the almug or algum, which he 
derives from the Sanscrit valgu, Malabar valgum. Lassen also refers 
to the Indian city Sophir (the Suppara of § 52). 

But the location of Ophir in India is impossible. The land of 
Abhira, the modern Gujarat, is and was purely an agricultural country. 
dealing in none of the products mentioned, and is at the northern end 
of India' s west coast, not the southern, from which these products 
came. Later scholarship is sufficiently sure in locating Ophir on the 
Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf,but the Indian names for the prod- 
ucts mentioned proved clearly enough that it was a trading center 
dealing with India, even if the land itself was not Indian. 

The name, too, has a suggestive similarity. Just as we have 
Cutch, Kachh, Khuzistan^Kassites, and wretched Cush," so Ab- 
hira, Apir, Ophir suggest the same Dravidian-Accadian activity be 
tween India, the Persian Gulf, and Africa, which later gave way 


to a Semitic, nati\e Arabian activity. This would have been a couple 
of thousand years before Solomon's day. 

41. Syrastrene. — Sanscrit, Surashtra; the modern Kathiawar. 
The name survives in the modern Surat, which owes its name to 
Arabic domination. At the time of the Periplus this peninsula, to- 
gether with the opposite coast of Cutch and Cambay, was subject to 
the Saka or Indo-Parthian dynasties. 

41. A fertile country. — Gujarat is still one of the richest 
regions in India, its prosperity being largely due to the 60 seaports 
fringing its coast-lines and to the fertility of its deep black soil, which 
is particularly adapted to the cultivation of cotton. Horses, cattle, 
sheep and grain are exported in large numbers to Bombay and other 
parts of India. 

41. Rice. — Oryza, Linn. , order Graminea. The species now 
most generally cultivated is Ory%a saliva. There are various wild 
varieties, one of importance being Oryza coarctata (Roxb. ) or 0. triti- 
coides, which was native in the Indus and Ganges valleys, and also 
apparently in Mesopotamia (see Watt, op. cit., 823-5). This wild 
variety resembles wheat and seems to have been mistaken for it by 
Strabo and some of the Greek writers on India. 

Oryza iativa, the cultivated form, is native in India, Burma, 
and Southern China. It is the principal food of Asia, and doubtless 
was so at the time of the Periplus, when it was exported to Arabia 
and East Africa. It was cultivated in China, according to Stanislas 
Julien, as early as 2800 B. C. , and probably somewhat later in India. 
WdXX. thinks the cultivation began rather in Turkestan, whence it 
spread to China, India and Persia in the order named, the changing 
climate also forcing its wild habitat southwards. He thinks that coin- 
cides with the region through which the Dravidian invaders passed 
until they culminated in the Tamil civilization. He also cautions 
against the tempting derivation of the Greek word oryzji and the Arabic 
al-ruzz. (from which the modern rice, riso, riz, arroz, etc. ), from the 
Tamil arisi, thinking that they are rather from the old Persian virinzi 
(Sanscrit vrihi), indicating an early connection before migrations had 
radiated from Central Asia. 

41. Sesame oil, expressed from the seeds of Sesamum Indicum, 
D. C. , order Pedalinea; an annual plant cultivated throughout the 
tropical and subtropical regions of the globe for the oil obtained from 
the seed. Originally, perhaps, it was a native of Africa, but was 
regularly cultivated in India long before it reached the Mediterranean 
countries. At the time of the Periplus it is safe to assume that sesame 


was an important crop throughout India and the warmer parts of Cen- 
tral Asia. Our author shows us that the oil was exported from the 
Gulf of Cambay to both Arabia and Africa, whence doubtless it was 
reshipped to the Roman world. 

According to the statistics given by Watt {_op. cit., 982) the area 
under cultivation in India in 1904-5 was over 4,000,000 acres, of 
which about 700,000 was in the Cambay states. 

In modern India the oil is largely used for culinary purposes, in 
anointing the body, in soap manufacture, and as a lamp-oil. It is 
also used as an adulterant of ^hi or clarified butter. 

It is a yellow oil, without smell, and not liable to become rancid. 
In many properties it closely resembles olive oil, and is similarly used 
where the olive oil is not cultivated. It is extracted by simple ex- 
pression in mills. Strabo (XVI, i, 20) refers to the ancient custom 
in Mesopotamia of anointing the body with sesame oil. 

41. Clarified Butter. — The text is boutynn (see also under 
§ 14). This is not fresh butter made from cream, but rather the 
Indian ghi, an oil reduced from butter. Fabricius says that it could 
not have been transported from India to Africa under the tropical 
sun, and would read bosmoros, an Indian grain; but ghi stands long 
journeys to-day and might very likely have been in demand in the 1st 
century on the African coast, which produced no oil except from the 
cocoanut palm. According to Watt {op. cit., 478) ghi is an oil de- 
canted after heating the butter about twelve hours, during which the 
moisture is driven off and the residue (casein, etc.) is deposited as a 
sediment. The butter thus loses about 25 per cent of its bulk. It is 
made from buffalo's milk rather than cow's. 

G/ii is mentioned in some of the most ancient of the Hindu 

If carefully enclosed in leather skins or earthen pots, while still 
hot, it may be preserved for many years without requiring the aid of 
salt or other preservatives. Fryer, in 1672-81, speaks of tanks of ghi 
in the Deccan, 400 years old, of great value medicinally, and high 

This word boutynn has been variously emended by the commen- 
tators, all of whom had fresh butter in mind, although Lassen should 
have been familiar with the durability of clarified butter, and with the 
probability of its export from the rich agricultural region of Gujarat. 

Lassen, Oppert and others, following a mention of boutyros by 
Theophrastus, identify it with asafoetida, by way of the Sanscrit bhutari 
("the enemy of evil spirits"). But asafoetida was a product of Af- 
ghanistan and would have been brought to the Indus mouth rather than 


to Barygaza. While Theophrastus may have referred to it as boutyros, 
the Romans knew it more intimately as laser, which is the word that 
the author of the Periplus would probably have used. It entered into 
Roman medicine as a remedy for fevers and tropical digestive disor- 
ders. (Pliny, XIX, 15). 

Fabricius needlessly alters the text to read bosmons, 2l grain, 
which he does not identify. McCrindle suggests wild barley or millet. 
The following passages from Strabo throw some light on that question : 

He says (XV, ii, 13) "By the vapors which ascend from so 
many rivers, and by the Etesian winds, India, as Eratosthenes states, 
is watered by the summer rains, and the level country is inundated. 
During the rainy season, flax and millet, as well as sesamum, rice and 
bosmoros are sown; and in the winter season, wheat, barley, pulse, 
and other esculents with which we are unacquainted. ' ' And again : 

(XV, ii, 18) "Onesicritus says of bosmoros that it is a smaller 
grain than wheat, and is grown in countries between rivers. It is 
roasted after being threshed out, and the men are bound by oath not to 
take it away before it has been roasted, to prevent the seed from being 
exported.' ' 

The treasuring of this bosmoros and the prejudice against its ex- 
portation indicate the native millet, which was regarded as particularly 
pure, and was the grain most used for temple-offerings. 

Other grains which might suggest themselves, are the African 
millets, Hokus sorghum ( Hindu yWr) or Kaffir corn (see Pliny, XVIII, 
10, for description of its remarkable size and prolific increase) and 
Pennisetum typhoideum (Hindu, bajra) or spiked millet. Both are im- 
portant crops in modern India, but were probably brought from Africa 
more recently than the date of the Periplus, and being native in So- 
maliland, would not be probable articles of import there. 

Wild barley, suggested by McCrindle, was also native in Egypt 
and Somaliland, and therefore not likely to have been imported. 

Another possible grain is the Indus valley wild rice, Oryxa coarc- 
tata (Hindu, barirdhan) , which has been confused with wheat. See 
Watt, p. 823. 

The common millet, Panicum miliaceum, while grown in India, 
was native in Egypt and the Mediterranean countries. 

Altogether the bosmoros of Strabo was mostprobabl\ "Poor man's 
millet," Panicum Crus-galli; which is extensively cultivated to-day in 
China and Japan as well as India. The native name given it in Ben- 
gal, bura shama, might readily be Hellenized into bosmoros. 

According to Watt {op. cit., 843) Panicum Crus-galli, order 
Gramineix, is a large, coarse plant, preferring wet ground, such as 


borders of ponds and banks of streams. It is extensively cultivated 
as a rainy-season crop over most of India — on the Himalayas to 6500 
feet. It thrives on light sandy soils and is often cultivated when the 
rains are over, on the banks of rich silt deposited by rivers. The 
yield is fifty fold in good soil. It is the quickest-growing millet, 
harvested sometimes in six weeks, and is consumed chiefly by the 
poorer classes, for whom it is useful because it ripens early and affords 
a cheap article of food before bajra and the other millets. 

41. Cotton and the Indian cloths. — These were the 

monache, molochine, and sagmatogene of §§ 6 and 14. The account 
given by Tavernier throws some light on the earlier production. He 
says {op. cit., II, xii) "White cotton cloths come to Renonsari (near 
Surat) and Broach, where they have the means of bleaching them in 
large fields, on account of the quantity of lemons growing in the 
neighborhood. The cloths are 21 cubits long when crude, but 

only 20 cubits when bleached. There are both broad and narrow 
kinds. The broad are lYi cubit wide, and the piece is 20 cubits 
long." And again: The cotton cloths to be dyed red, blue, or 
black, are taken uncolored to Agra and Ahmadabad, because these 
two towns are near the place where the indigo is made, which is used 
in dyeing. The cheaper kinds are exported to the coast of Melinde 
(the Azania of the Periplus), and they constitute the principal trade 
done by the Governor of Mozambique, who sells them to the Kaffirs 
to carry into the country of the Abyssins and the kingdom of Saba, 
because these people, not using soap, need only rinse out these 

Vincent's translation of sagmatog'enc by ' stuffing," that is, un- 
spun cotton, is supported by Tavernier, who says 'the unspun cottons 
from Gujarat do not go to Europe, being too bulky and of too small 
value, and they are only exported to the Red Sea, Hormus, and 

Marco Polo (III, 26) says of this locality: "They have also a 
great deal of cotton. Their cotton trees are of very great size, grow- 
ing six paces high, and attaining to an age of 20 years. ( Gossxpnim 
arboreum. ) It is to be observed, however, that, when the trees are 
so old as that, the cotton is not good to spin, but only to quilt or stuff 
beds withal. Up to the age of 12 years, indeed, the trees give good 
spinning cotton, but from that age to 20 years the produce is inferior. 

Pliny also (XII, 21) quotes from Theophrastus a description of 
the tree cotton, contrasting it with silk: "trees that bear wool, but 
of a different nature from those of the Seres; as in these trees the 
leaves produce nothing at all, and indeed might very readily be taken 


for those of the vine, were it not that they are of smaller size. They 
bear a kind of gourd, about the size of a quince, which when ripe 
bursts asunder and discloses a ball of down, from which a costly kind 
of linen cloth is made." 

41. Minnagara.— This capital was identified by Miiller with 
the modern Indore, but according to Vincent Smith Up- cit., 192-3) 
may be the ancient town of Madhyamika or Nagarl, one of the oldes' 
sites in India, of which the ruins still exist, about eleven miles north 
ofChitor (24° 53' N., 74° 39' E.). 

"\lcCrindle and Fabricius prefer, but quite conjecturally, to place 
it in Kathiawar; but the text indicates the mainland in observing that 
from Minnagara cotton cloth was "brought down," by river pre- 
sumably, to Barygaza. 

The name Minnagara means "City of the Min," which was 
the Hindu name for the Saka invaders. 

41. Barygaza. — This is the modern Broach (21° 42' N., 72° 
59'E.). The Greek name is from the Prakrit Bharukacha, supposed 
to be a corruption of Bhrigukachha, ' 'the plain of Bhrigu, " who was 
a local hero. Here is at least a suggestion of Dravidian connection 
with the Brahui of Gedrosia, their hero Braho and their KacA place- 

The district of Barygaza was an important part of the empire of 
Chandragupta Maurya, who is said to have resided at Suklatirtha. 
After the collapse of his dynasty it fell into the hands of the Saka 
princes, who were in power at the time of the Periplus. 

41. Signs of the Expedition of Alexander. — The Greek 

army reached Jhelum (32° 56' N. , 73° 47' E. ) on the river of the 
same name. Somewhat above that place, on the opposite side of the 
river, Vincent Smith locates the field of his battle with Porus. (Early 
History of India, 71-8. ) Alexande'r then penetrated to Gurdaspur, on 
the Sutlej river, about 50 miles N. E. from Amritsar. Here he began 
his retreat. The author of the Periplus is mistaken in supposing that 
the Alacedonians got beyond the Indus region, and is probably quot- 
ing what was told him by some trader at Barygaza, who would hardly 
have distinguished Alexander from Asoka. Under the caste system 
tfie traders were not concerned with the religious or political activities 
of the country, and those concerned with foreign trade were often, as 
now, mere outcasts; while even had they been informed, they would 
ha\'e been quite equal to attributing anything, for the moment, to 
Alexander, out of deference to their Greek customers, who were far 
more interested in h.s exploits than any Hindu could be. 


41. The promontory of Papica is Goaphat, or Gopinath 

42. Another gulf. — This is the Gulf of Cambay. 

42. Baeones is Piram Island opposite the mouth of the Narbada 
(21° 36' N., 72° 21' E. ), as shown on the following map. Diu 
Island, the modern Portuguese possession, preferred by Vincent, 
does not conform to the sailing-course of the Periplus, as shown 
byMdUer (I, 290.) 


to 30 Feet. 80 i o 75 feet. 75 Feet and upwards. 

_^^__^_^.^__^^_ ao Miles. 

According to the Imperial Gazetteer, XX, 149-150, it is a reef of 
rock partly covered by brown sand, and is surrounded by rocky reefs 
rising to the surface from a depth of 60 to 70 feet. To avoid the 
tide-currents, chopping sea and sunken reefs, boats have still to follow 
the course toward the Narbada, as described in the Periplus. 


42. The great river Mais is the modern Mahi, emptying 
into the head of the ^ulf, at the city of Cambay. (22° 18' N., 72° 
40' E. ) 

42. The river Nammadus- 

ern Xarbada or Nerbudda. 

-Hindu, Narmada — is the mod- 

43. Hard to navigate. — The sketch-map on the preceding 
page, from Reclus, Jsia, \o\. Ill, illustrates the difficulties. 

Herone shoal is no doubt the long bar at the eastern side of the 
gulf, and Cammoni would be at the end of the promontory that lies 
to the N. W. of the mouth of the Tapti River, the entrance to the 
prosperous mediaeval port of Surat. This is, perhaps, the same as 
the Camanes of Ptolemy. 

44. Trappaga and Cotymba. — The first word Lassen de- 
rives (II, 539 from trapaka, a type of fishinij boat mentioned by other 
travellers to this region. The second suggests the modern kotia, a. 
craft from these waters found by Burton in the Somaliland ports (First 
Footsteps, 408 j. 

Fishing-boats entering Bombay Harbor 

44. Anchorages and basins. — The maintenance of this 
regular service of pilotage, under which incoming vessels were met 
at least 100 miles from Barygaza, indicates an active and regular com- 
merce, such as our author describes. The use of stations" in the 
river is still necessary here, and in other rivers such as those of Burma, 
where modern sailing traffic is more active. 


45. Very great tides.— The vivid description of the tidal 
bore, in this and the following paragraph, is certainly the result of 
personal experience. To a merchant familiar with the all but tideless 
waters of the Red Sea, it must indeed have been a wonder of nature. 
The same thing occurs in many places where a strong tide is forced 
into a narrow, shallow and curving estuary, as in Burma, the Bay 
of Fundy, the Bay of Panama, and elsewhere. According to the 
Imperial Ga%etteer of India, IX, 297, high spring tides in the Gulf of 
Cambay rise and fall as much as 33 feet, and run at a velocity of 
6 to 7 knots an hour. Ordinary tides reach 25 feet, at \% to 6 
knots. The inevitable damage to shipping, under such difficulties, 
was the cause of the desertion of the Cambay ports for Surat and, 
more recently, Bombay. 

46. The sea rushing in with a hoarse roar. 

"Through hoarse roar never remitting, 

Along the midnight edge by those milk-white combs careering." 

Walt Whitman: Patrolling Bamegat. 

47. Arattii.— This is a Prakrit form of the Sanscrit Arashtra, 
who were a people of the Panjab ; in fact the name Aratta is often 
synonymous with the Panjab in Hindu literature. 

47. Arachosii. — This people occupied the country around the 
modern Kandahar (31° 27' N., 65° 43' E.). McCrindle {.Ancient 
India, 88) says Arachosia extended westward beyond the meridian 
of Kandahar, and was skirted on the east by the river Indus. On the 
north it stretched to the western section of the Hindu Kush and on 
the south to Gedrosia. The province was rich and populous, and 
the fact that it was traversed by one of the main routes by which 
Persia communicated with India added greatly to its importance." 

47. Gandaraei. — (Sanscrit, Gandhdra.) This people dwelt on 
both sides of the Cabul River, above its junction with the Indus; the 
modern Peshawar district. In earlier times they extended east of the 
Indus, where their eastern capital was located — Takshasild, a large 
and prosperous city, called by the Greeks Taxila. 

(See also Holdich, Gates of India, 99, 114, 179, 185; \incent 
Smith, Early History, 2>1, 43, 50, 52, 54; Foucher, Notes sitr la geo- 
graphie ancienne du Gandhdra. ) 

The trade-route briefly referred to in the mention of Gandhara 
and Pushkalavati was that leading to Bactria, whence it branched west- 
ward to the Caspian and the Euphrates, and eastward through Turke- 
stan to China, the "Land of This" of § 64. 

47. Poclais. — (Sanscrit, Pushkardvafi,oxPushkaldvaU, "abound- 


ing in lotuses." Prakrit, Pukkalaoti, whence the Peucelaotis of Arrian. ) 
This was the western capital of Gandhara {,cf. Strabo, XV, 26-8; 
Arrian, ^TZfl^ajw, IV, xxii; Jndica,lV; Lassen, II, 858;, the modern 
Charsadda, 17 miles N. E. of Peshawar, on the Suwat River. 

47. Bucephalus TUexandria. — This is identified by Vincent 
Smith {,op. cit., 62) with the modern town of Jhelum. (See under 
§ 41. ) Its position is marked by an extensive mound west of the 
present settlement. The mound is known as Pindi, the town, " and 
yields large ancient bricks and numerous Graeco-Bactrian coins- Its 
position at a ferry on the high-road from the west to the Indian inte- 
rior gave it great commercial importance. 

47. Warlike nation of the Bactrians. — This passage, with 
its reference to Graeco-Bactrian coins current in Barygaza, presents a 
view of Indian history which does not appear in any other contempo- 
rary work. The sequence of events in Bactria during the four cen- 
turies between Alexander and the Periplus, which is fully set forth by 
Vincent Smith {op. cit., IX, X) is summarized as follows: 

The Empire of Alexander was broken up at his death and the 
whole Eastern section from Syria to India fell to Seleucus, one of his 
generals. The Indian conquests were lost immediately, but the inter- 
vening country remained under Greek control for nearly 100 years 
under Antiochus Theos. The two northeastern provinces of Parthia 
and Bactria revolted. The Parthians, an Asiatic race akin to the 
Turks, set up for themselves, and built up a military power which later 
absorbed the country beyond the Euphrates. The Bactrian country, 
which was then populous and productive, remained under the govern- 
ment of Greek princes, and its independence was finally recognized in 
208 B. C. The Greek monarchs in Bactria immediately set about 
enlarging their domains by striving; to gain an outlet to the sea through 
the Indus Valley. In 190 B. C. Demetrius conquered the whole 
Indus Valley and that part of Afghanistan lying around the modern 

During his absence in India a relative, Eucratides, re\'olted and 
Demetrius returned home but his name does not reappear. From 
160 to 156 there seems to have been anarchy in Bactria which ended 
in the assassination of Eucratides by his son Apollodotus, whose reign 
seems to have been very short. 

In the years 155-153 a Greek King Menande;, apparently a 
brother of Apollodotus, whose capital was Cabul, annexed the entire 
Indus Valley, the peninsula of Suras'ntra (Syrastrene) and other terri- 
tories on the western coast; occupied Mathura; besieged Wadhya- 
mika (now Nagari near Chitorj, and threatened the capital, Patali- 


putra, which is the modern Patna. Menander had to retire, however, 
to Bactria. He is supposed to have been a convert to Buddhism, and 
has been immortalized under the name of Milinda in a celebrated dia- 
logue entitled The Questions of Milinda, which is one of the most noted 
books in Buddhist literature. 

Heliocles, son of Eucratides, seems to have been the last Greek 
king to rule north of the Hindu Kush Mountains. 

This phase of Asiatic history is reflected by the mention of the 
Greek coinage of Apollodotus and Menander, current in Barygaza at 
the time of the Periplus. The coins must have been over 200 years 
old, and the preservation of small silver coins in commercial use for 
that length of time is remarkable. 

To understand the very warlike nation of the Bactrians' which 
our author mentions as living in the interior under their own king, ' 
one must go to the history of central Asia. Chinese annals mention 
that in the year 165 B. C, a nomadic Turki tribe in northwestern 
China and owing allegiance to the Chinese emperors, known as the 
Yueh-chi, were driven out of their territory by the Hiongnu or Tar- 
tars, and migrated westward. This displaced numerous savage tribes 
in central Asia, who in turn moved westward; and thus the great 
waves of migration were begun which inundated Europe for centuries, 
overwhelmed the Roman Empire, and long threatened to extinguish 
white civilization. 

The Yueh-chi in their westward movement drove out a tribe 
known as the Saka, who had lived between the Chu and Jaxartes 
rivers. These tribes in the years 140-130 poured into Bactria, over- 
whelmed the Greek Kingdom there and continued into the country 
known as Seistan, then called, from its conquerors, Sakastene. Another 
branch of the Saka horde settled in Taxila in the Panjab and Mathura 
on the Jumna, where Saka princes ruled for more than a century 
under the Parthian power. These Saka tribes seem to have been 
originally connected with the Parthians. Another section of the Sakas 
at a later date pushed on southward and occupied the peninsula of 
Surashtra, founding a Saka dynasty which lasted for centuries- This 
country is referred to by the author of the Periplus in § 38 as ' 'subject 
to Parthian princes who were constantly driving each other out." 

The Sakas of India seem to have been subject to the Parthians, 
and Indo-Parthian princes appear at Cabul and in the Panjab about 
120 B. C. There is a long line of Parthian princes recorded as rul- 
ing in Cabul; among them Gondophares, who acceded in 21 A. D. 
and reigned in Cabul and the Panjab for thirty years. This is the 
same prince who is mentioned in the apocryphal "Acts of St. Thomas,' 


which, although not composed until the third century A. D., reflects 
the prominence with which his name was regarded in the history of 
the time. 

The Indo-Parthian princes were gradually driven southward by 
the advancing Yueh-chi, who had expelled the last of them from the 
Punjab before the end of the first century A. D. — that is, at the time 
of this work. 

The Yueh-chi, whose westward migration started all this 
trouble, had settled in Bactria north of the Oxus River about 70 
B. C. The scattered tribes were gradually brought together under a 
central power, and their wandering habits were changed for agricul- 
ture and industry; so that when the Yueh-chi nation was unified 
under Kadphises I, who began to rule in 45 A. D., it represented a 
different people from the savages who had overwhelmed the Greek 
Kingdom of Bactria. Kadphises reigned over Bokhara and Afghani- 
stan for 40 years, and was succeeded by his son Kadphises II, who 
extended his conquests into India. 

The Chinese emperors had never abandoned their assertion of 
sovereignty over the Yueh-chi. An embassy was sent from China 
to the Oxus River in the years 125-115 B. C. to try to persuade the 
Yueh-chi to return to China, but the mission was unsuccessful, and 
subsequent revolutions kept Chinese interest at home between 100 
B. C. and 70 A. D. 

A Tartar army under the Chinese General Pan Chao reasserted 
Chinese supremacy over all of Central Asia, extending its conquests 
as far as the Caspian Sea. Thus, with the submission of Khotan and 
Kashgar to Chinese armies in 73 A. D., the route south of the Cen- 
tral Asian desert was thrown open to commerce from end to end. 
With the reduction of Kuche and Kharachar in 94 A. D., the route 
north of the desert was also thrown open, and for the first time regular 
commerce between East and West was made possible. 

It should be borne in mind that this route was still policed by 
savage tribes only nominally subject to the- Chinese Empire, and 
while communication was opened up immediately, trade was not 
carried on in large volume until the time of the Roman Emperor 
Marcus Aurelius, 100 years later. 

Kadphises II, ruler of the Yueh-chi, who had in the meantime 
extended his conquest into India but not yet as far as the Indus delta, 
sent an army of 70,000 cavalry against the Chinese General Pan Chao, 
and was totally defeated near Kashgar; and was obliged for some 
years to send tribute to China. 


About 95 A. D. he be^an his further conquests of India, and 
his kintjdom reached as far as Benares and Ghazipur on the Ganges 

The Yueh-chi opened up the commerce between India and 
the Roman Empire. Here, as in Central Asia, the trade had been 
merely incidental and subject to depredations of numerous savage 
tribes. The Parthians had done what they could to control and or- 
ganize it and to le\5' tribute on the Roman merchants, but they had 
not controlled it to the eastward. The existence of unified power in 
the Indus A'alley and Afghanistan made possible a regular trade from 
the Ganges to the Euphrates. The rapid growth of such trade is 
indicated by the coinage of the Yueh-chi Kings in India. Kadphises I 
struck coins in bronze only, which were imitated from those of Au- 
gustus. Kadphises II imitated the gold coins of the Roman Empire, 
which were then pouring into India in a steady stream. In Southern 
India, where there was an active Roman maritime trade, there was 
no native gold coinage, the Roman being sufficient. 

It is probable that the Indian embassy, which offered its con- 
gratulations in Rome to the Emperor Trajan, was dispatched by 
Kadphises II, to announce his conquest of Northwestern India. 

47. Alexander penetrated to the Ganges. — This is, of 

course, quite untrue, the Panjab having been the turning-point of his 
expedition. The great mass of India was entirely unaffected by his 
inxasion, except as it led to the subsequent centralization of power 
under Chandragupta Maurya. Our author is confusing Alexander with 

"The East bowed low before the blast 
In patient, deep disdain; 
She let the legions thunder past, 
And plunged in thought again. " 

Matthew Arnold; Obermann. 

48. Ozene.— This is the modern Ujjain, 23° 11' N., 75° 47' 
E. , the chief city of IVlalwa. The Sanscrit form is Ujjayini, "vic- 
torious." The Prakrit is Vjjeni, from which the Greek is derived. 

Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities of India, not yielding 
even to Benares. In Hindu legend it was here that the elbow of 
Satifell, on the dismemberment of her body by Siva. The river Sipra, 
on which it is located, is also sacred. The place was important under 
the earliest Aryan settlements in IVIalwa. In early times it was known 
as AvantI, a kingdom which is described in Buddhist literature as one 
of the four great powers of India. As Ujjeni it is very prominent 
in Buddhist records, having been the birthplace of Kachana, one of 


Sakyamuni' s greatest disciples. Here was a Buddhist monastery known 
as the Southern Mount, while it was the principal stage on the route 
from the Deccan to SravastI, then the capital of the great kingdom of 
Kosala. Here also in his younger days Asoka, later emperor, and 
the greatest patron of Buddhism, was stationed as viceroy of the 
western provinces of the Maurya Empire. This was the custom also 
in several subsequent dynasties, on both sides of the Vindhyas, for the 
heir-apparent to act as viceroy in the western provinces. 

Uijeni was the Greenwich of India, the first meridian of longi- 
tude of its geographers. By its location it was a trade center for all 
produce imported at Barygaza, whence distribution was made to the 
Ganges kingdoms. At the time of the Periplus it was no longer a 
capital, the royal seat being at Minnagara. " The Maurya empire 
had broken up, and in the anarchy following the irruptions in the 
northwest, its western provinces' of Surashtra and Jvlalwa had been 
raided by Saka freebooters, who finally established themselves in power 
as the 'Western Satraps," or Kshatrapa dynasty. For a generation 
or so before the formal proclamation of the dynasty the invaders' 
stronghold was their capital. After their claims were recognized they 
probably ruled from Ujjeni, which Ptolemy describes as the capital of 
Tiastenos or Chashtana, the Kshatrapa ruler of his time. It re- 
mained, apparently, in Saka hands until about the 5th century A. D., 
when it reverted to Brahman power under the Gupta Empire ; this 
expulsion of the misbelieving foreigners" giving rise to the tradition 
of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, the King Arthur of India, at whose court 
the nine gems, " the brightest geniuses of India, were supposed to 
have flourished. 

(See Imperial Gazetteer, VIII, 279-280; XXR', 112-114; Las- 
sen, I, 116. ) 

48. Spikenard: Nardostachys jatamansi, order I'alerianacea. A 
perennial herb of the alpine Himalaya, which extends eastward from 
Garhwal and ascends to 17,000 feet in Sikkim. "The drug consists 
of a portion of the rhizome, about as thick as the little finger, sur- 
mounted by a bundle of reddish-brown fibers, the remains of the 
radical leaves. It is aromatic and bitter, and yields on distillation an 
essential oil. In India it is largely used as an aromatic adjunct in the 
preparation of medicinal oils, and is popularly believed to increase the 
growth and blackness of the hair." (Watt, op. at., 792.) 

According to Pliny fXII, 26), Leaf nard varies in price accord- 
ing to the size; for that which is known by the name of hadrosphae- 
rum, consisting of the larger leaves, sells at 40 denarii per pound. 
When the leaves are smaller, it is called mesosphaerum, and is sold 


at 60. But that which is considered the most valuable of all, is known 
as microsphaerum, and consists of the very smallest of the leaves; it 
sells at 75 denarii per pound. All these varieties of nard have an 
agreeable odor, but it is most powerful when fresh. If the nard is 
old when gathered that which is of a black color is considered the 
best. ' ' 

Pliny observes that leaf nard, or spikenard, held the first place in 
Rome among the ointments of his day. Compare Mark XIV, 3-5, 
which tells of the alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very pre- 
cious," valued at more than 300 denarii. 

See under § 24: also, for further references, Lassen, I, 288-9. 

48. Caspapyra. — This is the Greek form of the Sanscrit 
Kasyapapura, city of the Kasyapa." The same word survives in 
the modern Kashmir, which is from the Sanscrit Kasyapamata {"pto- 
nounced pamara) , and meaning home- of the Kasyapa" (one of the 
'previous Buddhas. ' ) According to the division of the Greek geog- 
raphers, Gandhara was the country below Cabul, while Kasyapamata 
was ihe adjoining district in India proper. (See Lassen, I, 142; 
II, 631.) 

It was from a town named Caspapyra, that Scylax of Caryanda 
began his voyage of discovery at the command of the Persian king 
Darius. The story is given by Herodotus (IV, 44). He refers to 
the place as being in the Pactyan land," and Hecataeus calls it 'a 
city of the Gandaraeans." It could not have been far above the 
modern Attock (33° 53' N., 72° 15' E.). Vincent Smith (Ear/y 
History, 32) doubts the connection of the name with Kashmir; but 
while outside the present limits of that district, it is not impossible 
that its earlier extension was wider. The fact that the Periplus dis- 
tinguishes it from Gandhara points in that direction. 

48. Paropanisus was the name given the mountain-range 
now called Hindu Kush. It was made the boundary between the 
empire of Seleucus, Alexander's successor, and that of Chandragupta 
Maurya, by a treaty ratified in 303 B. C. ; by which the newly-estab- 
lished Indian empire received the provinces of the Paropanisadae, 
Aria, Arachosia and Gedrosia. The first Indian emperor, more 
than two thousand years ago, thus entered into possession of 'that 
scientific frontier' sighed for in vain by his English successors, and 
never held in its entirety even by the Mogul monarchs of the 16th 
and 17th centuries." (Vincent Smith, Ear/y History, 113; also 
132-4; Strabo, XV, i, 10 and ii, 9; Plutarch, Alexander, Ixii; Justin, 
XV, 4; Pliny, VI, 20; Arrian, Anabasis, V, 5; Indica, II. See 
also Holdich, Gates of India.) 


48. The Cabolitic country is, of course, the modern Cabul 
valley, above the Khyber Pass; being within the present limits of 

48. Scythia. — See under § 41. This was the region which was 
subject to the Parthian princes, weak successors of Gondophares, 
whose reign had ended about 51 A. D. 

49. Lead. — Pliny (XXXI\', 47-50) distinguishes between black 
lead and white lead; the former being our lead, the latter tin (see 
also under § 1). White lead he says came from Lusitania and 
Galicia, doubting its reported origin in islands of the Atlantic," and 
its transportation in boats made of osiers, covered with hides.' ' 

Black lead, he says, came from Cantabria in Spain, and his- de- 
scription suggests galena, or sulphide of lead and silver. It came also 
from Britain, and from Lusitania — where the Santarensian mine was 
farmed at an annual rental of 250,000 denarii. 

Lead was used in the form of pipes and sheets, and had many 
medicinal uses, being used in calcined form, made into tablets in the 
same way as antimony (see under this §), or mixed with grease and 
wine. It was used as an astringent and repressive, and for cicatriza- 
tion; in the treatment of ulcers, burns, etc., and in eye preparations; 
while thin plates of lead worn next the body were supposed to have 
a cooling and beneficial effect. 

As an import at Barygaza lead was required largely for the coinage 
of the Saka dominions. 

49. Bright-colored girdles. — These were probably for the 
Bhils, a Dravidian hill-tribe, who worked the carnelian mines then as 
now. The modern Coorgs, a related tribe, still wear a distinctive 
"girdle-scarf" which is now made at Sirangala. ijmp. Gaz., \'III, 
101-4; IX, 36.) 

49. Sweet clover.— This is Trifilium meliktus, order Legii- 
minosa, the melilote' ' of the Greeks and Romans, used for making 
chaplets and perfumes, and medicinally. Pliny (XXI, 29) says the 
best sorts were from Campania in Italy, Cape Sunium in Greece, also 
from Chalcidice and Crete; native always in rugged and wild localities. 
"The name sertula, garland, which it bears sufficiently proves that 
this plant was formerly much used in the composition of chaplets. 
The smell, as well as the flower, closely resembles that of saffron, 
though the stem itself is white; the shorter and more fleshy the leaves, 
the more highly it is esteemed." And again (XXI, 87), "the meli- 
lote applied with the yolk of an egg, or else linseed, effects the cure 
of diseases of the eyes. It assuages pains, too, in the jaws and head, 


applied with rose oil; and employed with raisin wine, it is good for 
pains in the ears, and all kinds of swellings or eruptions on the hands. 
A decoction of it in wine, or else the plant itself beaten up raw, is 
good for pains in the stomach." 

Concerning the use of chaplets in the Roman world, Pliny gives 
many details (XXI, 1-10). The chaplet was a crown of honor 
given the victors in the sacred games. Originally laurel and other 
tree foliage was used; flowers were added by the painter Pausias, at 
Sicyon, about 380 B. C. Then came the "Egyptian chaplet" of 
ivy, narcissus, and pomegranate blossoms, and then a durable article 
of thin laminae of horn, and of leaves of gold, silver, or tinsel, plain 
or embossed. 

Chaplets were won by personal prowess in the games, or by that 
of slaves or horses entered by the winner, and gave the victor ' 'the 
right, for himself and for his parents, after death, to be crowned 
without fail, while the body was laid out in the house, and on its 
being carried to the tomb. On other occasions, chaplets were not 
indiscriminately worn. ' ' 

The use of chaplets by those not entitled to them was forbidden 
by law, and Pliny cites several cases of punishment for the offence. 

Chaplets were used also in honor of the gods, the Lares, the 
sepulchres and the Manes; this custom still surviving in the laying of 
immortelles on tombs of departed friends. 

'*Atque aliquis senior veteres veneratus amores. 
Annua constructo serta dabit tumulo. " 

— TibuUus, II, 4. 

For such uses the plaited chaplet, the rose chaplet, and various 
devices embroidered by hand, came into use, and Pliny notes that in 
his time there was a demand for chaplets imported from India, made 
of nard leaves on fabrics, or else of silk of many colors steeped in 
unguents. Such is the pitch to which the luxuriousness of our women 
has at last arrived ! ' ' 

It would seem as if this sweet clover might also be intended for 
the manufacture of chaplets for re-exportation to Rome. 

49. Realgar. — The text is sandarake. This is the red sulphide 
of arsenic. It was principally from Persia and Carmania, and reached 
India from various Persian Gulf ports. In modern times both realgar 
and orpiment are produced in large quantities in Burma and China, 
where it is not impossible that production existed at the time of the 

Pliny (XXXIV, 55) says "the redder it is the more pure and 
friable, and the more powerful its odor the better it is in quality. It 


is detergent, astringent, heating, and corrosive, but it is most remark- 
able for its antiseptic properties." Dioscorides (V, 122) says it was 
burned with resin and the smoke inhaled through a tube, as a remedy 
for coughs, asthma, or bronchitis. Theophrastus also describes its 

The Greek word survives in the modern gum sandarac from 
Callitris guadrivalvis, order Conifem, produced in Algeria and Mo- 
rocco; but this was not its meaning in classical times. The word is 
of eastern origin, referring apparently to the color, and was extended 
from ore to gum because of appearance, reversing the process in the 
case of cinnabar (§ 30). 

The wood in this sandarac tree was much valued by the Greeks 
and Romans for furniture, being, perhaps, the thyine wood' ' of 
Revelation XVIII, 12. 

Tavernier also (II, xii) found vermillion' ' brought by the Dutch 
to trade for pepper. 

49. Antimony. — The text is stimmi. This was the sulphide 
ore, stibnite. It was made into ointments and eye-tinctures, both in 
India and Egypt. The ore came from Eastern Arabia and Carmania, 
and is mentioned in an Egyptian inscription in the tomb of Khnum- 
hotep II, at Benihasan (under Sesostris II, 1900 B- C. ), being brought 
by "Asiatics of the desert." 

Pliny (XXXIII, 33-4) describes it as found in silver mines, "a 
stone made of concrete froth, white and shining \^ being possessed 
of astringent and refrigerative properties; its principal use, in medi- 
cine, being for the eyes." Pounded with frankincense and gum, it 
was valued as a cure for various eye irritations, and mixed with grease, 
as a cure for burns. But its main use was for dilating the pupils and 
for painting the eyebrows. Omphale, the Lydian queen who capti- 
vated Hercules, is represented by the poet Ion as using stimmi in her 
toilet; Jezebel, in II Kings, IX, 30, probably used it when she 
"painted her face and tired her head;" while it is the chief ingre- 
dient in the kohl used by women in modern Egypt and Persia. 

Pliny and Dioscorides (V, 99j agree in their description of its 
preparation. It was enclosed in dough or cow-dung, burned in a 
furnace, quenched with milk or wine, and beaten with rain-water in 
a mortar. This being decanted from time to time, the finest powder 
was allowed to settle, dried under linen, and divided into tablets. 

49. Gold and silver coin.— The Roman aureus and denarius 
were current throughout Western India, and strongly influenced the 
Kushan and Kshatrapa coinages. See under § 56; also Rapson, 
Indian Coins. 


The profit on the exchange was due to the superiority of the 
Roman coinage to that of India, which latter was still crude, of base 
metal (bronze or lead), for which even the bullion, (copper, tin and 
lead), was imported. 

49. Ivory-— For references see Lassen, I, .311-315. The 
original word is ibha, 'elephant." From this came the word used in 
I Kings, X, 22, s/ien habbin, elephant's teeth," which the Hebrews 
shortened to .fA^;z, 'tooth," which is the word used in Amos, III, 15; 
Can:. V, 14. In ancient Egypt this word ibha became abu, whence 
the Roman and Etruscan ebur for ivory. The Greek elephas, or rather 
the root form elephantos, applied first to the ivory and later to the 
animal, was the Arabic article el and the Sanscrit ibhadanta, ' 'elephant' s 

49. Agate and carnelian. — See also under § 6. The text is 

onychirie lithia kai mourrhine. 

According to Watt (o^. cit., 561), the murrhine vases and other 
articles which were so highly prized in Mediterranean countries, were 
largely of agate, carnelian and the like, and came from the Gulf of 
Cambay, which was the chief market for that Indian industry. 

The stone is from the amygdaloidal flows of the Deccan trap, 
chiefly from the State of Rajpipla. The most important place at which 
agates are now cut is Cambay, but the industry exists also at Jabbal- 
pur and elsewhere within reach of the Deccan trap. They are 
much used for ornamental and decorative purposes, being made into 
brooches, rings, seals, cups, etc. 

While collecting the pebbles the miners divide them into two 
primary classes — those that are not improved by burning, and those 
that are. Of the former there are three — on30c, cat's eye, and a 
yellow half-clear pebble called rori. All other stones are baked to 
bring out their color. During the hot season, generally in March and 
April, the stones are spread in the sun in an open field. Then, in 
May, a trench, two feet deep by three wide, is dug round the field. 
The pebbles are gathered into earthen pots, which, with their mouths 
down and a hole broken in their bottoms, are set in a row in the 
trench. Round the pots, goat or cow-dung cakes are piled, and the 
whole kept burning from sunset to sunrise. The pots are then taken 
out, the stones examined, and the good ones stowed in bags. About 
the end of May the bags are carried to the Narbada and floated to 
Broach (Barygaza). 

By this treatment the light browns brighten into white, and the 
darker shades into chestnut. Of yellows, maize becomes rosy, orange 
deepens into red, and an intermediate shade becomes a pinkish purple. 


Pebbles in which cloudy browns and yellows were first mixed are now 
marked by clear bands of white and red. The hue of the red car- 
nelian varies from the palest flesh to the deepest blood-red. The best 
are of a deep, clear, and even red color. The larger and thicker the 
stone, the more it is esteemed. White carnelians are scarce, and 
when of large size and good quality are much esteemed. 

This burning of agates is fully described by Barbosa in 1517, and 
seems to be of very ancient date. It was then, as now, chiefly 
the industry of the Bhils, an ancient Dravidian tribe which may 
formerly have possessed the Cambay coast, but had been driven 
to the hills by later invaders. It is this product, in all probability, 
which is the onyx stone" of Genesis II, 12, which reached the 
ancient world through the 'land of Havilah" on the Persian Gulf. 

Pliny CXXXVII, 7, 8) says that murrhine was first known to 
the Romans after the conquests of Pompey the Great in Asia; that it 
was fabulously dear, T. Petronius having broken one of Nero's basins 
valued at 300,000 sesterces, while Nero himself paid 1,000,000 ses- 
terces for a single cup. Pliny attributes the vessels to Parthia and 
Carmania. They were of moderate size only, seldom as large as a 
drinking-cup, supposed to be of a moist substance, solidified by heat 
under ground; shining rather than brilliant; having a great variety of 
colors, with wreathed veins, presenting shades of purple and white, 
with fiery red between. Others were quite opaque. They occasion- 
ally contained crystals, and depressed spots that looked like warts. 
They were said to have an agreeable taste and smell. 

While Pliny's description is not very definite, it suggests agate 
more than any other substance, and the reference to Parthia and Car- 
mania rather than to the Gulf of Cambay means that until the Romans 
discovered the sea-route to India they were dependent on the Parthian 
trade-routes for their Eastern treasures, and had only such information, 
often misleading, as the Parthians offered them. 

49. Silk cloth.— See under §§ 49 and 64. 

49. Mallow cloth. — See also under § 6. This was a coarse 
fabric, like the native cloth made by the East African negroes, which 
is imitated by the modern blue drill. It was dyed with the flowers 
of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis, order Malvacea, a shrub which is native 
throughout India and China. See Watt, p. 629. 

49. Long pepper : Pz>«r/on^z^ffz, Linn., order P/>fra«^. Watt 
(p. 891), says it is a perennial shrub, native of the hotter parts of 
India from Nepal eastward to Assam, the Khasia hills and Bengal, 
westward to Bombay, and southward to Travancore and Ceylon. 
The Sanscrit name pippali was originally given to this plant, and only 


within comparatively recent times was transferred to black pepper. 
Long pepper is, mentioned by Pliny (XII, 7) as well as the Periplus. 
The fruit is gathered when green, and is preserved by drying in 
the sun. The dried unripe fruit and the root have long been used in 

SO. Dachinabades. — This is the Sanscrit dah/iinapat/ias, "the 
way toward the south;" Prakrit dakkhindbadha: the modern Deccan. 

50. Many populous nations. — An interesting account is 
given by T. C. Evans, Greek and Roman India, in the Anglo-American 
Magazine for 1901, pp. 294-306. His conclusion is that "the 
Greek invader found there an ancient and highly organized society, 
differing little in its usages and modes of living from those which exist 
at the present time; and although there are no means of verifying the 
conjecture, it is not unlikely that the population of the peninsula was 
as great in that period as in our own." If this view is correct, India 
was the most populous region of the world at the time of the Periplus, 
as it was the most cultivated, the most active industrially and com- 
mercially, the richest in natural resources and production, the most 
highly organized socially, the most wretched in the poverty of its 
teeming millions, and the least powerful politically. 

The great powers of India were the Kushan in the far northwest, 
the Saka in the Cambay country, the remains of the Maurya in the 
Ganges watershed, the Andhra in the Deccan, and the Chera, Pandya 
and Chola in the South. The economic status of the country made 
it impossible that any one of these should possess political force com- 
mensurate with its population, resources and industries. It was made up 
of village communities, which recognized the military power only so far 
as they were compelled to do so ; and they were relatively unconcerned 
in dynastic changes, except to note the change in their oppressors. 

For a contemporary account of the nations of India, see Pliny, 
VI, 21-3. 

51. Paethana: Sanscrit, Pratisthana. This is the modern 
Paithan, on the Godaveri River (19° 28' N., 75° 24' E.). 

According to the Imperial Gazetteer (XIX, 317), Paithan is one 
of the oldest cities in the Deccan. Asoka sent missionaries to the 
Petenikas, and. inscriptions of the 2d century B. C. in the Pitalkhara 
caves refer to the king and merchants of Pratisthana. Ptolemy men- 
tions it as the capital of Pulumayi II, the Andhra king (138-170 A. D. ) ; 
but it was probably the capital of the western provinces, the seat of 
the Andhra monarchs having been in the eastern part of the kingdom, 
at Dhanyakataka, the modern Dharanikotta, on the Kistna river just 
above Amaravati (16° 34' N., 80° 22' K). 


According to the Periplus, Paithan was an important center of the 
textile industry. To-day it retains a considerable manufacture of cot- 
ton and silk. Almost all traces of the ancient city are said to have 

51. Xagara. — The Sanscrit name had the same form, appear- 
ing in several records betwreen the 6th and 10th centuries A. D. The 
place is identified by Fleet with the modern Ter (Thair) (18° 19' 
N., 76° 9' E. ), being a contraction of Tayara, the g and y being 
frequently interchanged. It is about 95 miles southeast of Paithan, 
and agrees substantially with the distance and direction given in the 
text. From Broach to Paithan the actual distance, by road, is about 
240 miles, and from Paithan to Ter 104 miles, being 20 and 9 days' 
journey of 12 miles, respectively. There are said to be some very 
interesting remains of the ancient city. 

As pointed out by Campbell, the merchandise from the regions 
along the sea-coast" was not from the west coast, but from the Bay 
of Bengal; and Fleet traces briefly the routes — the first starting at 
Masulipatam (16° 11' N. , 81° 8' E. ), and the second from Vinu- 
konda fl6° 3' N., 79° 44' E. ), joining about 25 miles southeast of 
Haidarabad, and proceeding through Ter, Paithan, and Daulatabad, 
to Markinda (in the Ajanta Hills). Here the main difficulties began, 
through the Western Ghats, over the 100 miles to Broach. 

This was the great highway of the Andhra kingdom, and its 
natural terminus was at Calliena in Bombay Harbor, as suggested in 
§ 52. The obstruction of that port by the Saka power in Gujarat 
forced the tedious overland extension of the route, through the moun- 
tains, to Barygaza. 

(See J. F. Fleet, Tagara: Ter, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic So- 
ciety, 1901, pp. 537-552; Sir James Campbell, in Gazetteer of the 
Bombay Presidency , xvi, 181; H. Cousens, Archaeological Survey of India, 
Annual Report, 1902-3, p. 195; Imperial Gazetteer, II, 82; xxiii, 284.) 

51. Country without roads. — Tavernier says of the Dec- 
can (I, xi) wheel carriages do not travel, the roads being' too much 
interrupted by high mountains, tanks, and rivers, and there being 
many narrow and difficult passes. It is with the greatest difficulty that 
one takes a small cart. I was obliged to take mine to pieces fre- 
quently in order to pass bad places. There are no wagons, and you 
only see oxen and pack-horses for the conveyance of men, and for 
the transport of goods and merchandise. But in default of chariots, 
you have the convenience of much larger palanquins than in the rest 
of India; for one is carried much more easily, more quickly, and at 
less cost. " 


52. Suppara.— This is the modem Sopara (19° 25' N., 72° 
41' E. ), a few miles north of Bombay. It is said to have been the 
capital of the Konkan between 500 B. C. and 1300 A. D. It appears 
in the Mahahharata as Shurparaka, as a very holy place. Some Bud- 
dhist writings assert that Gautama Buddha, in a former birth, was 
Bodhisattva of Sopara. See Imp. Gaz., XXIII, 87. 

52. Calliena.— This is the modem Kalyana (19° 14' N., 73° 
10' E. ), on the eastern shore of the harbor of Bombay. It was the 
principal port of the Andhra kingdom during the periods when it held 
the west coast. According to Lassen, the name was also applied to 
the strip of coast on either side of the harbor, roughly between 18° 
and 20° N. 

Cosmas Indicopleustes, in the 6th century A. D., found it one 
of the five chief marts of Western India, the capital of the powerful 
Chalukya kings, with a trade in brass, blackwood logs, and articles of 
clothing. See Imp. Gaz., XIV, 322. 

The word kalyana means "blest," and is at least reminiscent of 
similar names on the western shores of the Erythraean Sea. 

52. The elder Saraganus ; Sandares; to which should be 

added Nambanus of § 41. (The text has Sandanes and Mambarus. ) 
Here are three important references, both for fixing the date of the 
Periplus and for throwing light on a dark period of Indian history. 

The great empire of the Mauryas went to pieces in the 2d cen- 
tury B. C, leaving as its strongest successor its Dravidian element, 
the Andhra country in the Deccan, which comprised the valleys of 
the Godaverl and Kistna; the Telugu peoples, roughly the modern 
Nizam's dominions. In the south the other Dravidian kingdoms, the 
Tamil-speaking Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras, retained their independ- 
ence as before. North of the Vindhyas there was anarchy. The 
Bengal states had resumed their local governments, while the West 
and Northwest had succumbed to the Asiatic invaders, the Saka and 
Kushan tribes. The western coast below the Vindhyas was a bone 
of contention between the Saka commanders and the Andhra mon- 
archs, who maintained the feud for at least a century, with varying 

The provinces of Surashtra, Gujarat and Malwa, after years of 
warfare, were incorporated under a stable government by the Western 
Kshatrapa, or Saka Satraps, who subsequently defeated the Andhras 
and annexed the Konkan coast. This is thought to have been the 
origin of the Saka era, dating from 78 A. D. , still largely used in India. 
A half-century later the Andhras under Vilivayakura II, or Gautaml- 
putra Satakarni, reconquered the coast-land, only to lose it to the 


Satraps after another generation. From the Saka era of 78 A. D. 
for 46 years, there are coins of a monarch named Nahapana, by 
whom the line of the Satraps was established. This is thought to be 
the same as the Mamharus of § 41, whose name should be written 

The Andhra kings are enumerated in the Puranas, which, to- 
gether with the coinage, afford almost the only information concern- 
ing them. A dynastic name, borne by many of these monarchs, was 
Satakarni, and this is supposed to be the Saraganus of § 52 (probably 
Arishta Satakarni, who reigned about 44-69 A. D.); w)\i\& Sandancs 
is probably the same as Sundara Satakarni, whose short reign of a 
year, succeeded by another of six months, is affirmed by at least two 
of the Puranas. The reign of this Sundara (the text should be altered 
to Sandares) is fixed by Vincent Smith and others at 83-4 A. D. 

From these facts it has been supposed that the Periplus itself must 
be dated in the same year, 83-4 A. D., but this does not necessarily 
follow. Its date is considered in the introduction, pp. 7-15, and 
upon ample evidence — Roman, Arabian, and Parthian — is fixed at 
60 A. D. 

If Nambanus of § 41 is the same as Nahapana, it must yet be 
shown that he is the same as the great satrap whose victories over the 
Andhras and conquest of the Konkan are cited as one of the numer- 
ous events thought to be commemorated by the Saka era of 78 A. D. 
At least one predecessor, formerly thought to be identical with that 
Nahapana, has now been distinguished under the name of Bhumaka, 
and the materials are not yet at hand for affirming, or denying, the 
possibility of others, in the so-called Kshaharata line which preceded 
the achievements of the Satraps. 

And if Sandares of § 52 is the same as Sundara Satakarni, there 
is a great difficulty in the way of identifying the Periplus with the single 
year of his reign. Calliena, his own port, he must be supposed to 
have closed, in order that its foreign trade might be diverted to Bary- 
gaza, the port of his Saka rival and bitter enemy! He, the Andhra 
monarch, must have done this, for the port was still "in his posses- 
sion;" not, be it observed, in that of the Satraps. The Konkans 
were still nominally, though evidently not effectually, an Andhra de- 

The inference is unmistakable that the Periplus is describing a 
state of things prior to the recognition of the Kshatrapa power and its 
annexation of the Andhra coast; prior, that is, to the Saka era of 78 
A. D. It describes clearly enough an Andhra port, still subject to 
the Andhra kingdom, but harried and dominated, "obstructed" as 


the text has it, by the powerful navy of its northern enemy, while that 
enemy was still struggling to obtain possession. 

What, then, of Nahapana and Sundara? The doubt as to the 
indivisibility of the former has already been suggested; as to the latter, 
the shortness of his own reign and those of his successor and his 
immediate predecessors, and the length of that of his predecessor 
Arishta (25 years) indicate for him a long period of waiting as one of 
the royal heirs; which, according to the Andhra custom, was spent, 
at least in part, as viceroy at the western capital, Paithan. Here he 
exercised all the functions of a monarch, and his would be the name 
to appear on all proclamations issued on the western coast. "Since it 
came into the possession of Sandares" indicates, therefore, a date to- 
ward the end of the reign of Arishta Satakarni, who is referred to as 
the elder Saraganus," and who, it maybe inferred, had been, as 
viceroy at Paithan, a more powerful ruler than the youthful Sandares, 
now struggling against greater odds to maintain the Andhra power on 
that coast. 

Between Arishta and Sundara the Vayu and Matsya Puranas are 
agreed in placing three other monarchs: Hala (with whose name the 
adoption of Sanscrit as the literary language of Northern India is so 
closely associated), who reigned 5 years; Mandalaka, 5 years; 
Purindrasena, 5 years. Then came Sundara, 1 year, and Chakora, 
6 months, followed by Siva Satakarni, 28 years. These live short 
reigns, coming between two long ones, seem to suggest a quick suc- 
cession of weak and impractical sons of a strong monarch, followed 
in their turn by another long reign of sterner purpose ; a succession of 
events like the reigns of the sons of Henry II. and Catherine de 
Medici in France. This would account for the condition described to 
the author of the Periplus by some acquaintance at Barygaza : When 
the old king Saraganus (now ruling at Dhanyakataka) was viceroy at 
Paethana, he made Calliena an active port; now that he is on the throne 
and his sons have tried their hand at the viceroy's post one after the 
other, in the intervals of their literary and artistic pursuits, and it has 
finally been turned over to young Sandares, it has been an easy matter 
for our Saka general to send down his ships and stop its trade." Had 
the story been written in 83 A. D., the informant would have said, 
"our satrap has annexed that country to his own dominions, and 
closed its ports. " 

The same explanation is perfectly feasible for Nahapana, who is 
known to have been governor in Surashtra before he was satrap at 
Ujjeni. But as the great satrap lived until the Saka year 46, or 124 A. D., 
itismoreprobable thatoneof thatnameinoO A. D. was his predecessor. 


There are other explanations of these three names. Fabricius 
alters both Mambarus and Sandanes to Sanabares, supposing him to 
have been an Indo-Parthian successor to Gondophares; McCrindle 
thinks Sandanes was a tribe-name, and refers to the Ariake Sadinon of 
Ptolemy. But neither supposition is convincing. 

The explanation based on the Puranic lists and the coinage has 
inherent probability, and is confirmed by the description of political 
conditions in § 52 of the Periplus, if that be applied to the reign of 
the Andhra king Arishta Satakarni (44-69 A. D. ), through the 
medium of his heir-presumptive Sundara, ruling as viceroy at Paithan, 
and displaying in the Konkans the only show of Andhra authority 
which would have come under the observation of a Graeco-Roman 
merchant and shipmaster. 

(See A.-M. Boyer, Nahapdna et F ere Qaka, \n Journal A siatique, 
July-Aug. , 1897, pp. 120-151; an excellent paper, in which the only 
matter for criticism is that the inscriptions of the Nabataean Malichas 
should be thought less trustworthy than the chronology of the Abys- 
sinian Chronicles, compiled much later. — C. R. Wilson, Proposed 
identification of the name of an Andhra king in the Periplus, in Journal of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, June, 1904 ; with which the foregoing 
suggestions are in accord, except as to their sequel. — Vincent Smith, 
Andhra History and Coinage, in Xeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl'dnd- 
ischen Gesellschaft, Sept., 1903. — Pandit Bhagvanlallndraji, The Western 
Kshatrapas, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1890, pp. 639-662. 
— E- J. Rapson, The Coinage of the Mahdkshatrapas and Kshatrapas, 
J. R. A. S., 1899, 357-404; same author, Ancient India, in Nu- 
mismatic Supplement, J. A. S. B., 1904, p. 227. Col. J. Biddulph, 
in a note to Mr. Rapson' s first article, observes that our knowledge of 
the Satraps is derived solely from their coins, of which the former are 
undated ; that each ruler puts his father' s name on his coins as well as 
his own; that the dates overlap frequently; and that of the two titles, 
Mahakshatrapa indicates the monarch, and Kshatrapa the heir-appar- 
ent. — Vincent Smith, Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta; also Chronology of Andhra Dynasty, in his Early History, 
p. 190. — E. J. Rapson, Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, the IVestem 
Kshatrapas, etc. , British Museum. See also Cunningham, Book of 
Indian Eras; Duff, The Chronology of India from the Earliest Times to 
the Beginning of the 16th Century.) 

53. Semylla. — This is the Symulla of Ptolemy, the Chimolo of 
Yuan Chwang, the Saimur of the early Mohammedan travellers; the 
modern Chaul (18° 34' N., 72° 55' E.), about 25 miles south of 
Bombay. The ancient Hindu name was Champavati, and was con- 


nected with the reign of Krishna in Gujarat. (S^e McCrindle, 
Ancient India, 161; Imp, Ga%., X, 184; Miiller, I, 295.) 

53. Mandagora.— This is probably the modern Banket ( 17° 59' 
N., 73° 3' E.) at the mouth of the Savitri Riyv^- rlT^^po'^ '^ closed 
during the S. W. monsoon. It is now a fisliing village of no im- 
portance, but in former times it was a great center for the trade in 
teak and blackwood, and for shipbuilding. (See Imp. Gaz.., VI, 383; 
Miiller, I, 295.) The name suggests the Sanscrit 4^<?;za'ara-^zV/. , (In 
Ptolemy the positions of this and the following port ar,^ reversed. ) 

53. Palaepatmae. — This is probably the modern Dabhol (17° 
35' N. , 73° 10' E. ), the name being from the Sanscrit Dahhileshwar, 
a name of Siva. It is of considerable historical importance, being the 
principal port of the South Konkan. From the 14th to the 16th cen- 
turies it had an extensive trade with the Persian Gulf and Red Sea 
ports. Here is the underground temple of Chandikabai, dating from 
the 6th century. Ump. Gaz., XI, 100.) 

The name Palapatmce is probably the Sanscrit Pdripatana — the 
suffix meaning town," while Pari was a general term applying to 
the Western Vindhya mountains and the coast south of them. (Nundo 
Lai Dey, Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediceval India, ■q. 68.) 

53. Melizigara. — This is placed by Miiller and McCrindle at 
the modern Jaigarh (17° 17' N., 72° 13' E.), formerly a port of 
some size, but now little more than a fishing-village. It is not im- 
possible that it may be the modern Rajapur (16° 34' N., 73° 31' E. ), 
which lies at the head of a tidal creek, and is the only port ohi this 
Ratnagiri coast to which Arab boats still trade direct, though i vessels 
of any size cannot approach within three miles of the old stone quay. 
(See 7»2>. Gaz., XIII, 379; XXI, 66.) , 

This is the Sigerus of Pliny — the Melixegyris of JPtplemy, 

The name seems to suggest the Sanscrit, Malaya-giri, Malaya 
hills," a name which covered the southern part of the Western Ghats. 
The same name appears in the Male of Cosmas and our Malabar. 

53. Byzantium. — This is evidently a corruption. Lassen 
(III, 6) assumes it to have been a colony of Byzantine Greeks, but 
there is not the slightest evidence of the existence of such a colony. 
It is probably the modern Vizadrog (Sanscrit, Vijayadurga; 16° 33' 
N. , 73° 20' E.), described as being one of the best harbors on the 
western coast. {,Imp. Gaz,., XXIV, 310; so Vincent, Miiller and 
McCrindle. ) 

53. Togarum. — This is probably the modern Devgarh (16° 
23' N., 73° 22' E. ) described as "a safe and beautiful landlocked 


harbor, at all times perfectly smooth. The average depth of water is 
18 feet. The entrance, only 3 cables in width, lies close to the fort 
point." ilmp. Gaz.,Xl,nS; SO Vincent, Miiller and McCrindle. ) 

53. Aurannoboas. — The text has initial T instead of J, no 
doubt a corruption. McCrindle places it at the modern Malvan (16° 
3' N., 73° 28' E. ). It is a place of considerable importance, good 
iron ore being found in the neighborhood. To the Marathas an 
island in the harbor is Sivajl' s cenotaph, and his image is worshipped 
in the chief shrine. (See Imp. Ga%., XVII, 96.) 

The name Malvan is a contraction of Maha-lavana, salt marsh, " 
and the Greek Aurannoboas is perhaps intended for the Sanscrit 
Aranya-vaha, which would have a similar meaning. 

53. Islands of the Sesecrienae. — These are probably the 

Vengurla Rocks (15° 53' N. , 70° 27' E. ), a group of rocky islets 
some 3 milfs in length and 9 miles out from the modern town of 
Vengurla, which was a port of considerable importance during the 
Dutch occupation in the 17th century. (^Imp. Gaz., XXIV, 307.) 

53. Island of the Aegidii. — This is perhaps the island of 
Goa (15 20 N., 74 0' E. ), the present Portuguese possession. It 
is of historical importance, having been settled by Aryans at an early 
date, and appearing in the Puranas. (Imp. Gaz., XII, 251; so Aluller 
and McCrindle.) The Imperial Gazetteer, following Yule, prefers to 
identify it with Anjidiv (14° 45' N., 74° 10' E. J ; but the location is 
less satisfactory unless we assume the order in the text to be wrong, 
and to refer to the grouping of this and the following island on either 
side of the Karwar point. 

53. Island of the Caenitae.— This is probably the Oyster 
Rocks (14°49'N., 74° 4' E.), a cluster of islands west of, and 
facing, the roadstead of Karwar. 

53. Chersonesus.— Greek, "peninsula." This answers for 
the projecting point at the modern Karwar (14° 49' N., 74° 8' E.), 
from early times a trade center for the North Kanara, and an active 
port as late as the 16th century, exporting fine muslins from Hubli 
and elsewhere in the interior, also pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and 
coarse blue dungar'i cloth. {Imp. Ga%., XV, 65.) 

53. Pirates. — Alarco Polo (III, xxv), says of this coast, 
there go forth every year more than a hundred corsair vessels on 
cruise. These pii'ates take with them their wives and children, and 
stay out the whole summer. Their method is to join in fleets of 20 
or 30 of these pirate vessels together, and then they form what they 
call a sea cordon, that is, they drop off till there is an interval of 5 or 6 


miles between ship and ship, so that they cover something like a hun- 
dred miles of sea, and no merchant ship can escape them. For when 
any one corsair sights a vessel a signal is made by fire or smoke, and 
then the whole of them make for this, and seize the merchants and 
plunder them. After they have plundered them they let them go, 
saying, 'Go along with you and get more gain, and that mayhap will 
fall to us also ! ' But now the merchants are aware of this, and go so 
well manned and armed, and with such great ships, that they don' t 
fear the corsairs. Still mishaps do befall them at times." In this 
same vicinity, Yule observes, Ibn Batuta fell into the pirates' hands, 
and was stripped to the drawers. The northern part of Malabar, 
Kanara, and the Southern Konkan, were a nest of pirates from a very 
ancient date until well into the 19th century, when their occupation 
was destroyed by the British arms. 

Marco Polo says (III, xxiv) of the kingdom of Ely (near 
Mangalore), if any ship enters their estuary and anchors there, 
having been bound for some other port, they seize her and plunder 
the cargo. For they say. You were bound for somewhere else, and 
'tis God has sent you hither to us, so we have right to all your goods. ' 
And they think it is no sin to act thus. And this naughty custom 
prevails all over the provinces of India, to wit, that if a ship be driven 
by stress of weather into some other port than that to which it was 
bound, it was sure to be plundered. But if a ship came bound 
originally to the place they receive it with all honor and give it due 
protection. ' ' 

In 1673, Yule notes, Sivajl replied to the pleadings of an Eng- 
lish embassy, that it was against the laws of Conchon" (Ptolemy's 
Pirate Coast ! ) "to restore any ship or goods that were driven ashore. ' ' 

Abd-er-Razzak notes the same practices at Calicut. 

53. White Island. — This is probably the modern Pigeon 
Island (14° 1' N. , 74° 16' E.), also known as Nitran. It lies about 
10 miles off the coast, about 300 feet high, and is visible for 25 miles. 
It abounds in white coral and lime. {Imp. Gaz., XX, 136.) 

This is probably the same as the Nitrias of Pliny (VI, 26), the 
stronghold of the pirates, who threatened the Roman merchants; and 
may be the Nitra of Ptolemy. 

53. Naura and Tyndis, the first markets of Damirica. 
It seems clear that a long stretch of coast on either side of the modern 
Goa was given a wide berth by foreign merchant-ships because of the 
piratical habits of its people, and because it produced no cargo of 
which they were in search. 

Like the following ports, Muziris and Nelcynda, these two have 


been placed too far north by most of the commentators. The infer- 
ence from the few words in the Periplus is that the South Konkan 
and Kanara districts were those more particularly infested by pirates. 
These may be identified with the Satiya kingdom of Asoka' s inscrip- 
tions. The Tamil ports, strictly speaking, lay within the region where 
the Malayalam language is now spoken, that is, within the modern 
districts of Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore. The Tulu, Kanarese 
and Telugu districts seem to be within our author's Dachinabades 
rather than his Damirua. These four ports probably lay respectively 
within the four districts into which the Portuguese and Dutch found 
the Kerala kingdom divided : Cannanore, Calicut, Cochin and Tra- 
vancore ; of which the last-named, at the time of the Periplus, was 
held by the Pandya kingdom. 

The four Tamil states, Chola, Pandya, Kerala, and Satiya, are 
all' named in the 2d Rock Edict of Asoka. (Vincent Smith, Asoka, 
p. 115). Mr. Smith thinks {Early History, pp. 164, 340-1) that 
Kerala did not extend north of the Chandragiri river (12° 36' N. ). 

Naura being then in North Malabar, may be identified with the 
modern Cannanore (11° 52' N., 75° 22' E.). The latter place is 
known to have been an active port in the days of the Roman trade, 
and has yielded one of the most important finds in India of Roman 
coins, of the reigns of Tiberius, Claudius and Nero. 

It seems clear that the identification of this place with the modern 
Honavar (14° 17' N., 74° 27' E.), while a tempting one, owing to 
the similarity of names, is not in accord with the facts. Honavar lies 
rather within the strip of coast which was in dispute between the 
Andhra and Saka dynasties, as well as the petty Maurya and Pallava 
princes; while from similarity of name the modern Cannanore would 
answer equally well. 

The location of Tyndis, of the Chera kingdom, depends on that 
of Muziris. It is described as a village in plain sight on the shore, " 
and may be identified with the modern Ponnani (10° 48' N. , 75° 56' 
E. ). This place lying at the mouth of the river of the same name, 
which drains a rich section of the western mountains known as the 
Anaimalai Hills, would have been a natural terminus for the pepper 
produced there, as well as for the beryls of the Coimbatore district. 
This Ponnani river, according to the Imperial Gazetteer (XX, 164), 
unlike nearly all others on the west coast, is navigable for small vessels 
for some distance inland. 

Dr. Burnell prefers Kadalundi near Beypore (11° 11' N.,'75° 
49 E. ) on the north bank of the river of the same name, which is 
also navigable to the foot of the mountains, and carries down large 


quantities of timber. Qmp. Ga%., VIII, 17.) But the distance of 
500 stadia between Tyndis and Muziris indicates Ponnani. 

53. Danurica. — The text has Limyrike, which previous editions 
have retained. That name does not appear in India, or in other 
Roman accounts of it, and it is clearly a corruption caused by the 
scribe's confusing the Greek D and L. The name appears in its 
correct form in the Xllth segment of the Peutinger Tables, almost 
contemporary with the Periplus, and in Ptolemy as Dimirike; and 
there seems no good reason for perpetuating the mistake. 

Damirica means the country of the Tamils," that is, the South- 
ern Dravidians as they existed in the first century, including particu- 
larly the Chera, Pandya and Chola kingdoms; known in their own 
records as Dravida-desam. 

53. Muziris.— The location of this port was fixed by Burnell, 
Caldwell and Yule at Muyiri-kotta, w^hich as Kodungalur or Cranga- 
nore (10° 14' N. , 76° 11' E. ), was an important port in mediaeval 
times. Their argument was based on the 7000 stadia named in the 
text as the distance between Barygaza and Damirica. 

Vincent Smith {Early History 340-1) is confident that Maziris and 
Cranganore are the same. He says The Kingdom of Satiyaputra 
must have adjoined Keralaputra; and since the Chandragiri river has 
always been regarded as the northern boundary of that province, the 
Satiyaputra Kingdom should probably be identified with that portion of 
the Konkans — or lowlands between the Western Ghats and the sea — 
where the Tulu language is spoken, and of which Mangalore is the 
center. The name of Kerala is still well remembered and there is 
no doubt that the Kingdom so called was equivalent to the Southern 
Konkans or Malabar coast. The ancient capital was Vanji, also 
named Karuvur, the Karoura of Ptolemy, situated close to Crangan- 
ore; which represents Muziris, the port for the pepper trade, men- 
tioned by Pliny and the author of the Periplus at the end of the first 
century A. D." Vanji, accordingto the /OT/J^r/WGazrftor (XX, 21), 
must be placed at the modern Parur or Paravur (10° 10' N., 76° 15' 
E. ), where the Periyar River empties into the Cochin back-waters. 
Parur is still a busy trading center, as well as the headquarters of the 
district. While now in the district of Travancore, it formerly belonged 
to Cochin, — that is, to Chera or Kerala. It is said to comprise almost 
all the Jews in Travancore ; and the settlement may date from the end 
of the first century, when it is known that there was a considerable 
Jewish migration to Southern India. 

The earlier identification of Muziris and Nelcynda placed them 
at Mangalore and Nileshwar (12° 52' N., 74° 51' E., and 12° 16' 



N., 75° 8' E. j. This conflicts with nearly all that we know of the 
geography and politics of the Tamil kingdoms, and is entirely im- 
possible forNelcynda. This port, according to the Feriplus, belonged 
to the Pandyan kingdom, which certainly never extended so far north. 

E ofG 


.12 Miles. 

The Cochin Backwaters: from Rectus, Asia, \'ol. III. 


The text tells us that Muziris was distant from Tyndis, ' 'by river 
and sea, 500 stadia," and Nelcynda from Muziris, by river and 
sea, 500 stadia. " This can hardly refer to anything but the Cochin 

53. Nelcynda. — This port is called the city of the Neacyndi, 
by Pliny; Melkynda by Ptolemy; Nincylda by the Peutinger Tables, 
Cyncilim by Friar Odoric, and Nilcinna by the Geographer of Ravenna. 
It was probably in the backwaters, or thoroughfares, behind Cochin 
(9° 58' N., 76° 14' E. j, the exact location being uncertain because 
of the frequent shifting of river-beds, sand-bars and islands; but cer- 
tainly very near the modern Kottayam ( 9° 36' N., 76° 31' E. ), which 
is exactly 500 stadia, or 50 miles, from Cranganore. Kottayam, 
according to the Imperial Gazetteer (.XVI, 1), is a center of the 
Syrian Christian community, whose church here is one of the most 
ancient on the west coast. It is also the natural terminus for the trade- 
routes from the Pirmed hills, and is still a trade-center of considerable 

The name Xelcynda, Fabricius thinks (p. 160), is the Sanscrit 
Nilakantha, 'blue neck," a name of Siva. Caldwell, however, pre- 
fers Melkynda, which he translates Western Kingdom. " 

A good account of the topography of the coasts of India is 
given by J. A. Bains (AliU's International Geography, 1907 ed. , p. 
469). 'The coast-line is singularly devoid of indentations, except at 
the mouths of the larger rivers and toward the northern portion of the 
west coast. The only harbors except for light-draft vessels, are found 
a little way up the deltas of the chief rivers, or where, as at Bombay, 
a group of islands affords adequate shelter from the open sea. The 
eastern coast, in particular, is provided with little more than a few 
imperfectly protected roadsteads. The southern portion of the west 
coast is distinguished by a series of back-waters, or lagoons, parallel 
with the coast, and affording a safe and convenient waterway for small 
vessels when the season of high winds makes the ocean unnavigable. ' ' 

54. Cerobothra. — This is a transliteration of Ch'eraputra or 
Kcralaputra, the western Tamil kingdom, which in its greatest exten- 
sion reached from Cape Comorin to Karwar Point, nearly 7 degrees of 
latitude. At the time of the Periplus the northern part had separated, 
while the southern end had passed to its neighbor, the Pandyan king- 
dom; leaving Kerala nearly coterminous with modern Malabar and 
Cochin districts. The capital was at Karur, or Parur, opposite 
Muziris or Cranganore. 

Cheraputra is son of Chera^" one of the legendarj' three 
brothers who founded the Dravidian power in South India. 


Pliny's use of the word as the name of a king was incorrect; it 
applies to the country, and is also a dynastic name or royal title. 

The Chera backwaters seem to be referred to by Pliny in a 
debated passage on the trade of Ceylon with the "Seres" (VI, 22): 
their accounts agreed with the reports of our own merchants, who 
tell us that the wares which they deposit near those brought for sale 
by the Seres, on the further bank of a river in their country, are 
removed by them if they are satisfied with the exchange." 

Here Seres must be read as meaning Chera, the Ch and 5 being 
interchanged, just as the neighboring Chola kingdom is always Soli in 
Sinhalese records. 

It is quite possible that Chera is also meant by Pliny's Seres of 
XXXIV, 41, who sent the best iron to Rome; this being a product 
of Haidarabad, and referred to in § 6 of the Periplus, as shipped from 
India to Adulis. See also under Sarapis, p. 146. 

The silent trade, " noted by Fa-Hien in Ceylon itself, is referred 
to under § 65, and again by Pliny (VI, 20), Pausanias (III, xii, 3), 
and Cosmas Indicopleustes (book II)- 

For further references to Chera and the other Tamil states growing 
out of the original establishment at Korkai, see Vincent Smith, Early 
History, Chap, xvi; — Caldwell, Grammar of the Dravidian Languages, 
introduction; also History of Tinnevelly; — Burnell, South Indian Palceog- 
raphy; — Shanguni Menon, History of Travancore; — Francis Day, The 
LandofthePermauls; — J. B. Pandian, Indian Ullage Folk; — Sir Walter 
Elliot, Coins of Southern India ; — Foulkes, The Civilization of the Dakhan 
down to the 6th century B. C, in Indian Antiquary, 1879, pp. 1-10; — 
K. P. Padmanabha Menon, Notes on /Malabar and its place-names, in 
Indian Antiquary, Aug., 1902; — Wilson, The Pandyas, in Journalofthe 
Royal Asiatic Society, iii, 199; — Dawson, The Ch'eras, in J. R. A. S., 
viii, 1; — Sewell, Lists of Inscriptions, and Sketch of the Dynasties of 
Southern India, in the Archaeological Survey, Madras, 1884; — F. Kiel- 
horn, Dates of Chola and Pandya Kings, in Epigraphia Indica, Vols. 
IV-VIII, inclusive; — Imperial Gaxetteer, Vol. II, Chaps, i, iii, iv, v, 
ix; — Biihler, Indische Paltsographie, and generally, his Grundriss der 
Indo-Arischcn Philologie und Altertumskunde; — Fleet, The Dynasties of the 
Kanarese Districts, and Bhandarkar, Early History of the Dekkan, in 
Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency , I, ii; — Loventhal, Coins of Tinnevelly ; 
— Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions. 

54. Abounds in ships. — In these protected thoroughfares 
flourished a sea-trade, largely in native Dravidian craft, which was of 
early creation and of great influence in the interchange of ideas as 
well as commodities, not only in South India, but in the Persian Gulf, 


Merchant-ship of the 2d century, from a relief on a sarcophagus 
in the Lateran Museum. 

and the coasts of Arabia and Africa, with which the trade was prin- 
cipally maintained. Both Buddhist and Brahman writings testify to its 
existence in the 5th century B. C. ; but their evidence is late, as they 
are the product of the Northern Aryans, an inland race, who appeared 
in South India after its activities had been widely developed. Better 
evidence is given by the Dravidian alphabet, supposed to be from a 
Semitic (Himyaritic, or Phoenician) original, and to date from about 
1000 B. C. , whereas the Aryan, or KharosthI, alphabet was formu- 
lated after the conquest, about 500 B. C. (R. Sewell, Hindu Period 
of Southern India, in Imp. Gaz. , II, 322. j 

"Sent from Arabia and by the Greeks" were the ships found by 
our author in the Chera baci<waters. The text has Ariaca, but the 
error is obvious, as the articles of trade were from foreign, and not 
Hindu, sources. No Aryan language had penetrated into these 
kingdoms, which lived their own life, completely secluded from 
Northern India, and in touch with the outer world only through the 
medium of maritime commerce, which had been conducted with 
safety from very early times. The pearls of the Gulf of Manar, the 
ber\ls of Coimbatore, and the pepper of Malabar were not to be had 
elsewhere, and were largely sought by foreign merchants, as early as 
the 7th or 8th century B. C." (Vincent Smith, EarhHistory, 334.) 


Benjamin of Tudela, in the 12th century, gives the following 
account of trade on this coast: 

Thence is seven days' journey to Khulam (Quilon) which is 
the beginning of the country of the Sun-worshippers. These are the 
sons of Cush, who read the stars and are all black in color. They 
are honest in commerce. When merchants come to them from 
distant lands and enter the harbour, three of the King's secretaries go 
down to them and record their names and then bring them before the 
King, whereupon the King makes himself responsible even for their 
property which they leave in the open unprotected. There is an 
official who sits in his office, and the owner of any lost property has 
only to describe it to him when he hands it back. This custom pre- 
vails in all that country. From Passover to New Year, that is all 
during the summer, no man can go out of his house because of the 
sun, for the heat in that country is intense, and from the third hour 
of the day onward, everybody remains in his house until evening. 
Then they go forth and kindle lights in all the market places and all 
the streets, and then do their work and business at night-time. For 
they have to turn night into day in consequence of the great heat of 
the sun. Pepper is found there. They plant the trees thereof in the 
fields, and each man of the city knows his own plantation. The trees 
are small and the pepper is as white as snow. ' And when they have 
collected it they place it in sauce-pans and pour boiling water over it, 
so that it may become strong. Then they take it out of the water and 
dry it in the sun, and it turns black. Cinnamon and ginger and many 
other kinds of spices are found in this land." 

54. Pandian kingdom. — This was Pandya, the southernmost, 
and traditionally the earliest, of the three Tamil states. Roughly it 
coincided with the modern districts of Tinnevelly and Madura; at 
the time of the Periplus it extended beyound the Ghats and included 
Travancore. The capital, originally at Korkai (the Colchi of § 59, 
which see) had been removed to Madura (9° 55' N., 78° 7' E.). 

Here too, as in the Chera kingdom, the name is used for the 
country and as a dynastic title, not as the name of any king. 

55. Bacafe. — (Ptolemy gives Barkare, which is perhaps the 
preferable reading. ) This place, distant 120 stadia from Nelcynda, 
at an inlet of the sea, can be no other than Porakad (9° 22' N., 76° 
22' E. ) for which it is a close transliteration; while the distance 
from Kottayam is exactly in accord with the text. 

Porakad was once a notable port, but declined with the rise of 
AUeppey, built a few miles farther north after a canal had been cut 


throuijh from sea to backwater and harbor works constructed. (^Imp. 
Gaz., XX, 188.) The Portuguese, and subsequently the Dutch, 
had settlements at Porakad. It is mentioned by Varthema (1503) 
as Porcai, and by Tavernier (1648) as Porca. The remains of a 
Portuguese fort and factory are now covered by the sea, being visible 
at low water. (Ball, in his edition of Tavernier, I, 241.) 

Here also is the mouth of the Achenkoil river, which rises in the 
Ghats near the Shencottah pass, the main highway between Travan- 
core and Tinnevelly. 

According to Menon {Notes on Alalabar and its place-names), the 
settlements were nearly all east of the backwaters at the Christian era, 
and the present beaches existed only as tide-shoals. During the 
middle ages there was a period of elevation, which led to the forma- 
tion of new islands, while floods from the mountains changed the 
courses of the rivers, and the location of the inlets. At present the 
tendency is toward subsidence, houses built at Cochin a century ago 
being now under water. About 800 B. C. , according to local tradi- 
tion, the sea reached the hills. 

Megasthenes, in the 4th century B. C. , mentioned as on the 
sea-coast" the town of Tropina (Tripontari) now on the mainland 
side of the backwaters; Ptolemy's three shore towns between Muziris 
and Barkare are likewise on the land side. 

56. Large ships. — The increase in the size of shipping follow- 
ing the discovery of Hippalus is referred to also in § 10. Pliny speaks 


of thesame thing in describing the trade between Malabar and Ceylon, 
"The navigation," he says CVI, 24), "was fornierly confined to, 
vessels made of rushes, rigged in the manner familiar on the Nile. 
The vessels of recent times are built with prows at either end so that 
there may be no need of turning around while sailing in these chan- 
nels, which are extremely narrow. The tonnage of the vessels is. 
3,000 amphorae. " (About 33 tons.) 

By double prows' ' Pliny probably means some such build and 
rig as shown in the accompanying illustration, which is typical of the 
Indian Ocean generally. Mast and sail can be reversed at will, so 
that the craft can be sailed in either direction. 

56. Pepper, black and white. — Piper nigrum, Linn., order 
Piperaceic. A perennial climber, wild in the forests of Travancore 
and Malabar, and extensively cultivated from very early times, in the 
hot, damp localities of Southern India. 

Lassen (I, 278), notes that the Greek v^oxA peperi, hztin piper, 
simply repeats the Indian name pippali. 

The antiquity of the trade in pepper is not so easily shown as 
that in other spices. There is no certain mention of it in the Egyptian 
inscriptions. In the Hebrew scriptures it is unknown, nor has it a 
place arnong the mint and anise and cummin" of the Gospels. 
Herodotus has no bit of folklore to attach to it. Theophrastus, indeed, 
in the 4th century B. C. , knows it as a medicine, and Dioscorides 
distinguishes between black, white and long pepper. The Sanscrit 
writers describe it as a medicine for fever and dyspepsia, used together 
with ginger and long pepper; these were their • three pungent sub- 
stances. " {Mahavagga, VI, 19, 1; see also I-tsing, Record of 
Buddhist Praciias [7th century A. D.J, chap, xxviii; Takakusu's 
edition, p. 135.) The Romans had it after their conquests in Asia 
Minor, Syria and Egypt, and at once provided the greatest market 
for it. Egypt knew it, probably, through the sea-trade of the 
Ptolemies; Syria through the caravan-trade to Tyre from the Persian 
Gulf. There is some reason for supposing that pepper was the 
spice more especially in demand in Babylonia and the Persian Gulf 
trade generally, just as cinnamon was that more especially reserved 
for Egypt; and that the most active demand for it came with the 
extension of the Persian empire under Darius. The trade was 
by sea and not overland;. Herodotus knows the Dravidians (III, 100) 
only as having a complexion closely resembling the Aethiopians,' ' 
and as being "situated very far from the Persians, toward the south, 
and never subject to Darius." It may also be surmised that a steady 
demand for pepper existed in China before it arose in Rome, and 


that this v\ as one reason for the sailing of the junks to the Malabar 
coast in the 2d century B. C. and probably earlier. In Marco Polo's 
day the tonnage of the junks was calculated according to their capacity 
in baskets of pepper; and he found (II, Ixxxii) for one shipload of 
pepper that goes to Alexandria or elsewhere, destined for Christen- 
dom, there come a hundred such, aye and more too, to this haven of 
Zayton" (Chwan-chau, above Amoyj. 

The trade in pepper in the time of the Roman Empire brought 
the merchants unheard-of profits just as it did later the Genoese and 
Venetians. It was one of the most important articles of commerce 
between India and Rome, supplying perhaps three-quarters of the 
total bulk of the average westbound cargo. 

The constant use of pepper in the most expensive Roman cookery 
is reflected by its price, quoted by Pliny (XII, 14j as 15 denarii, or 
about $2.55 per lb. 

Among the offerings by the emperor Constantine to the church 
under St. Silvester, were costly vessels and fragrant gums and spices, 
including frankincense, nard, balsam, storax, myrrh, cinnamon, saffron 
and pepper. 

That it continued in high esteem is shown by the terms offered 
by Alaric for raising the siege of Rome: the immediate payment of 
5,000 lbs. of gold, of 30,000 lbs. of silver, of 4,000 robes of silk, of 
3,000 pes. of fine scarlet cloth, and of 3,000 lbs. weight of pepper." 
(Gibbon, Decline and Fall, III, 271-2.) 

Pliny, indeed, expresses surprise at the taste that brought it into 
so great favor ' XII, 14) : It is quite surprising that the use of pepper 
has come so much into fashion, seeing that in other substances which 
we use, it is sometimes their sweetness, and sometimes their appear- 
ance that has attracted our notice; whereas, pepper h:;s nothing in it 
that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry, its only 
desirable quality being a certain pungency; and yet it is for this that 
we import it all the way from India! Who was the first to make 
trial of it as an article of food.? And who, I wonder, was the man 
that was not content to prepare himself by hunger only for the satis- 
fying of a greedy appetite.'' ' 

In medieval Europe the trade was highly organized, the spice 
being handled especially by merchants called 'pepperers;" and the 
prices quoted in Rogers' History of Agriculture and Prices in England 
show that in the years just prior to the Portuguese discovery of the 
Cape route, a pound of pepper brought two shillings, being four days' 
pay for a carpenter! Yet the people preferred it above all other 


spices; it was the first thing asked for by "Glutton" in Piers Plowman 
(V, 310-13): 

I hauegodeale, gossib," quod she' "glotown, wiltow assaye ? " 
Hastow aughte in thi purs' any bote spices?" 
I haue peper and piones," quod she "and a pounde of garlike, 
A f erthyngworth of f enel-seed ' for fastyngdayes. ' ' 

Friar Odoric (Chap, iii) describes the pepper production of 
Minibar" as follows: the wood in which it grows containeth in 
circuit eighteen days' journey. And in the said wood or forest there 
are two cities, one called Flandrina, and the other Cyncilim" (prob- 
ably Nelcynda). "In the aforesaid wood pepper is had after this 
manner: first it groweth in leaves like unto pot-herbs, which they 
plant near unto great trees as we do our vines, and they bring forth 
pepper in clusters, as our vines do yield grapes, but being ripe, they 
are of a green color, and are gathered as we gather grapes, and then 
the grains are laid in the sun to be dried, and being dried are put into 
earthen vessels; and thus is pepper made and kept. . . At the south 
end of the said forests stands the city of Polumbrum, which aboundeth 
with merchandise of all kinds." (The proper form would be Polum- 
bum, the Latinized version of Polum or Kolum, the modern Quilon. 
P and K are interchanged here as in the case of Karur, the modern 
Parur. ) 

Tavernier found pepper sold principally at Tuticorin and Calicut. 
Some, however, came from Rajapur on the Ratnagiri coast. The 
Dutch," he says (II, xii. Ball's ed. ), "who purchase it from the 
Malaharis do not pay in cash for it, but exchange for it many kinds of 
merchandise, as cotton, opium, vermilion, and quicksilver, and it is 
this pepper which is exported to Europe. . . 500 livres of it brings 
only 38 reals, but on the merchandise which they give in exchange 
they gain 100 per cent. ■ One can get it for the equivalent in money 
of 28 or 30 reals cash, but to purchase it in that way would be much 
more costly than the Dutch method." 

He mentions also (I, xvi) a large storehouse kept by the Portu- 
guese at Cochin, called the "Pepper House. " 

See also Watt, 896-901; — Flilckiger and Hanbury, Phamiaco- 
graphia, p. 579; — Encyclopaedia Britannica, article "Pepper;" — Bran- 
dis, Indian Trees; — Vignoli, Liber Pontificalis, Rome, 1724-55. 

Odoric also describes a propitiation of the serpents guarding the 
pepper, similar to those of the frankincense and diamond; the story 
is better in the version of "Sir John Mandeville" (Chap, xviii) : "In 
that country be many manner of serpents and of other vermin for the 
great heat of the country and of the pepper. And some men say. 


that when they will gather the pepper, they make fire, to burn about 
to make the serpents and the cockodrills to flee. But save their grace 
of all that say so. For if they burnt about the trees that bear, the 
pepper should be burnt, and it would dry up all the virtue, as of any 
other thing; and then they did themselves much harm, and they 
should never quench the fire. But thus they do: they anoint their 
hands and their feet with a juice made of snails and of other things 
made therefor, of the which the serpents and the venomous beasts 
hate and dread the savour; and that maketh them flee before them, 
because of the smell, and then they gather it surely enough. 

This belief in the guarding of treasure, or of wealth-producing 
trees, or the habitation thereof, by spirits in the form of serpents, has 
already been noted as attaching to frankincense (§ 29), and will 
appear likewise with the diamond (§ 56). The supposed necessity 
of appeasing or else expelling the serpents by the use pf other sub- 
stances was held strongly in Rome itself. Pliny ascribes this power 
to galbanum, "a kind of giant fennel" (XII, 56). ' If ignited in a 
pure state it has the property of driving away serpents by its smoke." 
And again (XXIV, 13), "the very touch of it, mingled with oil and 
spondylium, is sufficient to kill a serpent." So also \'irgil {Georgia, 

III, 415): 

"Galbaneoque agitare graves nidore chelydros." 

The frankincense gatherers depended on burning storax; see 
under § 29, pp. 131-2. 

56. Malabathnim. — Heeren, Vincent and McCrindle trans- 
late this "betel," and thereby accuse the Periplus of a blunder in 
§§ 63 and 65, where the substance is described as coming from the 
Himalaya mountains. The translation rests on an assumption that 
the petros of the text in § 65 is the same as the Portuguese betre or 
hetle meaning betel. 

\A att (p. 891) says this latter is rather derived from a Alalay 
word vettila or vern-ila, meaning leaf, " and it is very doubtful if the 
betel of modern times entered into international commerce in the 
Roman period. 

The word petros is rather from the Sanscrit />ff/rfl, "leaf," of 
the tamala tree which, as explained under §§ 10, 13 and 14, is a 
variety of cinnamon or laurel. The leaf exported from Southern 
India was also from Cinnamomum incrs, and possibly from the Cinna- 
momum ■zeylanicum which in later times was cultivated in Ceylon and 
is one of the sources of our cinnamon. (See Tavernier, Traveh, 
II, xii). The leaf coming from the Himalaya mountains was prin- 
cipally from the Cinnamomum tamala, which was native there. Pliny 


says that the jnalahathrum which entered so prominently into Roman 
perfumes should have a smell like nard, and other Roman writers 
seem to have confused it with the Ganges nard mentioned in § 63. 
(See also Lassen, I, 279-285; II, 555-561J 

Horace, (II, vii, 89), refers to it as follows: 

"Coronatus nitentes 

Malobathro Syrio capillos." 

Malabathrum and spikenard were the two most treasured ingre- 
dients of the ointments and perfumes of the Roman empire. 

A curious trade condition is suggested by the fact that the Ro- 
mans knew cinnamon and cassia only as coming from the Somali 
coast of Africa, while they knew the malabathrum as coming from 
various parts of India; and yet the malabathrum was, in at least one 
case, the leaf from the same tree that produced a variety of cinnamon. 
The Periplus in no place mentions the export of cinnamon from 
India, but in §§ 56 and 63 describes the export of malabathrum. This 
seems to indicate a trade monopoly of very ancient date and thorough 
enforcement, by which the bark only went for trade purposes to the 
African coast, while the leaf was an open article of trade to India. 

Lindsay {History of Alerchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce, I, 
156-7), also remarks on this striking instance of the secrecy with 
which the ancients conducted the more valuable portions of their 
trade." Herodotus, he thinks, could only have obtained his infor- 
mation about cinnamon from the merchants who traded along the 
shores of Malabar . . . who kept the secret of its provenance as the 
Carthaginians kept that of British tin. ' ' 

Another letter from Mr. R. E. Drake-Brockman, dated Berbera, 
April 27, 1910, gives further confirmation of the absence of the cin- 
namon species from the Somali peninsula. (See under § 13, p. 87). 
It is unlikely that the original inhabitants of this country knew 
anything of cinnamon until they had heard of its commercial value 
from the natives of India or Arabs, who ha\e been known to the 
coastal people from the earliest times. These same traders, if they 
penetrated into the interior at all, which is extremely doubtful, would 
have hunted for anything of any commercial value, and if cinnamon 
had existed they would have continued to export it up to the present 
day as they do frankincense, myrrh and gum arabic. A point which 
is worthy of notice is that the Somalis have names for all the last three, 
whereas they have had to go to the Arabic language for their names 
for cinnamon. They know of two varieties, koronfol and karfa, both 
of which are imported. 

"It is highly probable that both Strabo and Pliny were led to 


believe that the myrrh, frankincense, cinnamon and spices pouring 
into the kingdom of Aethiopia and upper Egypt all came from the 
same place. Possibly traders in Aethiopia obtained a better price for 
their myrrh and cinnamon if they stated the difficulties and dani;ers 
they experienced collecting it in the countries of the savage Gallas 
or their antecedents in the Horn of Africa. 

' 'There can be no doubt that the natives of these regions have 
always been greatly feared by their less warlike neighbors. The 
Somalis and their antecedents have always been keen traders, and 
there can be little doubt that if cinnamon ever existed in these regions, 
the practice of collecting it would not have been dropped unless the 
species here collected was of a very inferior quality and gradually lost 
its marketable value." 

Through the courtesy of the same gentleman in gathering speci- 
mens of the various aromatic gums of Somaliland, a more positive 
statement may be made than was possible under § 32, pp. 141-2, 
concerning the Egyptian frankincense trade, in determining the 
character of the trees depicted on the Punt reliefs at Deir el Bahri, a 
photograph of which was reproduced on page 120. 

Professor Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt (II, 263-5), 
calls this tree myrrh, and translates it as myrrh wherever the records 
refer to it. In the publications of the Egypt Exploration P'und {The 
Temple of Deir-el-Bahri, III, 12), it '\scaAe.A frankincense, but is located 
in Somaliland in the neighborhood of Mosyllum, because of the sup- 
posed African appearance of the Punt people who appear elsewhere 
in the reliefs. 

Specimens of true myrrh sent from Somaliland show clearly that 
no sculptor could have intended to depict by the rich foliage on the 
reliefs, the bare, thorny, trifoliate but almost leafless myrrh tree, nor 
yet the almost equally leafless varieties of Somaliland frankincense. 
This tree is clearly Boswellia Carteri, the frankincense of the rich plain 
of Dhofar in Southern Arabia. This is the only place producing 
frankincense where the trees can be cultivated on a fertile plain by the 
shore, in the midst of green fields and cattle. There is no place on 
the African coast which meets these conditions. Naville' s objection 
that the natives are not Arabs," /. e., not Semitic, is really in favor 
of such a belief; they were the pre-Semitic, Cushite race whose domin- 
ions centered at Dhofar, and who are represented there by the modern 
Gara tribe. There can be no question that the trees in that relief are 
the frankincense of Dhofar, the "Sachalitic frankincense" of the 
Periplus, the modern Shehri luban. 


To the possible objection that the Darror and Nogal valleys, in 
the southern part of the Somali peninsula, are fertile and might pro- 
duce a better foliage than the northern coast, it may be said that the 
fertility stops far short of the east coast, which is absolutely desert; 
whereas the reliefs show a rich and fertile plain bordering the sea. ' ' 

56. A great quantity of coin. — The drain of specie from 
Rome to the East has already been referred to under § 49, and is 
bitterly condemned by Pliny. "The subject," he says (VI, 26), "is 
one well worthy of our notice, seeing that in no year does India drain 
us of less than 5S0M0,Q00 sesterces (g22,000,000) giving back her own 
wares, which are sold among us at fully 100 times their first cost." 

A generation before the Periplus, in 22 A. D., this was made 
the subject of a letter from the emperor Tiberius to the Roman Senate : 
If a reform is in truth intended, where must it begin.? and how 
am I to restore the simplicity of ancient times? . . . How shall we 
reform the taste for dress ? . . . How are we to deal with the peculiar 
articles of feminine vanity, and in particular with that rage for jewels 
and precious trinkets, which drains the empire of its wealth, and sends, 
in exchange for baubles, the money of the Commonwealth to foreign 
nations, and even to the enemies of Rome.?" (Tacitus, Annals, 
iii, 53.) 

This extravagant importation of luxuries from the East without 
adequate production of commodities to offer in exchange, was the 
main cause of the successive depreciation and degradation of the 
Roman currency, leading finally to its total repudiation. The mone- 
tary standard of Rome was established by accumulations of precious 
metal resulting from its wars. The sack of the rich city of Tarentum 
in 272 B. C. , enabled Rome to change her coinage from copper to 
silver. After the destruction of Carthage and Corinth in 146 B. C, 
gold coinage came into general use, and through the wars of Caesar 
gold became so plentiful that in 47 B. C. its ratio to silver was as 1 to 
8.9, lower than ever before or since. Under Augustus the ratio was 
about 1 to 9.3, the aureus being worth 25 silver denarii. Under 
Claudius the sea-route to India was opened, after which came the 
reign of Nero, marked by every form of wastefulness and extrava- 
gance, during which the silver denarius fell from 1-84 to 1-96 pound 
of silver, an alloy of 20 per cent copper being added to it. Under 
Trajan the alloy reached 30 per cent, and under Septimius Severus 
50 per cent. Finally, under Elagabalus, 218 A. D., t\i& denarius had 
become wholly copper and was repudiated. Even the golden aureus 
was tampered with. Exported in large quantities to become the basis 
of exchange in India, the supply at home was exhausted. Under 


Augustus the aureus weighed 1-40 of a pound of gold, and under 
Diocletian it weighed but 1-60. Under Constantine it fell to 1-72, 
when the coin was taken only by weight (Sabatier, Monnaies Byzan- 
tines, i, 51-2; Brooks Adams, Law of Civilization and Decay, 25-8). 
It was this steady loss of capital, to replace which no new wealth was 
produced, that led finally to the abandonment of Rome and to the 
transfer of the capital at the end of the 3d century to Nicomedia and 
soon afterward to Byzantium. 

Coin of Nero commemorating the opening of the harbor-works at Ostia. 

In the Madras Government Museum there is nearly a complete 
series of the coins of the Roman Emperors during the period of 
active trade with India, all of them excavated in southern India. A 
notable fact is that there are two distinct breaks in the series ; which 
may of course be supplied by later discovery, but which seem to indi- 
cate a cessation of trade due to political turmoil in Rome. The coins 
of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero are numerous. There are 
very few of Vespasian and Titus anywhere in India. Those of 
Domitian, Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian are frequent; then there 
comes another break lasting until the time of Commodus. This indi- 
cation, so far as it has any value, points again to the dating of the 
Periplus during the reign of Nero rather than during those of Ves- 
pasian and Titus. 

For a full account of Roman coins discovered in South India, 
see E. Thurston, Catalogue No. 2, Madras Government Museum, 
pp. 1-47. 

56. Crude glass. — The origin of the glass industry in India is 
uncertain. According to Mitra, Antiquities of Orissa, I, 101, it was 
made in Ceylon in the 3d century B. C. , and Pliny (, XXXVI, 66) 
refers to the glass of India as superior to all others, because 'made of 
pounded crystal." Mirrors, with a foil of lead and tin, were largely 
used there at the time of the Periplus, and Pliny indicates (XXXVII, 


20) that "the people of India, by coloring crystal, have found a 
method of imitating various precious stones, beryls in particular. ' ' An 
early play, the Mrichchhakatika or Little Clay Cart, gives a scene in a 
court of justice to this effect (Mitra, op. cit., 100; see also A. W 
Ryder's translation, Cambridge, 1905): 
Do you know these ornaments?" 

"Have I not said? They may be different, though like; I can- 
not say more; they may be imitations by some skillful artist." 

It is true; provost, examine them; they may be different, 
though like; the dexterity of the artists is no doubt very great, and 
they readily fabricate imitations of ornaments they have once seen, in 
such a manner that the difference shall scarcely be discernible. ' ' 

56. Copper, tin, and lead. — As at Bai^gaza, intended chiefly 
for the coinage. So Pliny (XXXIV, 17): "India has neither brass 
nor lead, but exchanges precious stones and pearls for them. " The 
Indian coins were of lead, slightly alloyed with either copper or tin. 
(Sir Walter Elliot, Coins of Southern India, p. 22.) 

Lead was used also, mixed with a little tin in thin sheets, as a foil 
for the manufacture of mirrors. (Mitra, op. cit., p. 101.) 

56. Orpiment. — This is the yellow sulphide of arsenic, appear- 
ing in the form of smooth shining scales, which have long been an 
article of export from the Persian Gulf to India. 

Pliny (\'I, 26) says. Next to these is the nation of the Ori and 
then the Hyctanis (Rud Shur?) a river of Carmania, with an excellent 
harbor at its mouth, and producing gold; at this spot the writers state 
that for the first time they caught sight of the Great Bear. The star 
Arcturus too, they tell us, was not to be seen here every night, and 
never when it was seen, during the whole of it. Up to this spot 
extended the empire of the Achasmenidae, and in these districts are to 
be found mines of copper, iron, arsenic, and red lead." 

The principal use of orpiment was as a yellow pigment — auri pig- 
mentum — making a durable mineral paint, as did realgar and lapis lazuli. 

56. Wheat for the sailors. — Marco Polo also notes (III, 
xviij, "No wheat grows in this province, but rice only." 

56. Cottonara. — Dr. Burnell derives this from Kolatta-nadu, 
which he identifies with North Malabar, of which Cannanore and 
Tellicherry are the centers. Dr. Buchanan prefers Kadatta-nadu, 
South Malabar, on either side of Calicut. In mediaeval times the 
domain of the Rajas of Kolatndd included both. Bishop Caldwell, in 
his Dravidian Grammar, derives the name from Malayalam kadatta, 
transport or conveyance, and nddii, district. Meni>n {Indian An- 
tiquary, Aug. 1902 J, suggests kadal, sea, or kbdu, mountain; and 


kodu-nadu, the hill-country back of the sea-coast, would accord with 
the facts while supporting the transliteration of the text. In any case 
the term does not seem to have been applied to an exact locality. 

56. Great quantities of fine pearls.— These were from the 
fisheries of the Gulf of Manar, mentioned in § 59, and brought to be 
sold in the Chera ports, the meeting-point of Eastern and Western 

56. Silk cloth. — From China, by way of Tibet and the 
Ganges. See under §§ 39, 49 and 64. 

56. Gangetic spikenard. — See under § 63. 

56. Transparent stones. — These were principally the beryls 
of the Coimbatore district, for which there was a constant demand in 
Rome, and which always found their principal foreign market in the 
Malabar ports. This localization of the gem trade continued until 
after the Portuguese period in India; the reason is stated by Tavernier 
(II, xxi) : 

Goa was formerly the place where there was the largest trade 
in all Asia in diamonds, rubies, sapphires, topazes, and other stones. 
All the miners and merchants went there to sell the best which they 
had obtained at the mines, because they had there full liberty to sell, 
whereas, in their own country, if they showed anything to the kings 
and princes, they were compelled to sell at whatever price they pleased 
to fix. There was also at Goa a large trade in pearls, both of those 
which came from the island of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, and those 
fished for in the Straits of Manar on the coast of the island of Ceylon. " 

India and Ceylon were preeminently the source of production of 
precious stones of all kinds, which were exported to every part of the 
civilized world. Wzxx. (p. 556) classifies the production as follows: 

1. The Beryl group, from the sea-green aquamarine to the 

white. (The beryllium of Pliny, XXXVII, 20. ) 

2. Diamond. (The adamas of Pliny, XXXVII, 15. ) 

3. Pearl. 

4. Ruby. (The carbunculus of Pliny, XXXVII, 25. ) 

5. Sapphire, occurring in numerous colors, various blues, violet, 

yellow, green and white. Produced mainly on the Southern 
Malabar hills, now rarely found in India but more frequently 
in Ceylon. (The hyacinthm of Pliny, XXXVII, 41.) 

6. Spinel. (Included among the Ig^ varieties of Pliny's carbun- 

culus. ) 

7. Topay,. Watt doubts its production in India at any place, 

and the Periplus shows on the contrary that it uas imported 


from the Red Sea. (The chnsolithos of Pliny, XXXVII, 

8. Turquoise. A product of Persia, not occurring in India but 

reaching the northwestern ports of trade. (The callaina of 
Pliny, XXXVII, 33.) 

9. Garnet. Common in many parts of India; those of Rajpu- 

tana being the best. (One of the 12 varieties, perhaps the 
alabandk, of Pliny' s carbunculus. ) 

10. Jade and Jadeite; found mainly in Turkestan but also in 

upper Burma, while a serpentine from Afghanistan is often 
substituted. W^hile not produced in India, these all find 
their way to Indian markets. The leading market is China. 

11. Lapis Lazuli, or ultramarine; also from Persia. Largely 

used for decoration of all kinds and in demand in India, 
Egypt and the Mediterranean world from the earliest times. 
(The sapphiros of Pliny, XXXVII, 39. ) 

12. Quartzose, including 

a. Rock crystals, white and colored, which the Romans do 

not seem to have distinguished from more precious 
stones. {j:\\& crystal oi Pliny, XXXVII, 9-10. j> 

b. Agate, carnelian, bloodstone, chrysoprase, jasper, chal- 

cedony, cat's eye, onyx, opal, etc. (^Achates, murrhine; 
sarda; heliotropium ; chrysoprasus ; iaspis, carchedonia; sar- 
donyx; astrobolos; onyx; o^a/ (Pliny, XXXVII.) 

13. Tourmalines, varying from black through red, dark blue, olive 

green, and white, the red varieties being commonest in 
India. (The lychnis of Pliny, XXXVII, 29. ) 

For further discussion of the deposits and trade, see Lassen, I, 
229-43; Tavernier, II. 

"Beryls," says Pliny (XXXVII, 20), 'are produced in India, 
and are rarely to be found elsewhere. The lapidaries cut all beryls 
of a hexagonal form, because the color, which is deadened by a dull 
uniformity of the surface, is heightened by the reflection from the 
angles. If they are cut in any other way, these stones have no bril- 
liancy whatever. " (The crystals are naturally hexahedral.) The 
most esteemed beryls are those which in color resemble the pure green 
of the sea. . . The people of India are marvelously fond of beryls 
of an elongated form, and say that these are the only precious stones 
they prefer wearing without the addition of gold." 

In the Mrkhchhakatika, an early Sanscrit play, there is a scene 
which includes a row of jewelers' shops, where skillful artists are 
examining pearls, topazes, sapphires, beryls, rubies, lapis lazuli, coral 


and other jewels; some set rubies in gold; some work with gold or- 
naments on colored thread, some string pearls, some grind the lapis 
lazuli, some pierce shells, and some cut coral." (Mitra, op. cit., 
p. 11)0..) 

5b. Diamonds. — The text is adamas. Some commentators, 
notably Dana, have doubted whether the Romans ever knew the true 
diamond. There can be no doubt that Pliny in his description 
(XXXVII, 15) includes under adamas other substances, probably 
quanz, iron ore, emery, etc., but he also says that the diamond possessed 
the greatest value, not only among the precious stones, but of all human 
possessions; and as Watt says (p. 556), India was long the only 
source of diamonds known to European nations. 

Garcia de Orta (1563), mentions various Eastern diamond 
mines, such as those of "Bisnager" (Vijayanagar) and the Decam" 
(Deccan). Ball, in his translation of Tavernier's Travels, gives full 
particulars of all the Indian sources of diamonds (II, 450-461). 
Tavernier was a diamond merchant and the first European (1676) to 
examine critically the diamonds and court jewels of India. 

The principal districts were, 

(1 ) Southern Group: — districts of Kadapa, Bellary, Karnul, 
Kistna, Godaveri, (Golconda, etc.); 

'2' Middle Group: — Mahanadl valley, districts of Sambalpur, 

(^3) Northern Group: — Vindhyan conglomerates near Panna 
' still worked ) . 

Pliny (XXXVII, 15j describes the Indian adamas as 'found, 
not in a stratum of gold, but in a substance of a kindred nature to 
crystal ; which it closely resembles in its transparency and its highly 
polished hexangular and hexahedral forms." (The true form of the 
diamond is octahedral.) In shape it is turbinated, running to a 
point at either extremity, and closely- resembling, marvelous to think 
of, two cones united at the base. In size, too, it is as large even as 
a hazel-nut. " 

The Romans seem to have had no knowledge of diamond- 
cutting. Pliny goes on to say that its hardness is beyond all expres- 
sion, while at the same time it quite sets fire at defiance; owing to 
which indomitable powers it has received the name which it derives 
from the Greek." (a privative, and damao, to subdue.") 

After his description of the hardness of the diamond, Pliny ob- 
serves, this indomitable power, which sets at naught the two most 
violent agents in nature, fire, namely, and iron, is made to yield before 


the blood of a he-goat. The blood, however, must be fresh and 
warm; the stone, too, must be well steeped in it. " 

Ball (Tavernier, Travels, II, 460-1), quotes a story from Nicol 
Conti (15th century) about Indian diamonds obtainable only by fling- 
ing pieces of meat on the mountain,' ' where the diamonds could not 
be collected owing to the number of serpents. The pieces of meat 
with diamonds sticking to them were then carried to their nests by 
birds of prey, from whence they were recovered by diamond seekers. 
. . This myth is founded on the very common practice in India on 
the opening of a mine, to offer up cattle to propitiate the evil spirits 
who are supposed to guard treasures — these being represented by the 
myth. At such sacrifices birds of prey assemble to pick up wjiat they 
can;" which is the foundation for the remainder of the story. 

Here we have a striking similarity to the beliefs connected with 
the gathering of frankincense, as outlined under § 29, and pepper 

The Thousand Nights and One Night gives substantially the same 
story (dxliv-v; Sinbad the Sailor, 2d voyage), while sufficiently iden- 
tifying the stone : 

Walking along the valley I found that its soil was of diamond, 
the stone wherewith they pierce jewels and precious stones and por- 
celain and (myx, for that it is a hard dense stone, whereon neither 
iron nor steel hath effect, neither can we cut off aught therefrom nor 
break it, save by means of the leadstone." 

Marco Polo (III, xix) records more definitely this ancient belief: 
Moreover in those mountains great serpents are rife to a mar- 
velous degree, besides other vermin, and this owing to the great heat. 
The serpents are also the most venomous in existence, insomuch that 
any one going to that region runs fearful peril; for many have been 
destroyed by these evil reptiles. 

Now among these mountains there are certain great and deep 
valleys, to the bottom of which there is no access. Wherefore the 
men who go in search of the diamonds take with them pieces of flesh, 
as lean as they can get, and these they cast into the bottom of a valley. 
Now there are numbers of white eagles that haunt those mountains 
and feed upon the serpents. When the eagles see the meat thrown 
down they pounce upon it and carry it up to some rocky hill-top 
where they begin to rend it. But there are men on the watch, and 
as soon as they see that the eagles have settled they raise a loud shout- 
ing to drive them away. And when the eagles are thus frightened 
away the men recover the pieces of meat, and find them full of dia- 
monds which have stuck to the meat down' in the bottom. For the 


abundance of diamonds down there in the depth of the valley is aston- 
ishing, but nobody can get them; and if one could it would be only 
to be incontinently devoured by the serpents which are so rife there." 

The part played by the eagles is that of other sacred birds, for the 
defence and profit of man. Compare the bird Jatayu, who gave his 
life in defence of Sita against the Raksha Ravana, in the Ramayana ; 
the ibis at Buto who defended Egypt against the frankincense-serpents, 
(p. 132), and the eagles who fought the dragons. (Virgil, Aeneid, 
XI, 755; Pliny, X, 5.j 

Connected with these beliefs was that in the efficacy of the dia- 
mond in warding off from the wearer all sorts of evils. Sir John 
Mandeville" {Travels, XVII), recounts it for his day, and it may 
still be observed. 

He that beareth the diamond upon him, it giveth him hardiness 
and manhood, and it keepeth the limbs of his body whole. It giveth 
him victory of his enemies in plea and in war, if his cause be rightful. 
And if any cursed witch or enchanter should bewitch him, all 
that sorrow and mischance shall turn to himself through virtue of that 
stone. And no wild beast dare assail the man that beareth it on him. 
And it healeth him that is lunatic, and them that the fiend pursueth 
or travaileth. And if venom or poison be brought in presence of the 
diamond, anon it beginneth to wax moist and for to sweat. . Nathles 
it befalleth often time that the good diamond loseth his virtue by sin, 
and for incontinence of him that beareth it. And then it is needful to 
make it to recover his virtue again, or else it is of little value." 

56. Sapphires. — The text is hyakinthos, which has been trans- 
lated as jacinth, ruby and amethyst. Jacinth is a product of Africa 
rather than India. Rubies are from Burma and probably never came 
in great quantities from India. Pliny says that the hyacinth resembles 
the amethyst, but draws a distinction between them. Pliny probably 
had in mind a violet sapphire, and his word really might be translated 
as meaning all tints of sapphire from blue to purple. 

Dionysius Periegetes refers to the "lovely land of the Indians 
where the complexions of the dwellers are dark, their limbs exquisitely 
tleek and smooth, and the hair of their heads surpassing smooth and 
dark blue like the hyacinth." (McCrindle, Ancient India, p. 188. ) 

W. Goodchild {Precious Stones, p. 183), also thinks that the sap- 
phire was the hyacinthus of Pliny, and says that the principal source 
of sapphires in that part of the world was in the watered gravels of 
Southern Ceylon, which were derived from watered crystaline rocks; 
and at the time of the Periplus the natural market would have been 
on the Malabar coast. The ruby, which is practically of the same 


chemical composition, being of the corundum group, was found in the 
same place as the sapphire in Ceylon, and was probably classified by 
Pliny under the carbunculus (XXXVII, 25). Both rubies and sapphires 
are found in much greater quantities in Burma and Siam, but at the time 
of the Periplus these deposits were probably unknown to western 

56. Tortoise-shell from Chryse. — Fabricius objects to this 
reading, and alters it to "that found along the coast;" but it is prob- 
able that the text gives a correct reference to the active trade of Eastern 
shipping in South Indian ports; which is, indeed, specifically mentioned 
in §§ 60 and 63. Marco Polo notes particularly the ships "from the 
great province of Manzi," and says (III, xxv) that the ships from 
Malabar to Aden and Egypt ' 'are not one to ten of those that go to 
the eastward; a very notable fact." 

To assume that conditions were the same at the time of the Peri- 
plus would be to go beyond the evidence; yet the records of the 
Chinese themselves point strongly to the existence of an active sea- 
trade at that time, certainly to Malacca, and less frequently, perhaps, 
to India and beyond. 

With this item ends the list of articles traded in by the author of 
the Periplus. It is interesting to compare it with the letter from the 
Zamorin of Calicut to the King of Portugal, carried by Vasco da 
Gama on his return from India fourteen centuries later: "In my 
kingdom there is abundance of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, pepper, 
and precious stones. What I seek from thy country is gold, silver, 
coral, and scarlet." 

57. Hippalus first discovered. — The discovery of Hippalus, 
which may be placed at about 45 A. D. (see p. 8J, opened a new 
ocean to Roman shipping; but it is probable that Arabian and Dra- 
vidian craft had frequented that ocean for many centuries, and incon- 
ceivable that they should not have made use of the periodic changes 
of the monsoons, by far the most notable feature of their climate. 
The evidence of both countries indicates, on the contrary, that they 
steered boldly out of sight of land, before records were written to tell 
of it 

A-Ir. Kennedy in an article in the Journal of the Royai Asiatic 
Society, 1898, (pp. 248-287) also thinks that the monsoons were un- 
derstood before the time of Hippalus, but doubts the beginning of any 
regular sea-trade before the beginning of the 7th century B. C. , 
ascribing all such trade to the activities of Nabonidus, in whose time 
ships were known to have come to Babylon from India and even from 
China. Following this reign he thinks st-ii-tradc between I"'i' .i :ind 

Babylon flourished for a couple of centuries, being mainl\' Dravidian 
but partly Aryan, and leading to the settlement of Indian traders in 
Arabia, East Africa, Babylonia and China. He minimizes the impor- 
tance of the early Eijyptian trading-voyages, considering them purely 
local, while the numerous references to articles and routes of early 
trade in the Hebrew scriptures he passes by with the assertion that they 
are due to the revision following the return of Ezra. 

But whatever may have been Ezra's revision of the Hebrew 
books, substantially the same articles of trade are described in the 
records of Egypt at corresponding dates, and they indicate a trade in 
articles of Indian origin to the Somali coast and overland to the Nile, 
centuries before Ezra's day. (See also under §i5 6, 10, 11, and 12.) 

Such opinions presume a continuous trading-journey without ex- 
change of cargoes at common meeting-points. But primitive trade 
passes from tribe to tribe and port to port. At the time of the 
Periplus cargoes changed hands in Malacca, Malabar, Somaliland, 
South Arabia, Adulis and Berenice. The custom is stated in detail 
in the Deir el Bahri reliefs describing Queen Hatshepsut's expedition 
of 1500 B. C, where Amon-Re tells the queen, 

"No one trod the incense-terraces, which the people knew not; 
they were heard of from mouth to mouth by hearsay of the ancestors. 
The marvels brought thence under thy fathers, the Kings of Lower 
Egypt, were brought from one to another, and since the time of the an- 
cestors of the Kings of Upper Egypt, who were of old, as a return 
for many payments." (Breasted, Ancient Records, II, 2S7). 

It was the particular achievement of the Egyptian Punt expedi- 
tions that they traced the treasured articles to their source and freed 
the land from the heavy charge of those 'many payments." Like- 
wise Hippalus must be remembered, not for a discovery new to the 
world, but for freeing the Roman Empire from Arabian monopoly of 
the Eastern trade by tracing it to its source. Beyond India no lasting 
discovery was made. Ptolemy, indeed, knew of Cattigara through 
the account given by Marinus of Tyre; but such voyages were ex- 
ceptional, and the majority of the Chinese ships stopped at Malacca, 
while the Malay colandia carried the trade to Malabar. It remained 
for the Arabs to complete the through line" by opening direct com- 
munication under the Bagdad Caliphate, between the ends of the earth, 
Lisbon and Canton. ' 

Prof. T. W'. Rhys Davids, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1899, p. 432, quotes an interesting Buddhist passage referring 
to early sea-trade as follows : 


' In the Dialogues of the Buddha is a passage in the Kevaddha 
Sutta of Digha — 5th cent. B. C. The Buddha says: 

Long ago ocean-going merchants vvere wont to plunge forth 
upon the sea, on board a ship, taking with them a shore-sighting bird. 
When the ship was out of sight of land they would set the shore- 
sighting bird free. And it would go to the East and to the South and 
to the West and to the North, and to the intermediate points, and 
rise aloft. If on the horizon it caught sight of land, thither it would 
go, but if not it would come back to the ship again. Just so, 
brother," etc. 

Cosmas Indicopleustes found this same custom in Ceylon in the 
6th century A. D., merchants depending on shore-sighting birds 
instead of observations of the sun or stars. 

There are similar passages in the oldest of the Vedas (see Gib- 
son's Rig Veda, Vol. \) : 

"Varuna, who knows the path of the birds flying through the 
air, he, abiding in the ocean, knows also the course of ships. ' ' 

"May Ushas dawn today, the excitress of chariots which are 
harnessed at her coming, as those who are desirous of wealth send 
ships to sea." 

"Do thou, Agni, whose countenance is turned to all sides, send 
off our adversaries, as if in a ship to the opposite shore. Do thou 
convey us in a ship across the sea for our welfare. ' ' (A remarkable 
prayer for safe conduct at sea. ) 

Kalidasa, in the Saiunta /a, gives the story of the merchant Dha- 
navriddhi, whose immense wealth devolved to the king on the 
former's perishing at sea and leaving no heirs behind him. 

The Hitopadesa describes a ship as a necessary requisite for a man 
to traverse the ocean, and a story is given of a certain merchant, 
' 'who, after having been twelve years on his voyage, at last returned 
home with a cargo of precious stones. " 

The Institutes of Manu include rules for the guidance of mari- 
time commerce. 

The passages quoted above indicate a well-developed and not a 
primitive trade. The sea-trade was principally of Dravidian develop- 
ment, while both the Vedas and the Buddhist writings are of Aryan 
origin, and refer to things new to their race but old in the world. 

(See also Bilhler, Indhche Studien, in SitzMngsberichte der Kais. 
Akad. d. J-Vissenschaften, Vienna, 1895, No. 3, pp. 81-2; Indian 
Paleography, § 5; Foulke, in Indian Antiquary, XVI, 7; Lassen, 

III, 3.) 

More significant is the Phoenician origin of the Dravidian alpha- 


bet, long before the Aryan invasion of southern India; while a passage 
in the Rdmayana suggests the ships of those whom the invaders 
contemptuously called ' monkeys." When Rama was dispatching 
his messengers to the four winds in search of Sita, it was the maligned 
Hanuman who "flew' ' across the Gulf of Manar to Ceylon and dis- 
covered her. Who can doubt that the wings he used were sails, or 
that the Dravidians ferried across to Ceylon a force of Aryan lands- 
men, who later turned and crushed them under the caste-system and 
established the dynasties of Dravda-d'esam '< Stern must have been 
the subjection that brought them to worship one of their own race 
under the guise of a monkey, and to carry the cult of the monkey- 
god Hanuman in their own ships to the vales of Oman, where mon- 
keys are unknown and where it has outlived the memory of its found- 
ers, to the confusion of the modern observer. (Gen. S. B. Miles, 
in Geographical Journal, VII, 336.) 

Significant also is the fact that Lieutenant Speke, when planning 
his discovery of the source of the Nile, secured his best information 
from a map reconstructed out of the Puranas. {.Journal, pp. 27, 77, 
216; Wilford, in Asiatic Researches, III). It traced the course of 
the river, the Great Krishna, ' ' through Cusha-dvipa, from a great 
lake in Chandristhdn, Country of the Moon," which it gave the 
correct position in relation to the Zanzibar islands. The name was 
from the native Unya-muezi, having the same meaning; and the map 
correctly mentioned another native name, Amara, applied to the dis- 
trict bordering Lake Victoria Nyanza. 

'All our previous information," says Speke, "concerning the 
hydrography of these regions, originated with the ancient Hindus, 
who told it to the priests of the Nile; and all those busy Egyptian 
geographers, who disseminated their knowledge with a view to 
be famous for their long-sightedness, in solving the mystery which 
enshrouded the source of their holy river, were so many hypothetical 
humbugs. The Hindu traders had a firm basis to stand upon through 
their intercourse with the Abyssinians. " (See § 14. ) 

Altogether it must be supposed that the navigation of the Indian 
Ocean began from the Persian Gulf and Arabia; that Western India 
■claimed its share at an early date; and that this community of interest 
Jong excluded their customers of the Mediterranean world, from whose 
standpoint Hippalus was quite as great a discoverer as if he had really 


"the first that ever burst 

Into that silent sea." 
57. Throw the Ship's head. — The text is trachelizontes, 
which is a wrestlers' term meaning literall>' 'throwinir by the neck 





.in (U 

T3 -^ 

o n> 


c •" 


The word has led to much unnecessary' confusion in the translation 
of this passage. Our author is describing a sailing-course w hich is 
obvious by referring to the map. The straight course before the 
trade-wind, from H-isn Ghorab to the Gulf of Cambay or the mouth of 
the Indus, would carry a vessel along the Arabian shore as far as Ras 
Fartak, l^eyond which the coast gradually recedes, so that the vessel 
would 'stand out to sea without changing its course. A vessel bound 
for the Malabar ports and saihng before the wind, with the type of 
rigging then in use, would have required steering off her course the 
whole time, thus describing a wide curve before making the Indian 
coast. Boats were not handled as easily then as now on a beam wind. 
The quarter-rudder required a constant pull on the tiller by the hands 
of the steersman. 

57. The same course. — Pliny's account of the voyage to 
India (VI, 26), which has been cited by most commentators on the 
Periplus, is appended for comparison. It will be seen that y hile it 
agrees with the Periplus in many points, particularly in its description 
of Arabia, its description of the Indian coast is not altogether the 

'In later times it has been considered a well- ascertained fact that 
the \'oyage from Syagrus, the Promontory- of Arabia, to Patala, reck- 
oned at thirteen hundred and thirty-five miles, can be performed most 
advantageous!}" with the aid of a westerly wind, which is there known 
by the name of Hippalus. 

The age that followed pointed out a shorter route, and a safer 
one to those who might happen to sail from the same promontory for 
Sigerus, a port in India; and for a long time this route was followed, 
until at last a stiU shorter cut was discovered by a merchant, and the 
thirst for gain brought India even still nearer to us. At the present 
day voyages are made to India every year; and companies of archers 
are carried on board the \'essels, as those seas are greatly infested with 

It will not be amiss too, on the present occasion, to set forth 
the whole of the route from Egypt, which has been stated to us of 
late, upon information on which reliance may be placed, and' is here 
published for the first time. The subject is one well worthy of our 
notice, seting that in no year does India drain our empire of less than 
five hundred and fifty millions of sesterces, gi\ ing back her own wares 
in exchange, which are sold among us at fully one hundred times 
their prime cost. 

Two miles distant from Alexandria is the town of Juliopolis. 
The distance thence to Coptos, up the Nile, is three hundred and 


eight miles; the voyage is performed, when the Etesian winds are 
blowing, in twelve days. From Coptos the journey is made with the 
aid of camels, stations being arranged at intervals for the supply of fresh 
water. The first of these stations is called Hydreuma (watering-place) , 
and is distant twenty-two miles; the second is situate on a mountain, at 
a distance of one day's journey from the last; the third is at a second 
Hydreuma distant from Coptos ninety-five miles; the fourth is on a 
mountain; the next to that is another Hydreuma, that of Apollo, and 
is distant from Coptos one hundred and eighty-four miles ; after which, 
there is another on a mountain. There is then another station at a 
place called the New Hydreuma, distant from Coptos two hundred 
and thirty miles; and next to it there is another, called the Old Hy- 
dreuma, or the Troglodytic, where a detachment is always on guard, 
with a caravansary that affords lodging for two thousand persons. 
This last is distant from the New Hydreuma seven miles. After 
leaving it we come to the city of Berenice, situate upon a harbor of 
the Red Sea and distant from Coptos two hundred and fifty-seven 
miles. The greater part of this distance is generally travelled by 
night, on account of the extreme heat, the days being spent at the 
stations; in consequence of which it takes twehe days to perform the 
whole journey from Coptos to Berenice. 

Passengers generally set sail at midsummer, before the rising 
of the Dog-star, or else immediately after, and in about thirty days 
arrive at Ocelis in Arabia, or else at Cana, in the region which bears 
frankincense. There is also a third port of Arabia, Muza by name; 
it is not, however, used by persons on their passage to India, as only 
those touch at, it who deal in incense and the perfumes of Arabia. 
More in the interior there is a city; the residence of the king there is 
called Sapphar, and there is another city known by the name of Save. 
To those who are bound for India, Ocelis is the best place for em- 
barcation. If the wind, called Hippalus, happens to be blowing, it is 
possible to arrive in forty days at the nearest mart in India, Muziris by 
name. This, however, is not a very desirable place for disembarca- 
tion, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity, where they 
occupy a place called Nitrias; nor, in fact, is it very rich in articles of 
merchandise. Besides, the roadstead for shipping is a considerable 
distance from the shore, and the cargoes have to be conveyed in boats, 
either for loading or discharging. At the moment that I am writing 
these pages, the name of the king of this place is Caelobothras. 
Another port, and a much more convenient one, is that which lies in 
the territory of the people called Neacyndi, Barace by name. Here 
king Pandion used to reign, dwelling at a considerable distance from 


the mart in the interior, at a city known as Modiera. The district 
from which pepper is carried down to Barace in boats hollowed out 
of a single tree (see illustration on p. 212), is known as Cottonara. 
None of these names of nations, ports, and cities are to be found in 
any of the former writers, from which circumstance it would appear 
that the localities have since changed their names. Travellers set sail 
from India on their return to Europe, at the beginning of the Egyptian 
month of Tybis, which is our December, or at all events before the 
sixth day of the Egyptian month Mechir, the same as our Ides of Janu- 
ary; if they do this they can go and return in the same year. They 
set sail from India with a south-east wind, and upon entering the Red 
Sea, catch the south-west or south." 

58. Dark Red Mountain. — The text is Pyrrhon. There 
can be no doubt that it refers to the "Red Bluffs," a series of 
high sandstone and laterite headlands, which abut on the coast at 
Varkkallai (8° 42' N.), and again below Anjengo (8° 40' N., 76° 
45' E. ). These are the "Warkalli Beds" of the Indian geologists, 
and have recently been pierced by a canal to complete the backwater 
communication between Tirur and Trivandrum, nearly 200 miles. 
{Imperial Gazetteer, XXIV, 300.) 

Beyond this point we must assume that the author of the Periplus 
did not go. The remainder of his work, usually referred to as the 
"sequel," represents what he learned by inquiring of acquaintances 
at Nelcynda or Bacare, and set down in writing toward lightening the 
darkness of Mediterranean ideas concerning all matters oriental. 

58. Paralia. — According to Caldwell {Dravidian Grammar, 
56), this is a translation of the Tamil Karei, coast;" according to 
Burnell and Yule, it is Purali, an ancient local name for Travancore. 
This is supported by Gundert in his Malayalam Dictionary, and by the 
Malayalam translation of the Ramayana. The Raja's tides still 
include that of Puratisan, Lord of Purali." The native name for 
this country in general was Malayalam, from mala, mountain, and 
alam, depth; the land at the foot of the mountains, — Piedmont. 

Paralia, to the author of the Periplus, is the coast-line below the 
Travancore backwaters, around Cape Comorin, and as far as Adam's 
Bridge: comprised within the modern districts of Travancore and 

58. Balita.— This is probably the modern VarkkaUai (8° 42' 
N. , 76° 43 E. j. It was formerly the southern end of the long line of 
backwaters, and a place of considerable commercial importance. By 
cutting through a bluff the lachwaters have recently been connected 
with others leading as far as Trivandrum, which is now the chief port 


of the district. At Varkkallai is the celebrated temple of Janardan, 
an avatar of Vishnu, visited by pilgrims from all parts of India; while 
numerous mineral springs in the vicinity make it a favorite health 
resort. {Imp. Gaz., XXIV, 300.) 

58. Comari. — This is Cape Comorin, the southern extremity 
of the Indian peninsula (8° 5'N., 77° 33' E.). The name is the 
Tamil form of the Sanscrit Kumar'i, virgin, which was applied to the 
goddess Durga, or Parvati, the consort of Siva. 

Yule observes (Marco Polo, II, 882-3) that the monthly bathing 
in her honor is still continued; and according to the Imperial Gazetteer 
(X, 376), it is one of the most important places of pilgrimage in 
Southern India.' ' 

In the first century of the Christian era Rome, Parthia, India, 
and China were the four great powers of the world, of which the 
first and last were advancing, the others passing through political 
transformation. Of the world's religions, the Buddhist, as Edmunds 
has well said {Buddhist and Christian Gospels, 3d ed., Tokyo, 1905, 
p. 23), was the most powerful on the planet. " But it was no longer 
the Buddhism of the Emperor Asoka. The disintegration of the 
Maurya Empire had been followed by the rise of the Indo-Scythian 
power in the northwest, and of the Andhra in the Deccan. Both 
these were Buddhist, the Scythian Kanishka in the following century 
being the second great exponent of that faith; but the ways of the 
barbarian were not those of the Hindu, the two chief Buddhist powers 
were at war, and in 126 A. D., when the Andhra king Vilivayakura 
II, or Gautamiputra Satakarni conquered, the queen-mother Balasri 
set up a memorial at Karll telling how he destroyed the Sakas, 
Yavanas, and Pahlavas . properly expended the taxes which he 

levied in accordance with the sacred law . . and prevented the 
mixing of the four castes." (Vincent Smith, Early History, 188.) 
To the north the great missionary movement through Turkestan and 
China had only just begun, while the rice-migrations from the Hima- 
layas into Burma and Indo-China, which made of those kingdoms a 
bulwark of Buddhism in the middle ages, had not taken place. In 
Ceylon the native race, the Sinhalese, were heartily for the Law of 
Piety, as in Asoka's day; but opposed to them racially and in matters 
religious, were their neighbors and ancient enemies, the Southern 
Dravidians, with their Aryan dynasties and caste-systems, who had 
never embraced the Buddhist doctrine, and whose primitive nature- 
worship was included bodily within the cult of the Hindu gods. Siva 
especially, "the auspicious," Rudra of the Fedas; the god of the 
storm, the destroNcr and reproducer, was the deity venerated by the 


Dravidians, tog-ether with his consort or "energic principle," Durga. 
( His symbol was the cobra, hers the lion, while their son was Ganesa, 
elephant-headed, the god of learning. ) And as the southern kingdoms 
waxed strong, so their religion was pushed. forward, steadily displacing 
Buddhism in its home-land as it in turn spread outward over the great 
continent of Asia; until the Deccan and Bengal returned to the earlier 
faith, while of the structure built up by Kanishka the \\ hite Huns 
had left but wreckage. 

The religion of India as seen by the author of the Periplus was 
therefore twofold: at Barygaza under the Saka satraps, a heterodox 
Buddhism had supplanted the Law observed at Ujjeni and Pataliputta 
under the Mauryas, and preached to the nations of the earth under 
Asoka in the third century B. C. ; while the purer form still upheld 
by the Andhras could not be found at their western port, Calliena, 
which the Sakas had "obstructed." In the south the earlier faith 
was advancing, and in Nelcynda, where some acquaintance related to 
our author the things he set down about the eastern half of India, it 
was the great epics which supplied the information; the Puranas, the 
Mahabharata and the Ramdyana, which continued to uphold the 
"southern sisters" in the use of that visible altar-flame which those 
of the north had thought to replace by contemplation of the ' 'inner 
light, ' ' but were learning anew their lesson from the Katha Vpanhhad: 
"that lire is day by day to be praised by men who wake, with the 

Underlying the formal acceptance of the Brahman faith there 
still existed the earlier animism, the worship of spirits in the form of 
trees and serpents, with all the train of associated beliefs described in 
such works as Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship ; Tylor, Primitive 
Culture; Frazer, The Golden Bough; W. Robertson Smith, The Reli- 
gion of the Semites; Ernest Crawley, The Tree of Life. The identity 
of belief has been indicated by the legends attached to the most treas- 
ured articles of early trade. For international trade began largely on 
a religious basis, and was continued as a means of elaborating worship. 
And to the activity and persuasiveness of the commercial peoples may 
be attributed the wide acceptance of their assertions regarding the 
peculiar efficacy and sanctity of the spirits of their own sacred trees. 
There was no reason per se for the Egyptian faith in myrrh as a purify- 
ing and cleansing agent beyond the gum of their own trees, or for the 
trust of the Babylonians and Greeks in frankincense, or of the Romans 
in cinnamon, bejond their own pine-resin or the golden bough" of 
their earlier faith ; it was the result of the eclectic spirit which accepted 
that which was told them by strangers. The serpent-cult in Rome 


was no mere extravagance, but reflected the early faith in the existence 
of departed spirits in serpent form. The funeral of Sabina Poppaea, 
with its fabulous store of spices burned, was not mere show, but was 
intended to provide Nero's consort with a countless array of protect- 
ing spirits in the under-world. 

This formless faith was the common property of those trading 
between east and west. Incorporated by Brahmanism, it persisted 
almost unmodified among the caste of those trading by sea, defiled 
beyond hope in Brahman eyes ; it permeates the Book of the Dead 
and the Gilgamesh epic; it is the background of the Old Testament 
and the Koran, and it is still addressed to their jinni by those whom 
the Bents visited in Dhofar and Socotra, whose ancestors were among 
its earliest devotees, and carried it to the ends of the earth. 

59. Colchi.— This is the modern Kolkai (8° 40' N., 78° 5' 
E. )■ By tradition this was the earliest seat of Dravidian power in 
Southern India, where Chera, Chola and Pandya, the legendary pro- 
genitors of the great dynasties, ruled in common before their domin- 
ions were separated. At the time of the Periplus it was one of the 
chief ports of the Pandyan kingdom, being more accessible to the 
capital than Nelcynda. Owing to the deposit of silt by the Tamra- 
parni River the sea retired from Kolkai, and in mediaeval times 
another nearby place, Kayal (the Coil of Marco Polo), became the 
port. At present the trade of this district passes through Tuticorin. 
{_lmp. Ga%., XV, 387; a good map is given in Yule's Marco Polo, 
Cordier's edition, II, 373-4. J 

This is the country from which Hanuman, the monkey-god, 
made his leap across the sea from the Mahendragiri mountain to Cey- 
lon, and so helped Rama to the rescue of his consort Sita from 
Ravana, the demon king of Ceylon, as told in the Ramayana; and 
here was consequently a center of the worship of Hanuman, which 
was carried afar by the Dravidian sea-folk. In the rich Wadi Tyin 
in Oman, the trade of which passed through the port of Kalhat — that 
j-lcila of Pliny (VI, 32), from which persons embarked'for India," 
General Miles found a town Sibal, which, he observes, means mon- 
key, " and was the name of a famous pre-Islamic idol. No monkeys 
exist in Oman, but a temple stood here dedicated to that image." 
( Geographical Journal, VII, 522-537). 

Two shrines of Hanuman are still venerated at'Surat on the 
Cambay coast, which was also in constant communication with Arabia. 

According to local tradition, this was the original capital of Drd- 
vida-d'esam, and the birthplace of the dynasties ruling in Southern 
India at the time of the Periplus. This dominion of the Pandyas' ' 


was said to have been established by the descendants of Pandu, who 
was the father of the Pandava brothers, the heroes of the North 
Indian war recounted in the Mahahharata. Whether the dynastic 
connection was real, or whether it was attached to the legend like 
Pushkalavati and Takshasila through Pushkala and Taksha, sons of 
Bharata in the Ramdyana, is less important than the obvious Aryan 
descent of the dynasty in this Dravidian land, and their rigid institution 
of the caste-system which still prevaOs here in a completeness long 
since outgrown in other parts of India. Those who would see in the 
northern spread of this dynasty a southern origin for the Dravidian 
race do not take into account the late origin of the dynasty, probably 
the 5th or 4th century B. C. , and its alien character among a people 
already settled and developed. 

Arrian {Indica, VIII) gives another version of the origin of this 
dynasty, from Pandasa, who, he says, was 'the only daughter of 
Heracles, among many sons; the land where she was born, and over 
which she ruled, was named Pandaea after her. " No worthy con- 
sort appearing, Heracles made her marriageable at the age of seven 
years, and married her himself, "that the family born from him and 
her might supply kings to the Indians. 

The story is not accepted by Arrian in entire faith; he observes 
that the power exerted by Heracles in hastening the maturity of 
Pandasa might more naturally have been applied to the postponement 
of his own senility; but, as he says in another connection (XXXI), 
"I know, however, that it is a very difficult task for one who reads 
the ancient tales to prove that they are false. ' ' 

In Greek literature concerning India, Heracles is usually iden- 
tified with Vishnu, and Bacchus with Siva. 

The dominion of the Pandyas was divided among three reputed 
brothers, Chera, Chola and Pandya, in which form it appears in 
Asoka's inscription of the 3d century B. C, and in the Periplus. 
The capital had been removed, as Pliny states, to Madura (9° 55' 
N., 78° 7' E. ), which the Ramdyana describes as a great city, its 
gates being of gold inlaid with gems. 

The seceding kingdoms were larger and more powerful than the 
original, the most important being the Chola, the "Coast Country" 
of § 59. 

The dynastic succession of these kingdoms forms the longest un- 
broken chain in Indian history, covering a period of at least two 
thousand years. 

(See Imperial Gazetteer, XVI, 389; — \'incent Smith, F,arly History, 
341-7; and authorities quoted on p. 209. ) 


The Dravidians of Southern India were active traders and colo- 
nists in Ceylon, in opposition to the native Sinhalese, with whom they 
were in frequent conflict, and in spite of whom they had extended 
their power effectually over the northwestern coast of Ceylon, the 
region of the pearl-fisheries. 

59. Pearl-fisheries. — These were, as at present, in the shallow 
waters of the Gulf of Manar. (See under §§ 35, 36, and 56. ) 

Pliny (IX, 54-8) says that pearls came into general use in Rome 
after the surrender of Alexandria; but that they first began to be used 
about the time of Sylla. 

The first rank, and the very highest position among all valu- 
ables belongs to the pearl. . . The most productive of pearls is the 
island of Taprobane. 

The origin and production of the shell-fish is not very different 
from that of the shell of the oyster. When the genial season of the 
year exercises its influence on the animal, it is said that, yawning, as 
it were, it opens its shell, and so receives a kind of dew, by means of 
which it becomes impregnated; and that at length it gives birth, after 
many struggles, to the burden of its shell, in the shape of pearls, 
which vary according to the quality of the dew. If this has been in a 
perfectly pure state when it flowed into the shell, then the pearl pro- 
duced is white and brilliant, but if it was turbid, then the pearl is of a 
clouded color also; if the sky should happen to have been lowering 
when it was generated, the pearl will be of a pallid color; from all 
which it is quite evident that the quality of the pearl depends much 
more upon a calm state of the heavens than of the sea, and hence it 
is that it contracts a cloudy hue, or a limpid appearance, according to 
the degree of serenity of the sky in the morning. . . It is wonder- 
ful that they should be influenced thus pleasurably by the state of the 
heavens, seeing that by the action of the sun the pearls a;e turned of 
a red color, and lose all their whiteness, just like the human body. 
Hence it is that those which keep their whiteness best are the deep- 
sea pearls, which lie at too great a depth to be reached Ly the sun's 
rays. I have seen pearls still adhering to the shell ; for which reason 
the shells were used as boxes for ointments. 

"The lish, as soon as it even perceives the hand, shuts its shell 
and covers up its treasures, being well aware that it is for them that it 
is sought; and if it happens to catch the hand it cuts it off with the 
sharp edge of the shell. . . The greater part of these pearls are 
only to be found among rocks and crags, while, on tl.e other hand, 
those that lie out in the deep sea are generally accompanied by sea- 


dogs. And yet, for all this, the women v\ill not banish these gems 
from their ears! 

"Our ladies glory in having pearls suspended from their fingers, 
or two or three of them dangling from their ears, delighted even with 
the rattling of the pearls as they knock against each other; and now, 
at the present day, the poorer classes are even affecting them, as 
people are in the habit of saying, that 'a pearl worn by a woman in 
public is as good as a lictor walking before her.' Xa}-, even more 
than this, they put them on their feet, and that, not only on the laces 
of their sandals but all over the shoes; it is not enough to wear pearls, 
but they must tread upon them, and walk with them under foot as 

"I once saw Lollia Paulina, the wife of the Emperor Caius — it 
was not at any public festi\'al, or any solemn ceremonial, but only at 
an ordinary betrothal entertainment — covered with emeralds and 
pearls, which shone in alternate layers upon her head, in her hair, 
in her wreaths, in her ears, upon her neck, in her bracelets, and on 
her fingers, and the value of which amounted in all to 40,000,000 
sesterces; indeed she was prepared at once to prove the fact, by 
showing the receipts and acquittances. Nor were these any presents 
made by a prodigal potentate, but treasures which had descended to 
her from her grandfather, and obtained by the spoliation of the prov- 
inces. Such are the fruits of plunder and extortion ! It was for this 
reason that Al. Lollius was held so infamous all over the East for the 
presents which he extorted from the kings; the result of which was, 
that he was denied the friendship of Caius Cassar, and took poison; 
and all this was done, I say, that his granddaughter might be seen, by 
by the glare of lamps, covered all over with jewels to the amount of 
forty millions of sesterces!" 

Pliny then recounts the well-known story of Cleopatra' s wager 
with Antony to serve him an entertainment costing ten millions of 
sesterces, and of her dissolving a great pearl in vinegar and swallow- 
ing it. The same thing had been done before, he says, in Rome, by 
Clodius, son of the tragic actor Aesopus, who served a meal in which 
each guest was given a pearl to swallow. 

Of the pearl industry, Marco Polo says (III, xvij: "All round 
this gulf the water has a depth of not more than 10 or 12 fathoms, 
and in some places not more than 2 fathoms. The pearl-fishers 
take their vessels, great and small, and proceed into this gulf, where 
they stop from the beginning of April till the middle of May. . . 
Of the produce they have first to pay the king, as his royalty, the 
tenth part. And they must also pay those men who charm the great 


fishes (sharks) to prevent them from injuring the divers whilst en- 
gaged in seveking pearls under water, one-twentieth part of all that 
they take. These fish-charmers are termed Abraiaman (Brahmans); 
and their charm holds good for that day only, for at night they dissolve 
the charm so that the fishes can work mischief at their will." 

There can be little doubt that this kind of protection was sought by 
the divers at the time of the Periplus, and \\Ae observed it still in force, 
one of the Brahmans" exercising this ancestral office being a Christian! 

In the case of frankincense, pepper and diamonds, the guardian 
spirits took the form of serpents and were appeased or repelled by 
other spirits or by sacred birds. But sharks called for the visible aid 
of the priests. ^\ e may suppose the shark to have been a soulless 
and unimpressionable demon, or else that the industry dates from a 
time after the Aryan invasion of Southern India, so that the priestly 
caste could properly decline to stand aside for the benefit of the ser- 
pent-cults that had preceded them. 

59. Coast country. — This country, different from, and be- 
yond, the Pandyan kingdom, is the third of the Dravidian states, 
the Chola kingdom; at the time of the Periplus, as it states, the 
largest, richest, and most prosperous of the three. Coast Country' ' 
is from the native name, Chola coast, " Chola-mandalam, from which 
the Portuguese derived our modern word Coromandel. By the Sara- 
cens it was given another name, Maahar, not to he confused with 
Malabar; the meaning being "ferrying-place," and referring to the 
shipping-trade for Malacca and the Far East. By the Ceylonese it 
was called Soli, which name they applied to both Chola and Pandya, 
even though their relations with Madura were more important. The 
boundaries were, roughly, from the Penner River on the north (emp- 
tying into the Bay of Bengal at 14° 40' N. ), and on the south the 
Valiyar River (10° 3' N. ), or even the Vaigai (9° 20' N. ). During 
the mediaeval period the Chola kingdom conquered and absorbed its 
progenitor, the Pandyan, and they are still classified together in the 
modern Carnatic." 

The pearl-fisheries belonging to this kingdom, the product of 
which was sold only at the capital, Uraiyur, were those of the Palk 
Strait, north of Adam's Bridge, as distinguished from those of the 
Gulf of Manar, which belonged to the Pandyan kingdom, and were 
administered from Madura. 

59. Argaru. — This is nearly a correct transliteration of Urai- 
yur ("city of habitation"), the ancient capital of the Chola kingdom, 
now part of Trichinopoly (10° 49' N., 78° 42' E. ). 


Previous identifications of this name have failed to take into ac- 
count the fact that it v\ as inland, and in a different country from the 
Pandyan kingdom. 

The capital grew up around a fortress built on the summit of the 
Rock of Trichinopoly, which rises abruptly out of the plain to a height 
of 340 feet above the old city, which nestles picturesquely at its foot. 
"The view from the frowning heights of the rock is very grand. 
Little is now left of the old fortifications but the citadel and a pagoda- 
like temple. A covered passage hewn out of the rock leads to them. ' ' 
(Furneaux, India, p. 430.) 

After the destruction of Uraiyur about the 7th century A. D., 
the capital was removed to Malaikurram, the modern Kumbakonam 
(10° 58' N., 79° 22' E. j, which still retains traces of its former 
grandeur; andafter other changes to Tanjore (10° 47' N., 79°8'E. j. 
(Sir Walter Elliot, Coins of Southern India, 130; Vincent Smith, Early 
History, 164, 342.) 

59. Argaritic muslins. — The textile industry of both Trichi- 
nopoly (or Uraiyur) and Tanjore has been famous from early times. 
There can be little doubt that some of the finest fabrics that reached 
the Roman world came from this kingdom of Chola. From this part 
of India, in the middle ages, came those gold-threaded embroideries 
which were in such demand in the Saracen markets. 

60. Ships from the north — that is, from the Ganges and 
Bengal. Kalidasa, in the Raghuvamsa, tells of a tour of conquest of 
India, made by Raghu, the great-grandfather of Rama; starting from 
Ayodhya ( the modern Oudh) he went eastward to the ocean, "having 
conquered the Bangalis, who trusted in their ships." (Foulkes, in 
Indian Antiquary^ 1879, pp. 1-10.) 

60. Camara. — Ptolemy mentions a Chaberis emporion, at one of 
the mouths of the Kaverl River; probably both this and the Cawara 
of the Periplus were nearly, if not quite, identical with the modern 
Karikal(10° 55' N., 79° 50' E.). 

60. Poduca. — This is probably intended for PWW;i7;^/-/, "new 
town," the modern Pondicherry (11° 56' N., 79° 49' E. ). So 
Bohlen, Ritter, Benfey, Miiller, McCrindle and Fabricius; Yule, 
following Lassen, prefers Pulikat (13° 25' N., 80° 19' E.). 

60. Sopatma. — This is probably ^i^-^x^towi?, "fair town," and 
may be identified with the modern Madras (13° 4' N., 80° 15' E. ). 

Lassen (II, 542) doubts the possibility of identifying either 
Camara or Sopatma; and there is no evidence that Pondicherry ex- 
isted at the time of the Periplus. The location of all three ports can 
be no more than conjectural. 


60. Ships of the country: Sangara. — The first were, no 
doubt, the craft made of hollowed logs with plank sides and outriggers, 
such as are still used in South India and Ceylon (pictured on 
p. 212); the larger type, sangara, were probably made of two such 
canoes joined together by a deck-platform admitting of a fair-sized 
deck-house. Dr. Taylor (^Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Jan., 
1847, pp. 1-78), says that the ndimsjangar is still used on the Malabar 
coast for these double canoes. Caldwell gives the forms changadam 
in Malayalam; jangala in Tula; and samghadam in Sanscrit, "a 
raft." Benfey (art. on India in Ersch & Gruber's Encyklopadie, 307) 
derives it from the Sanscrit sangara, meaning trade ; ' ' Lassen, how- 
ever (II, 543), doubts the application of the word to shipping, and 
Heeren {,Ideen iiher die Politik, etc., I, iii, 361) ascribes the word to 
a Malay ojiginal. This is quite possible, as the type itself is Malay, 
and found throughout the archipelago. 

Modem double canoe with deck-structure, of the sangara type; in general 
use in South India, Ceylon, and the Eastern Archipelago. 

The comparatively large size of the shipping on the Coromandel 
coast is indicated also by the Andhra coinage, on which a frequent 
symbol is a ship with two masts, apparently of considerable tonnage. 


The maritime traffic, to which the ship type bears witness, is also 
attested by the large numbers of Roman coins which are found on the 
Coromandel Coast." (E. J. Rapson, Coins of the A ndhra Dynasty, 

Ixxxii). * 

Early South Indian Coins 

(re-drawn and restored from Elliot, Coins of Southern India) 
Plate I, fig. 38 Plate II, fig. 45 

Kurumbar or Pallava coin of the 
Coromandel coast; showing a two- 
masted ship like the modem coasting 
vessel or if honi. 

Andhra coin, showing a two-masted 
ship presenting details like those of 
the Gujarati ship at Boroboedor, and 
the Persian ship at Ajanta. 

The shipping of the Andhra and Pallava coins doubtless survives 
in the modern masida boats" at Madras: 

"The harbor (of Madras) can never be a harbor of refuge, and 
all that the works will secure is immunity for landing and shipping 
operations from the tremendous surf which is so general along the 
whole of the Coromandel coast. . . . Passenger traffic from the 
shore to the vessels is carried on by jolly-boats from the pier, or masulah 
boats from the sho(;e. These latter are relics of a bygone day, when 
Madras was an open roadstead and when landing through the surf by 
any form of jdUy-boat was a matter extremely difficult, if not impos- 
sible. These masulah boats are flat-bottomed barges constructed of 
planks sewn together with rope of cocoanut fibre, caulked with oakum, 
and are able to withstand better than far more solidly built craft the 
shock of being landed on the sandy beach from the crest of a seething 
breaker." (Eurneaux, India, 254.) 


Similar in a general way to the Andhra coin-symbol is the Guja- 
rati ship can'ed in bas-relief on the frieze of the Buddhist temple at 
Boroboedor in Java. While dating from about 600 A. D., this vessel 
was probably not different from those of the 1st century, while the 
short broad sail with double yards is identical with those of the 
Egyptian Punt Expedition of the 15th century B. C. 

Gujarat! ship of about 600 A. D. ; from the Boroboedor frieze. Ships of 
this type were doubtless included among the trappaga and cotymha of § 44, which, 
piloted merchants into Barygaza. 

"In the year 525 (Saka era, = 603 A. D.), it being foretold ta 
a king of Gujarat that his country would decay and go to ruin, he 
resolved to send his son to Java. He embarked with about 5000 
followers in 6 large and about 100 small vessels, and after a voyage of 
four months reached an island they supposed to be Java; but finding 
themselves mistaken, re-embarked, and finally settled at Matarem, in 
the center of the island they were seeking. . . The prince now 
found that men alone were wanting to make a great and flourishing 
state. He accordingly applied to Gujarat for assistance, when his 
father, delighted at his success, sent him a reinforcement of 2000 
people. . . . From this period Java was known and celebrated as a 
kingdom; an ejttensive commerce was carried on with Gujarat and 
other countries, and the bay of Matarem was filled with adventurers 
from all parts." (Sir Stamford Raffles, Histo'-x of Java, II, 87 flF. ) 


60. Colandia: — This name seems to be of Malay origin, and 
perhaps means no more than ship." Koleh panjail, sailing ship," 
is the name for the fast fishermen entered in modern Singapore re- 
gattas. (Pritchett, Sketches of Shipping and Craft, 166.) 

The text is kolandiophonta, generally supposed to be corrupt, the 
onta being the present participle of to be." But Rajendralala 
Mitra {.Antiquities of Orissa, I, 115) derives the word from the San- 
scrit kolantarapota, "ships for going to foreign shores." 

Burmese laung-zSt, (without rigging) ; a carvel-built vessel on the same lines 
as the dug-out laung-go for river use. The larger type, in general use on the 
Chindwin River, shows Chinese influence, although the lines are tliose of ancient 
Egypt. This type displays the stem-cabins differently arranged from those in 
the higher-built Chinese junk. See also Chatterton, Sailing Ships, 7, 31. 

The colandia which made the voyage to Chryse and were of great 
size, must have been similar to the Chinese junks or the Burmese 
laung-zat, kattu or Chindwin traders. The sea-trade of the Gulf of 
Tonkin was of very early date. Chinese annals mention voyages to 
Malacca prior to the Christian era, and probably as early as the 12th 
century B. C. This region, known to the Chinese as Yix'e-chang, 
was independent until the extension of the Chinese boundaries under 
the Han dynasty (2d century B. C. ). The compass, or south- 
pointing chariot," was known in the 11th century B. C, but, as indi- 


cated by Hirth Undent History of China, pp. 126-136), was probably 
used mainly for geomancy until applied to navigation by Persians and 
Arabs visiting China in the 6th and 7th centuries A. D. The Chinese 
themselves steered by the stars and the sun, and by observing the 
nature of the sea-bottom. 

Model of an early type of Chinese junk, showing the individual cabins in the 
stem-structure, each occupied by a merchant with his stock of goods, as told by 
Marco Polo ; from the serial collection of models of commercial shipping, exhib- 
ited in the Commercial Museum, Philadelphia. 

The Arabian geographer Mas' udi mentions Chinese junks which 
came to Bassora in his time, and in the cave-paintings : t Ajanta, 


commemorative of the visit of a Persian embassy in the early 7th cen- 
tury, a ship is shown which, if not a junk, is manifestly influenced by 
that type of vessel. (See Torr, Ancient Ships, plate VII, fig. 40. ) 

Marco Polo (Book III, Chap. I) gives a detailed description of 
the junks of that day: (Yule' s edition II, 249-51.) 

' 'The ships in which merchants go to and fro amongst the Isles 
of India, are of fir timber. They have but one deck, though each of 
them contains some 50 or 60 cabins, wherein the merchants abide 
greatly at their ease, every man having one to himself. The ship 
hath but one rudder, but it hath four masts; and sometimes they have 
two additional masts, which they ship and unship at pleasure. . . 

"The larger of their vessels have some thirteen compartments or 
severances in the interior, made with planking strongly framed, in 
case mayhap the ship should spring aleak. . 

"The fastenings are all of good iron nails and the sides are 
double, one plank laid over the other, and caulked outside and in . . . 
with lime and chopped hemp, kneaded together with wood-oil. 

"Each of their great ships requires at least 200 mariners, some 
of them 300. They are indeed of great size, for one ship shall carry 
5000 or 6000 baskets of pepper; and they used formerly to be larger 
than they are now. And when there is no wind they use sweeps, so 
big that to pull them requires four mariners to each. . . Every great 
ship has certain large barks or tenders attached to it; these are large 
enough to carry 1000 baskets of pepper, and carry 50 or 60 mariners 
apiece; some of them 80 or 100.'' So Fa-Hien left Ceylon in a 
large merchantman, on board of which there were more than 200 
men, and to which was attached, by a rope, a smaller vessel, as a 
provision against damage or injury to the large one from the perils of 
the navigation." (^Travels, chap. xi. ) And landing from this vessel 
in Java-dvtpa, where he spent five months, he again embarked in 
another large merchantman, which also had on board more than 200 
men. They carried provisions for 50 days.' ' 

(See Yule's Marco Polo, II, 252-3, for description of junks in 
other mediaeval writers; also, for a full account of Burmese ship- 
building, primitive and modern, Ferrars, Burma, 132-8. ) 

60. Imported . . everything. — Yule, in his Marco Polo (II, 
333), quotes from the Arab geographer Wassaf : "Maabar extends in 
length from Quilon to Nellore, nearly 300 parasangs along the sea- 
coast. The curiosities of Chin and Machin, and the beautiful prod- 
ucts of Hind and Sind, laden on large ships which they call Junks, 
sailing like mountains with the wings of the wind on the surface of 
the water, are always arriving there. The wealth of the Isles of the 


Persian Gulf in particular, and in part the beauty and adornment of 
other countries, from Irak and Khurasan as far as Rum and Europe, 
are derived from Maabar, which is so situated as to be the key of 

Marco himself (III, xx) calls Chola "the kingdom of Maabar 
called Soli, which is the best and noblest province in India, and where 
the best pearls are found." 

Friar Odoric (chap, iv) says of this kingdom: "The king of 
the said region is most rich in gold, silver and precious stones, and 
and there be the fairest unions (pearls) in all the world." 

61. Palaesimundu. — This is the modern Ceylon. According 
to Lassen (I, 201) this word is the Sanscrit Palistmanta, "abode of 
the law of piety;" that is, the Dharma of Gautama Buddha. The 
distinction is of interest; by the ancients" it was called Taprobane, 
which is the Sanscrit Tdmraparn't, the name given to it in the Rdma- 
yana. The knowledge concerning Ceylon which reached the west 
through Onesicritus, Eratosthenes and Strabo, was of the island before 
its conversion to Buddhism under the missionary zeal of Asoka. Our 
author speaks of it in the time of its greatest devotion to the new 
religion, which its neighbors the Dravidian kingdoms of Southern 
India never fully accepted. 

According to McCrindle (^Ancient India, 20, 160), the name 
Taprobane, or Tamraparrii, was given by Vijaya, who led the first Indian 
colony into the island, and applied to the place where he first landed. 
The name means copper-colored ; ' ' compare Tdmra-liptt, the sea- 
port town at the mouth of the Ganges. The Pali form, Tambapanni, 
appears in the inscription of Asoka at Girnar. Another Brahmanical 
name, Dvtpa Havana, 'island of Ravana," (the demon-king, kid- 
napper of Sita in the Ramdyana) , is thought by some to be the origin 
of Taprobane . 

Ptolemy notes that the ancient name was Simundu (mistaking the 
first two syllables of our author's word Palaesimundu for the Greek 
palai), but in his own time Salike, the country of the Salae. Cosmas 
Indicopleustes called it Sielediba; which, as McCrindle notes, is 
through the Pali the true Sanscrit name for the island : Sinhala-dvipa, 
"island of the lions," or lion-like men-heroes. To this source 
may be traced its other names, Serendib, Sylan, and Ceylon." 

Pliny knows the name Pala;simundus (VI, 24) but applies it to a 
city "adjoining the harbor that lies facing the south," and calls it 
"the most famous city in the island, the king's place of residence, 
containing a population of 200,000. " But there is no harbor on the 
south coast of Ceylon, and Pliny seems to be confusing his city and 


harbor with the actual position of the island in relation to the ancient 
harbor, now lost, at Cape Comorin. 

In the Ramayana the Sinhalese are referred to as rakshas and 
nagas, demons and spirits, not human because racially opposed to the 
Aryan invaders. So Fa-Hien describes them in an interesting passage 
relating to their trade ( Travels, chap, xxxviii) : "the country originally 
had no human inhabitants, but was occupied only by spirits and nagas, 
with which merchants of various countries carried on a trade. When 
trafficking was taking place, the spirits did not show themselves. They 
simply set forth their precious things with labels of the price attached 
to them; while the merchants made their purchases according to the 
price; and took the things away. " And he found in the capital city 
"many Vaisya clans and Sabasan merchants, whose houses are stately 
and beautiful." 

Cosmas Indicopleustes (Christian Topography, book XI J, tells of 
Ceylon and its trade in the 6th century A. D. ; his account amplifies 
what is said in the Periplus, and a translation is appended for com- 
parison : 

"This ii the great island of the ocean, situated in the Indian Sea; 
which is called by the Indians Sielediba, by the Greeks Taprobane, 
where the hyacinthus stone is found; and it lies beyond the pepper 
country. It has other small islands scattered around it in great num- 
ber; of which some have fresh water, and cocoanut palms. They 
are very close to one another. But that great island, so its inhabitants 
say, is 300 leagues in length, and in breadth about 90 miles. Two 
kings reign in the island, hostile to each other; of whom one has the 
region of the hyacinthus, and the other the rest of the island, in which 
is the market-town and port. It is frequented by a great press of 
merchants from far countries. In that island is established the Church 
of Christ, of the sect of the Persians, and there is a presbyter sent 
from Persia, and a deacon, and the whole service of the church. But 
the natives, and the kings, are of other faiths. Many temples are to 
be seen in this island; on the top of one of them, they say, is a hya- 
cinthus, in full view, sparkling and very great, like a great spinning- 
top; and it shines brightly, sending out iiery rays almost like the sun 
itself, a marvellous sight. From all parts of India, Persia and Aethi- 
opia come a multitude of ships to this island, which is placed as it 
were midway between all lands; and it sends ships likewise hither 
and thither in all directions. 

"From the inner regions, that is, from Tzinista and from the 
other market-towns, are brought silk cloth, aloe-wood, cloves, 
and sandalwood, and other products according to the place; and it 


forwards them to those of the outside, that is, to Male, in which 
pepper grows; to Calhana, where brass is found, and sesamin wood, 
and various kinds of cloth (for it, too, is a great market-town); and 
to Sindu, where the castor musk is found, and spikenard ; and to 
Persia, to the country of the Homerites, and Adulis; and in return 
it receives other things from all these places, which it transmits to the 
inner regions, with its own products likewise. Now Sindu is the 
beginning of India; for the river Indus, which empties into the Per- 
sian Gulf, separates Persia from India. These are the best-known 
market-towns of India: Sindu, Orrhotha, Calliana, Sibor, and Male 
which has five ports to which pepper is brought; Parti, Mangarouth, 
Salopatana, Nalopatana, Pudapatana. And then, at a distance of 
about five days and nights from the mainland, out in the ocean, is 
Sielediba, that is, Taprobane. Then again, on the mainland, is a 
market-town, Marallo, shipping conch-shells; and there is Kaber, 
shipping alabandenum, and then the country from which cloves are 
shipped; and then Tzinista, which sends silk cloth; within which 
there is no other land, for the ocean encircles it on the east. 

' 'And so this island Sielediba, placed in the midst of India, which 
produces the hyacinthus, receives goods from all markets and ships to 
all, being itself a very great market. And there came thither on matters 
of trade one from our own parts, named Sopater, who died about 35 
years ago. And his business took him to the island of Taprobane, 
where it happened that a vessel arrived at the same time from Persia, 
and there landed together those from Adulis, among whom was 
Sopater, and those from Persia, among whom was an ambassador 
of the Persians. And so, as the custom was, the captains and 
tax-collectors receiving them, brought them before the king. And 
being admitted into the presence of the king, after they had offered 
the proper homage, he bade them be seated. And then he asked 
them: "How goes it with your countries, and how with your trade 
and commerce.'"' "Excellently well," they said. Replying, the 
king asked, "Who, of your kings, is the greatest and most power- 
ful.?" Without delay the Persian answered: "Ours is the most 
powerful, the greatest and the richest; he is the king of kings; and 
he has power to do whatever he wills." But Sopater was silent. 
Then said the king, "You, Roman, have you nothing to say.?" 
And Sopater replied, "What have I to say, when this man says such 
things? If you wish to learn the truth, you have both kings here; 
examine them, and you will see which one is the most magnificent 
and the most powerful.' ' But the king was amazed at this speech, 
and said, "How have I both kings here.?' ' And he answered, You 


have the money of both; you have the gold coin of the one king, 
and the drachma of the other, that is, the milharense ; compare the 
images of both, and you will see the truth. " And he, approving 
and assenting, bade that both be produced. Now the gold coin was 
fine, bright, and well-shaped; for thus are the best exported thither; 
and the miUiarense was of silver and I need hardly say, not to be com- 
pared with the gold coin. The king looked at both obverse and 
reverse, and then at the other; and held forth the gold coin with 
admiration, saying. Truly the Romans are magnificent and powerful 
and wise. ' ' And he commanded that Sopater should be treated with 
honor; that he should be seated upon an elephant, and led around 
the whole city with drums, and acclaimed. This Sopater told me, 
and those also from Adulis, who voyaged with him to that island. 
And when these things happened, so they say, the Persian was greatly 

61. Almost touches Azania. — Our author's ideas of the 
world in general are similar to those of Pomponius Alela, with whom 
he was nearly contemporary; whose map (reproduced on p. 100) 
retains the old idea of a balancing southern continent of the Antich- 
thones, " with the eastern end of which he identifies Taprobane. 
The Periplus does not indicate quite that extent for Ceylon, but ex- 
aggerates its size tenfold. The confusion may have been partly due 
to the grandiloquent descriptions left by the Ceylonese embassy which 
visited the Emperor Augustus. (See Bunbury, History of Ancient 
Geography, Vol. II. ) 

62. Masalia. — This is the Maisolia of Ptolemy, who has a 
river Maisolos, probably the Kistna. In Sanscrit, as McCrindle shows, 
the name is Mausala, which survives in Machhlipatana, the modern 
Masulipatam (16° 11' N. , 81° 8' E. ), until the construction of the 
Bombay railway the chief port of entry for the Deccan. At the date 
of the Periplus it was, no doubt, the greatest market of the Andhra 
kingdom. Tavernier found it (I, xi) the best anchorage in the 
Bay of Bengal, and the only place from which vessels sail for Pegu, 
Siam, Arakan, Bengal, Cochinchina, Mecca, and Hormus, as also 
for the islands of Madagascar, Sumatra, and the Manillas. " 

The text notes the great quantitj' of cotton cloth made there. 
In Tavernier' s time it was especially noted for its painted, or pen- 
cilled, chintzes (II, xii) called calmendar, that is to say, made with 
a brush." He contrasted these fine hand-painted fabrics with the 
coarse printed goods from Bengal. The supply, he observes, was never 
equal to the demand. 

See also Imperial Gazetteer, XVII, 215. 


The difBculties of travel through the Andhra kingdom are noted 
under § 50. Fa-Hien also found the kingdom of Dakshina "out of 
the way and perilous to traverse. There are difficulties in connection 
with the roads; but those who know how to manage such difficulties 
and wish to proceed should bring with them money and various 
articles and give them to the king. He will send men to escort them. 
These will, at different stages, pass them over to others, who will 
show them the shortest routes. " ( Travels, xxxv. ) 

62. Dosarene. — This is the Sanscrit Dasarna, the modern 
Orissa, the Holy Land of India." The name appears in the Vishnu 
Purana and the Ramayana, as a populous and powerful country. 
Ptolemy mentions also a river Dosaron, the modern Mahanadi. The 
ivory from this region has long been famous. It is mentioned both 
in the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana, as the most acceptable 
offering which the king of the Odras" could take to the Pandu 
sovereign. (See also Mitra, Antiquities of Orissa, I, 6.) 

62. Cirrhadae. — This was a Bhota tribe, whose descendants, 
still known as Kirata, live in the Morung, west of Sikkim. They 
are of Turanian race, with marked Mongolian features as described; 
and were formerly independent- and powerful, having provided a dy- 
nasty of considerable duration in Nepal. Their location is not on the 
sea, as indicated by the text, but in the valleys of the Himalayas; we 
need only omit the words the course trending, ' ' easily inserted by a 
scribe, to make our author's information correct. The Mahabharata 
locates them on the Brahmaputra. 

Lassen (I, 441-450) fully describes the Bhota race, whose name 
survives in the modern Bhutan. They were allied to the Tibetans, 
and inhabited much of Bengal at the time of the Aryan migration. 
Lassen names ten different tribes, one being the Kirata. Their native 
capital was at Mokwanpur in Eastern Nepal. They were a warlike, 
uncultivated, polygamous race, whose native animism yielded imper- 
fectly to Brahman or Buddhist teaching, and whose neglect of religious 
rites caused the Brahman Hindus to reduce them to the rank of 
Sudras. Hence the contemptuous description of their Mongolian 
faces as "noseless." Pliny calls them Scyrites (VII, 2), and says 
' 'they have merely holes in their heads instead of nostrils, and flexible 
feet, like the body of a serpent." Ptolemy calls their country Kir- 

The Kirata were under-sized, and by the Aryan Hindus were 
called "pigmies.'' In the Brahman mythology there was a bird of 
Vishnu, called Garuda, who was a special enemy of the Kirata, and 


Lassen (II, 657) thinks this story the original of the battle between 
pigmies and cranes, in Hesiod and other Greek writers. 

Metrasthenes relates the story in some detail, and is reproved by 
Strabo (XV, i, 57): "he then deviates into fables, and says that there 
are men of five, and even three spans in height, some of whom are 
without nostrils, with only two breathing orifices above the mouth. 
Those of three spans in height wage war with the cranes (described 
by Homer) and with the partridges, which are as large as geese; 
these people collect and destroy the eggs of the cranes which lay their 
eggs there; and nowhere else are the eggs or the young cranes to be 
found; frequently a crane escapes from this country with a brazen 
point of a weapon in its body, wounded by these people." 

This tribe is especially referred to in one of the Kavyas, called 
Kiratarjuniya, which recounts the combat, first mentioned in the Ma- 
habharata, between Siva in the guise of a Kirata, or mountaineer, and 

62. Bargysi. — These are the Bhargas of the Vishnu Purana,. 
there mentioned as neighbors of the Kirata, and doubtless of like race. 

(Taylor, Remarks on the Sequel to the Periplus, in Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, Jan. 1847.) 

62. Horse-faces and Long-faces. — This is no invention 
of our author, but was no doubt told him by some friend at Nelcynda, 
who spoke by his book — the Sanscrit writings. The Aryans professed 
the greatest contempt for the Tibeto-Burman races at their eastern 
frontier, and their references to them are full of exaggeration and 
fable. The Vara Sanhita Purana mentions a people in the moun- 
tains east of India," that is, in the hills on the Assam-Burma frontier, 
called Asvavadana, horse-faced. " 

(Taylor, op. cit. ; so Wilford in Asiatic Researches, VIII and IX.) 

62. Said to be Cannibals. — Herodotus notices such a custom 
among the other Indians, living to the east, who are nomads and 
eat raw flesh, who are called Padaeans." (Ill, 99.) ' When any 
one of the community is sick, whether it be a woman or a man, if it 
be a man the men who are his nearest connections put him to death, 
alleging that if he wasted by disease his flesh would he spoiled; but 
if he denies that he is sick, they, not agreeing with him, kill and feast 
upon him. And if a woman be sick, in like manner the women who 
are most intimate with her do the same as the men. And whoever 
reaches old age, they sacrifice and feast upon; but few among them 
attain this state, for before that they put to death every one that falls 
into any distemper. " 


So Tibullus (R', i, 45), "Ultima vicinus Phoebo tenet Arva Pa- 
daeus;" and Strabo (XV, i, 56), quoting Megasthenes' account of 
Indian mountaineers ' 'who eat the bodies of their relatives. ' ' 

The same practices were said by Dr. Taylor to be followed a 
couple of generations ago by the Kukis, or Kuki Chin, a Tibeto- 
Burman tribe in the Chin Hills between Assam and Burma; the sick 
and aged were killed and eaten because of the belief that by such 
means their souls remained in the tribe, and were preserved from the 
agonies of transmigration into the bodies of animals. 

The name of Padaeans" is probably meant for Purushada, under 
which they appear in the Vara Sanhka Purana. 

63. Ganges. — The name is applied in the same paragraph to 
district, river and town. By the district is meant Bengal; by the 
river, more especially the Hughli estuary, but east of Ganga-Sagar 
island and not west of it, as at present. This, until about the 15th 
century, was the largest mouth of the Ganges; the Hughh river and 
Sagar island were the sacred places, and still retain their sanctity. This 
ancient mouth, the Adi Ganga, silted up, and the river constantly 
tending eastward, finally joined its main channel to that of the Brahma- 
putra, emptying into the Meghna estuary as at present (/ot^. Ga%., 
XII, 133-4). By the town of Ganges is probably meant Tamra-lipti, 
the modern Tamluk (22° 18' N., 87° 56' E. ), which gave its name 
to the Tamra-parnI river in the Pandya kingdom, and to the island of 
Ceylon. This was the sea-port of Bengal in the Post-Vedic and 
Buddhist periods, being frequently mentioned in the great epics. It 
was the port of the Bangalis, who trusted in their ships, ' ' who were 
conquered by the hero of Kalidasa' s Raghuvamsa. Here it was that 
Fa-Hien sojourned two years, after which he embarked in a large 
merchant vessel, and went floating over the sea to the southwest . . . 
to the country of Singhala." 

This identification, which is supported by many scholars, seems 
preferable to that of Fergusson and Dr. Taylor, who would place 
Tamra-lipti at the modern Sonargaon (23° 40' N. , 90° 36' E. ), the 
ancient Suvarnagrama, the chief port of Eastern Bengal under the Gupta 
Empire and in the middle ages. Near here was Vikramapura, the 
modern Bikrampur, one of the capitals of Chandragupta Vikrama- 
ditya. But its importance does not seem to date from so early a 
period as that of the Periplus; while it is more likely that the name 
of Ganges would have been localized on the sacred, and at that time 
the principal, estuary. 

Strabo has been accused of ignorance for remarking (XV, i, 13) 
that the Ganges " discharges its waters by a single mouth." But his 


information probably reflects the esteem in which that mouth was held, 
as well as its predominant size, in his time 

63. Malabathrum. — This was from the Eastern Himalayas, 
the greatest source of supply, as noted under § 65. Ptolemy, also, 
says "the best malabathrum is produced in the country of the 
Cirrhadae. " 

63. Grangetic spikenard. — This was probably the true spike- 
nard, from the Himalayas, noted under § 49, and valued sufficiently 
to be shipped in considerable quantity to Nelcynda, where the Romans 
fouftd it (§ 56). 

Pliny describes another kind from the Ganges (XII, 26) which 
"is altogether condemned, as being good for nothing; it bears the 
name of ozcenitis, and emits a fetid odor." This, as Watt remarks 
(pp. 451, 462, 792), was a variety of Cymbopogon or Andnpogon, 
allied to the " nard root" of § 39; probably Cymbopogon jwarancma. 
These species, the lemon-grass, ginger-grass, citronella, etc., all yield 
aromatic oils, and until recently have been much confused. 

Pliny confuses this grass also with malabathrum, which, he re- 
marks f^XII, 59), " is said to grow in the marshes like the lentil." 

63. Pearls. — These were not of the best qualit}'; as Dr. Taylor 
remarks, those of the Ganges streams are inferior, being small, often 
irregular, and usually reddish. 

63. Muslins of the finest sort, called Gangetic. — These 
are the muslins of the Dacca district, the most delicate of all the 
fabrics of India, an ancient test of which was for the piece to be 
drawn through a finger-ring. J'entus textilis, or nebula, were names 
under which the Romans knew of them. They are mentioned in 
the Institutes of Manu, in a way to show the organization of the 
industry: let a weaver who has received 10 palas of cotton thread 
give them back increased to eleven, by the rice-water and the like used 
in weaving; he who does otherwise shall pay a fine of V) panas." 

Tavernier tells of a Persian ambassador who took his sovereign, 
on returning home, a cocoanut of the size of an ostrich's egg, en- 
riched with precious stones; and when it was opened a turban was 
drawn from it 60 cubits in length, and of a muslin so fine that you 
would scarcely know that you had it in your hand." 

The history of cotton spinning in India goes back to remote 
antiquity, being associated with the Vedic gods or goddesses who are 
described and pictured as wearing woven garments. The patterns of 
such garments, showing great skill in both woven and tinted design, are 
abundantly reproduced from early temples in Mitra {Jntiauities of 


Orissa, Vol. II), from whence it appears certain that the cotton tex- 
tile industry at the time of the Christian era was far in advance of 
that of any of the western countries. 

While cotton may possibly have been spun first in Turkestan, it 
seems more likely that it has always been native in the Indian penin- 
sula and that the Aryan invaders found the cultivation and industry 
both well established. The early Fedas, for example, referred prin- 
cipally to woolen cloth of various kinds, some doubtless of fine 
quality, such as are still made in Kashmir. In the Rig I'eda the 
material used in clothing is not specified. 

The Mahabharaia — in the Sabha Parva — enumerates presents 
brought to Yudhisthira : 

Cloths and skins; the former of wool and embroidered with 
gold, shawls and brocades; the latter marten and weasel; blankets of 
various manufacture by the Abhiras of Gujarat; cloths not of cotton, 
but of sheep or goat wool, or of thread spun by worms (silk.''), or of 
patta fibres and linen, or woven, by Scythians, Turkharas and Kankas; 
housings for elephants, by princes of the Eastern tribes, lower Bengal, 
Midnapur and Ganjam; fine muslin from people of Carnatic and 

The Ramayana mentions silken, woolen and cotton stuffs of 
various kinds. The trousseau of Slta consisted of woolen stuffs, 
furs, precious stones, fine silk, vestments of divers colors, princely 
ornaments, and sumptuous carriages of every kind." 

Heeren supposes the woolen stuffs to have been Cashmere shawls. 
Ramanuja mentions a stuff from Nepal. 

The change of custom as the Aryans penetrated into the hot 
climate of the Ganges Valley is shown in the Laws of Manu, which 
prohibited Brahmans the use of wool. 

Aside from the priestly caste, however, fine fabrics of all kinds were 

in use. In an early play, the Mrichchhakatika, the buffoon inquires: 

who is that gentleman dressed in silken raiment, glittering with rich 

ornaments, and rolling about as if his limbs were out of ioint.?" 

(Act IV, Sc. II). 

There can be little doubt that the fine muslins of Eastern Bengal 
known under such names as "Textile Breeze", ' Evening Dew ", 
or ' ' Running Water ' ' were made there before the Aryan invasion. 
Spinning and weaving, of course, were both by hand, and although 
this industry was renewed by the cottons from Manchester and the 
starting of mills about Bombay, this superlatively fine yarn is still pro- 
duced in some quantities. In 1888 the spinners who supplied the 
finest quality were said to be reduced to two elderly women in the 


village of Dhamrai, about 20 miles north of Dacca, but it was thought 
that the industry might be revived with any revival of the demand for 
this fine fabric. 

An incredible amount of patience and skill were required in this 
industry. One way of testing the fineness of the fabric, often 
described by mediae\al and earlier travelers, was to pass a whole piece 
of 20 yards long and 1 yard wide through an ordinary finger-ring. 
The best test, however, was by the weight in proportion to size and 
number of threads. It is said that 200 years ago a piece of muslin 
15 yards long by 1 yard wide could be made so fine as to weigh only 
900 grains, or a little o\er 1-10 of a pound. In 1840 a piece of the 
same dimensions and texture could not be made finer than 1,600 
grains and was valued at about S50. A p'ece of this muslin 10 yards 
long by 1 yard wide could not be woven in less than five months, and 
the work could only be carried on in the rainy season when the 
moisture in the air would prevent the thread from breaking. 

At several places in northwestern India fine muslins were pro- 
duced, but nowhere of quality equal to those of Bengal. These also 
were shipped westward, appearing in the Periplus as exports at the 
mouth of the Indus and at the Gulf of Cambay. The change from 
hand spinning and weaving to power looms and spindles was not 
gradual as in Europe, but was due to the direct importation of 
European fabrics, so that a few months sufficed to destroy the earlier 
industry and to lay the way for the modern textile miUs of India. 

(See Henry Lee, The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary. J. H. Furneaux, 
India: Bombay, 1899; chap. iii. T. N. Alukharji, Art Manufac- 
tures of India. Also, The Cotton Plant, published by the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, 1896. ) 

63. Gold mines. — This was probably the gold of the Chota 
Nagpur plateau, located from 75 to 150 miles west of the Ganges 
mouth. The rivers flowing north and east of these highlands have 
long produced alluvial gold in considerable quantities. The river 
Son, which formerly flowed into the Ganges at the site of the ancient 
capital Pataliputra, the modern Patna, was called by the classical 
writers Erannoboas, from the Sanscrit hiranya-vaha, ' carrying gold." 
(McCrindle, Ancient India, p. 43; cf the Aurannoboas of § 53.) 

There was also a substantial supply from Tibet, which produced 
the famous ant-gold" mentioned by all the classical writers from 
Herodotus to Pliny. As Ball pointed out {Journal of the Royal Irish 
Academy, June, 1884), the "ant-gold" was a Sanscrit name for the 
small fragments of alluvial gold; this name was passed on, being ap- 
plied to the dogs of the Tibetan miners, which were also referred to as 


griffins. The "horn of the gold-digging ant," mentioned by PUny 
as preserved in the temple of Hercules at Erythrae, was a gold-miner's 
pick- axe, made of a wild sheep' s horn mounted on a handle. (See 
Herodotus III, 102-5; Arrian, Anabasis V, 4-7; Strabo, XV, i, 44; 
Pliny, XI, 36; McCrindle, Ancient India, 51.) 

Gold was also brought into India through the Tipperah country 
about 60 miles east of the Ganges delta; coming chiefly from the 
river-washings of Assam and northern Burma. 

Tavernier notes (III, xvi) that it was of poor quality, like the 
silk of that country, and that both were sent overland to China in 
exchange for silver. 

In Assam, Ball notes, it was formerly the custom for the rulers 
to require their subjects to wash for gold a certain number of days 
every year, while regular gold-washers were taxed. 

Tipperah merchants trading in Dacca, according to Tavernier 
(III, xv), took back coral, yellow amber, tortoise-shell bracelets, 
and others of sea shells, with numerous round and square pieces of 
the size of our 15 «/ coins, which are also of the same tortoise-shell 
and sea-shells. 

The Assam washings are, however, of substantial yield, as Tav- 
ernier himself states (III, xvii). See also Ball, Economic Geology of 
India, p. 231, and the A lamgirnama of Muhammad Kazim ri663), in 
the Indian Antiquary, July, 1887. 

The coin called caltis is thought by Benfey to be the Sanscrit 
kalita, "numbered." There was, however, a South Indian coin 
called kali (Elliot, op. cit., 137), while Vincent, quoting Stuckius, 
mentions one of Bengal called kallais. Wilford (^Asiatic Researches, 
V, 269), preferred the refined gold called canden. 

Pliny mentions gold on the Malabar coast (coming from the 
mines of Mysore); but, as Watt observes (p. 565), gold has always 
been mainly an article of import in India. 

63. Chryse Island (the "golden"). — There can be little 
doubt that by this was meant the Malacca peninsula, known to Ptolemy 
as the Aurea Chersonesus, although the location "just opposite the 
Ganges" disposes of a long voyage in rather summary fashion. Im- 
mense gold mines of ancient date have been discovered in the Malayan 
State of Pahang, north of Malacca, and these are probably the ones 
which gave the name of "golden" to the peninsula. It is known 
from Chinese records that ships from that country made the journey 
to Malacca as early as the 4th century B. C, and perhaps as early as 
the 12th; while the legend of Buddha's visit to Cambodia is at least 


suggestive of the great influence exercised from India over all Indo- 
China. , 

H. C. Clifford {Further India, N. Y. , 1904, pp. 6-7) gives an 
excellent account of the hazy, yet vaguely correct, ideas of the Romans 
in the 1st and 2d centuries concerning the Far East. Of Chryse, 
the golden, Pliny has nothing to tell us, and the author of the Periplus 
tells us only that it was situated opposite to the Ganges. He speaks, 
however, of Thina, the land of silk, situated where the seacoast ends 
externally,' whence we may gather that Chryse was conceived by 
him as an island lying not only to the east of the Ganges, but also to 
the southward of the Chinese Empire. This indicates a distinct ad- 
vance in knowledge, for the isle of Chryse, albeit still enveloped in a 
golden haze, was to the author of the Periplus a real country, and no 
mere mythical fairyland. Rumors must have reached him concerning 
it, on which he believed he could rely; and this would tend to prove 
that the sea-route to China via the Straits of Malacca, even though it 
was not yet in general use, was no longer unknown to the mariners 
of the east. We know that less than a century later the sailor Alex- 
ander, from whom Marinus of Tyre derived the knowledge subse- 
quently utilized by Ptolemy, himself sailed to the Malay peninsula, 
and beyond, and it may safely be concluded that the feasibility of 
this southeastern passage had become known to the seafarers of China 
long before an adventurer from the west was enabled to test the fact 
of its existence through the means of an actual voyage." And as 
illustrating the state of knowledge in the Roman world in the 1st cen- 
tury, Mr. Clifford aptly cites Josephus (^Antiquities of the Jews, VIII, 2) 
who recounts the Ophir voyages of Solomon, venturing some curious 
identifications : At Ezion-Geber, a bay of Egypt on the Erythrasan 
Sea, the king constructed a number of ships. The port is now named 
Berenice( !), and is near the city of Elan, formerly deemed to be in 
the Hebrew jurisdiction. King Hiram greatly assisted King Solomon 
in preparing his navy, sending him mariners and pilots, who conducted 
Solomon' s officers to the land that of old was called Ophir, hut now the 
Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold." 

It is uncertain what knowledge Pliny had of Further India. His 
account of Eastern Asia (VI, 20) professes to begin with the Scy- 
thian Ocean, "^-that is, the Arctic — and after some names of doubtful 
origin he mentions the Promontory of Chryse . . and the nation 
of the Attacori on the gulf of that name, a people protected by their 
sunny hills from all noxious blasts . . and in the interior the Caseri, 
a people of India, who look toward the Scythians, and. eat human 
flesh. Here are also numerous wandering nomad tribes of India." 


The numerous migrations from India into Indo-China, both 
before and after the Christian era, give ample ground for the belief 
that the ports of South India and Ceylon were in truth, as the Peri- 
plus states, the center of an active trade vi'ith the Far East, employing 
larger ships, and in greater number, than those coming from Egypt. 

The great migration from Gujarat to Java in the 6th century 
A. D. , and the resulting Hindu kingdoms, have already been referred 
to, and their greatest monuments remain to us in the tremendous 
Buddhist temples of Boroboedor and Brambanan. If Clifford's belief 
is correct, the ruins at Angkor-Wat in Cambodia are no less distinc- 
tively of ancient Hindu origin. Of these he quotes Francois Garnier: 
Perhaps never, in any place, has a more imposing mass of stone 
been raised with more art and science. If we wonder at the Pyra- 
mids as a gigantic achievement of human strength and patience, then 
to a strength and patience no whit less here we must add genius ! ' ' 

64. A Land called This. — This can hardly be other than the 
great western state of China, Ts'in, and the city called Thinae" 
(meant, probably, as the genitive of This), was its capital, Hien- 
yang, later known as Si-gnan-fu, on the Wei river not far above its 
confluence with the Hoang-ho, in the present province of Shen-si. 
This state of Ts'in was for centuries the most powerful of the 
Chinese states, and a constant menace to the imperial power. The 
Chou dynasty, which ruled from 867 to 255 B. C. , found itself 
harassed in the west by the Tartar tribes, and in the east by rebel- 
lious subjects, the states of Wei, Han, Chau, Ts'i and Ch'u. Very 
early in the dynasty, perhaps in the 8th century B. C, a portion of 
their sovereign rights were resigned to the prince of Ts'in, in con- 
sideration of his undertaking the defence of the frontier against the 
Tartars. This policy naturally profited Ts'in more than the empire, 
and the princes of Ts'in, as the annals put it, "like wolves or tigers 
wished to draw all the other princes into their claws, so that they 
might devour them. ' ' The power of Ts' in grew until it overbalanced 
the confederation of eastern states, and the imperial power itself. As 
Tartar territory was conquered it was incorporated into the Ts'in 
dominions, and finally a Ts'in prince became Emperor of China in 
255 B. C. The greatest of the Ts'in monarchs, Ts'in Chi Hwangti, 
who ruled from 221 to 209 B. C, is one of the brighest names in 
Chinese history. It was he who began the Great Wall, and who 
pushed the Chinese frontier across the Gobi desert, making Hami, 
under the Tian-Shan mountains, his outpost, and thus preparing the 
way for direct communication with Bactria. Regular caravan travel 
between China and Bactria is said to have begun in 188 B. C. 


But the success of Ts'in had brought its own reaction. It was 
itself so much a Tartar state that it could not control all China, and 
it gave way to the Han dynasty. The political importance of the 
state was emphasized, however, by the first Han emperor, Kaotsou, 
who removed his capital from Loyang in Honan to Hien-Yang or 
Singanfu in Shensi, the ancient Ts'in capital, and in order to make that 
western location more accessible to the rest of the empire, built a 
great high-road from Loyang to Singanfu, which is still in use. 

Buddhist pilgrim in northwestern China: froma6-ft. panel in the Commercial 
Museum, Philadelphia, 1128 times enlarged from a portion of a film exposed by 
Bailey Willis, Carnegie Institution, Washington. 


The Han dynasty soon lost its outposts beyond the wall, and 
made no effort to recover them until the reign of Kwang Vouti, 
25-58 A. D., who made China a military power and conquered 
Anam, and by his policy toward the Yueh-chi reasserted sovereignty 
over Turkestan. His son, Mingti, began the aggressive westward 
policy which led to the great conquests of the General Pan-chao, who 
led his army of Chinese and Tartars as far as the Caspian, and who 
defeated near Khoton the Yueh-chi king Kadphises, then estab- 
lished in upper India. It was in this region that Buddhism seems first 
to have reached China, rather than through Tibet or Burma, and from 
this time China was always more or less directly in communication 
with Western Asia. 

(See Hirth, Ancient History of China; — Richard, Comprehensive 
Geography oj" the Chinese Empire; — Douglas, China; — Boulger, History 
of China;— E. H. Parker, China;— Y{. B. Morse, The Trade and 
Administration of the Chinese Empire. ) 

64. Raw silk and silk yarn and silk cloth. — See also 
under §§ 39, 49 and 56. This is the earliest correct statement of the 
source of silk and of the routes by which it reached the world's 

Silk is the cocoon-secretion of the mulberry-leaf moth, Bombyx 
mori, family Bombycida, order Lepidoptera; native, apparently, and 
first cultivated, in the warm-temperate climate of northwestern China. 

Chinese legends mention the making of musical instruments of 
wood, with silk threads, under the emperor Fu-hi, (29th century 
B. C), while the rearing of the worms and the invention of reel, 
loom, etc. , are ascribed to Lei-tsu, known as the 'Lady of Si-ling, ' ' 
wife of the emperor Huang-ti (27th century B. C-). Cloth was 
woven of silk, embroidered by the empress, and those of the higher 
classes were enabled to discard skins as wearing apparel. Soon other 
textile materials were discovered, and dyeing introduced; so that rank 
and position were for the first time indicated by the man's outward 

In the Chou-li, dating from the 11th century B. C, it appears 
that the Chinese government supervised the production of silk in every 
detail, and that specialties of design, ornament, and embroidery, were 
already monopolized in different families. The same book describes 
the provinces of China: King-chou, the modern Hu-naa, had i trade 
in cinnabar, ivory, and skins; Yu-chou, next on the north and reach- 
ing the Yellovir River, traded in bamboos, varnish, silk and hemp; 
while the northernmost, Ping-chou (the modern Shan-si) was noted 
especially for cotton and silk textures. It was this province which 


was most in contact with the nomad tribes of Central Asia, through 
whose hands silk first reached the western nations. 

(Hirth, Ancient History of China, 9, 22-3, 117, 121-2). 

The antiquity of the silk industry in India is uncertain, but the 
weight of evidence seems to be in favor of its importation from China, 
by way of the Brahmaputra valley, Assam and Eastern Bengal, early 
in the Christian era; while the cultivation of native varieties, not 
feeding on mulberry leaves — the Saturnidce, mcixx^in^ J ntheraa paphia 
(the modern tasar silk); Anthercca assama (feeding on laurel species 
principally), and Attacus ricini (feeding on the castor-oil plant) were 
probably all stimulated by the value of the Bombyx silk. 

(See Watt, pp. 992-1026; Cambridge Natural History, VI, 375.) 

The trade in silk yarn and silk cloth existed in Northern India 
soon after the Aryan invasion. Silk is mentioned several times, as 
gifts from foreign countries, in the Mahdbharata, the Ramdyana, and 
the Institutes of Manu; and it may be assumed that some trade at least 
went farther west. The Egyptian records do not mention it prior 
to the Persian conquest, and it was, no doubt, through the empires of 
Darius and Xerxes that it first reached the Mediterranean world. 

The Hebrew scriptures contain at least two references to silk: 
the dmeshek of Amos III, 12 seems to be the Arabic dimaks, English 
damask, a silken fabric; while meslii in Ezekiel XVI, 10 seems to 
mean a silken gauze. Isaiah also TXLIX, 12) mentions the Sinimm 
a manner indicating extreme distance. 

It has been supposed that the Greeks learned of silk through 
Alexander' s expedition, but it probably reached them previously through 
Persia. Aristotle {Hist. Anim., V, xix, 11) gives a reasonably correct 
account: "It is a great worm which has horns and so differs from 
others. At its first metamorphosis it produces a caterpillar, then a 
bombylius, and lastly a chrysalis — all these changes taking place within 
six months. Prom this animal women separate and reel off the 
cocoons and afterwards spin them. It is said that this was first spun 
in the island of Cos by Pamphile, daughter of Plates." This indi- 
cates a steady importation of raw silk on bobbins before Aristode's 
time. The fabric he mentions was the famous Coa vestis, or trans- 
parent gauze (woven also at Tyre and elsewhere in Syria), which 
came into favor in the time of Caesar and Augustus. Pliny mentions 
Pamphile of Cos, "u-ho discovered the art of unwinding the silk" 
(from the bobbins, not from the cocoons) and spinning a tissue 
therefrom; indeed, she ought not to be deprived of the glory of 
having discovered the art of making garments which, while they cover 
a woman, at the same time rexeal her naked charms.' ' fXI, 26). 


He refers to the same fabric in VI, 20, where he speaks of "the 
Seres, so famous for the wool that is found in their forests. After 
steeping it in water, they comb off a soft down that adheres to the 
leaves; and then to the females of our part of the world they give 
the twofold task of unraveling their textures, and of weaving the 
threads afresh. So manifold is the labor, and so distant are the re- 
gions which are thus ransacked to supply a dress through which our 
ladies may in public display their charms. ' ' Compare Lucan, Phar- 
salia, X, 141, who describes Cleopatra, her white breasts resplen- 
dent through the Sidonian fabric, which, wrought in close texture by 
the skill of the Seres, the needle of the workman of the Nile has 
separated, and has loosened the warp by stretching out the web. ' ' 

Silk fabrics of this kind were much affected by men also during 
the reign of Augustus, but the fashion was considered effeminate, and 
early in the reign of Tiberius the Roman Senate enacted a law ' 'that 
men should not defile themselves by wearing garments of silk." 
(Tacims, Annals, II, 33.) The cost was enormously high; from 
an account of the Emperor Aurelian we learn that silk was worth its 
weight in gold, and that he neither used it himself nor allowed his 
wife to possess a garment of it, thereby setting an example against the 
luxurious tastes that were draining the empire of its resources. 

Pliny includes it in his list of the most valuable productions' ' 
(XXXVII, 67); "the most costly things that are gathered from trees 
are nard and Seric tissues. 

Pliny (XXI, 8) speaks of other uses for silk: Luxury arose at 
last to such a pitch that a chaplet was held in no esteem at all if it did 
not consist entirely of leaves sewn together with the needle. More 
recently again they have been imported from India, or from nations 
beyond the countries of India. But it is looked upon as the most 
refined of all, to present chaplets made of nard leaves, or else of silk 
of many colors steeped in unguents. Such is the pitch to which the 
luxuriousness of our women has at last arrived!" 

Among both Greek and Roman writers there was some confusion 
between cotton and silk, both being called tree wool;" and Fabricius, 
in his translation of the Periplus, omits silk altogether, considering 
raw material, yarn and cloth alike to be Turkestan cotton. But 
although these accounts err in some details, Pliny is sufficiently correct 
in his description of cotton. He distinguishes the wool-bearing trees 
of the Seres from those of the Indians (XIV, 4), and describes the cot- 
ton shrub, with its ' 'fruit resembling a bearded nut, containing on the 
inside a silky down, which is spun into threads; the tissue made from 
which is superior to all others in whiteness and softness" (XIX, 2), 


while his account of the silkworm is at least within sight of the truth, 
although not so near it as Aristotle' s : 

"At first they assume the appearance of small butterflies with 
naked bodies, but soon after, being unable to endure the cold, the\' 
throw out bristly hairs, and assume quite a thick coat against the winter 
by rubbing off the down that covers the leaves, by the aid of the 
roughness of their feet. This they compress into balls by carding it 
with their claws, and then draw it out and hang it between the 
branches of the trees, making it fine by combing it out as it were; last 
of all, they take and roll it round their body, thus forming a nest in 
which they are enveloped. It is in this state that they are taken; 
after which they are placed in earthen vessels in a warm place, and 
fed upon bran. A peculiar sort of down soon shoots forth upon the 
body, on being clothed with which they are sent to work upon another 
task. The cocoons which they have begun to form are rendered soft 
and pliable by the aid of water, and are then drawn out into threads 
by means of a spindle made of a reed. Nor, in fact, have the men 
even felt ashamed to make use of garments formed of this material 
in consequence of their extreme lightness in summer; for so greatly 
have manners degenerated in our own day that so far from wearing a 
cuirass, a garment even is found to be too heavy. 

(See also Lassen, I, 317-322; III, 25; Yates, Textrinum An- 
tiquorum. ) 

The reeling of silk from the cocoons was confused into a comb- 
ing of down from the leaves, which had also a basis of truth, but was 
the cause of the confusion with cotton. Compare Virgil, Georgia, 
II, 121; — 'Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenuia Seres. " 

Pliny finally distinguishes between the two fibers in referring to 
Arabian cotton (XII, 21): trees that bear wool, but of a different 
nature from those of the Seres; as in these trees the leaves produce 
nothing at all, and indeed might very readily be taken for those of the 
vine. " 

The word silk' ' is from a Mongolian original, sirkek, meaning 
silk; Korean sir, Chinese ssi. Hence the Greek ser, Latin sericum. 
Prom this word the name Seres was applied to the peoples through 
whose hands the product came; by which must be understood, not 
the Chinese themselves, but rather the Turkish or Tibetan intermedi- 
aries. That the word was loosely extended to cover most of Eastern 
Asia is undeniable ; but Ptolemy distinguishes the Since, Isaiah the 
Sinim, while the Periplus gives nearly the correct form, This, for 
China proper. 

Pliny has a curious mixture of Seres and Cirrhadas in his Scyrita 


(VII, 2), whose flat-nosed Mongolian faces he describes as having 
merely holes in their faces instead of nostrils, " and whom he con- 
nects with an allied race, the Astomi, a people who have no mouths, 
who live on the eastern side of India, near the source of the Ganges; 
their bodies are rough and hairy, and they cover themselves with a 
down plucked from the leaves of trees. " Here he shows some 
knowledge of the silk trade through Assam. 

Ammianus Marcellinus (XXIII, vi) has more knowledge of the 
Seres : 

64. Beyond the districts of the two Scythias, on the eastern 
side, is a ring of mountains which surround Serica, a country consid- 
erable both for its extent and the fertility of its soil. This tribe on 
their western side border on the Scythians, on the north and the east 
they look toward snowy deserts; toward the south they extend as far 
as India and the Ganges. . . . 

67. The Seres themselves live quietly, always avoiding arms 
and battles; and as ease is pleasant to moderate and quiet men, they 
give trouble to none of their neighbors. Their climate is agreeable 
and healthy; the sky serene, the breezes gentle and delicious. They 
have numbers of shining groves, the trees of which through continued 
watering produce a crop like the fleece of a sheep, which the natives 
make into a delicate wool, and spin into a kind of fine cloth, formerly 
confined to the use of the nobles, but now procurable by the lowest 
of the people without distinction. 

68. "The natives themselves are the most frugal of men, culti- 
vating a peaceful life, and shunning the society of other men. And 
when strangers cross their river to buy their cloth, or any other of 
their merchandise, they interchange no conversation, but settle the 
price of the articles wanted by nods and signs; and they are so modest 
that, while selling their own produce, they never buy any foreign 
wares. " 

But to the Graeco-Roman world the Seres were a people as 
ubiquitous as the subjects of Prester John in the middle ages. The 
Cheras of IVIalabar {Seri in Sinhalese mouths; see p. 209), and even 
Ausar and Masira in Southern Arabia (see p. 140) were identified 
with them. 

Concerning the long struggles of the emperors at Constantinople 
with the Sassanid monarchs in Persia, over the ever-increasing silk- 
trade, culminating in the romantic success of the Christian monks 
who succeeded in bringing the jealously-guarded eggs to Justinian, 
hidden in a bamboo cane, thereby laying the foundation of the silk- 
culture of Greece and the Levant, see Beazley, Dawn of Modern 


Geography, Vol. I; — Heyd, Hutoire du Commerce du Levant au Moyen 
Agf, — D'Anville, Recherches geographiques et htstorigues sur la S'erique des 
anciens (1768) in M'emoires de T Acad'emie Rjoyale des Inscriptions et Belles- 
Lettris, xxxii, 573-603; — Reinaud, Relations politiques et commerciales 
de r Empire Romam avcc T Asie Orientale pendant les cmq premiers siecles 
de I' ere chr'etienne. 

See also Richthofen, China, I, chap, x; — Stein, Sand-buried 
Ruins of Khotan; — Gotz, J erkehrsvcege im Dienste des Jl'elthandels, 
496-511; — Speck, Handelsgeschichte des Altcrtums, I; — Letourneau, 
IS E'colution du Commerce; — Noel, Histoire du Commerce du Alonde, I; 
— Lindsay, History of A'lerchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce, I ; — 
Mayr, Lehrbuch der Handelsgeschichte, I, § 16; — Tozer, A History of 
Ancient Geography, 281; — Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, I, 
565; II, 166, 658; — Edmunds, Buddhist and Christian Gospels, 4th 
ed. , introduction. 

64. Through Bactria to Barygaza. — The overland travel 
from the Yellow River to Bactra, first instituted, possibly, early in 
the 2d century B. C. and then obstructed for nearly two centuries, 
followed two routes. The earlier, and to the Chinese the most im- 
portant because it led to the Khotan jade-field, was the Nan-lu or 
southern way," the stages of which may be traced on the map as 
follows : 

Singanfu, Lanchowfu, Kanchow, "^ iimenhsien, Ansichow, Lop 
Nor to Tsiemo (the Asminta of the Greeks) where the routes divided. 
The Nan-lu followed south of the Tarim River to Khotan and Yar- 
kand, thence over the Pamirs and westward to the Oxus and Bactra. 
This was the earliest route opened by the Chinese army under Pan 
Chao, being cleared in 74 A. D. The second route, the PciAu or 
northern way," followed the same course from Singanfu to Tsiemo, 
thence north of the Tarim through Kuche and Aksu to Kashgar, and 
over the tremendous heights of the Terek to the Jaxartes and Samar- 
cand. Thence a route led southward to Bactra, while another led 
southwestward more directly to Antiochia Alargiana (.\ler\-.) This 
second route was opened by Pan Chao in 94 A. D. 

jV variant of the P'ei-lu led from Yilmenhsien to Hami, Turfan 
and Kharachar, meeting the above route at Kuche; this was preferable 
in some respects, being close to the mountains, but was subjected to 
constant attacks by the savage Tartar tribes, Hami especially being a 
storm-center in the Chinese annals, and an important outpost for the 
defence of the main route. Another variant led from Turfan through 
the Tian-shan to Urumtsi and Kuldja, thence by the Hi River and 


north of the mountains to Tashkend, Bokhara and Merv. This did 
not become important until later. 

The general topography of these Turkestan routes is shown by a 
passage from the Han Annals quoted by Richthofen {China, I, 460) 
from Stanislaus Julien ( Notices sur les pays et les peuples etrangers, tines 
des giographes et des historiens chinois, in Journal Jsiatique, Ser. IV, Vol. 
VIII, 1846, pp. 228-252), as follows: 

Hsi-yii is bounded on the east by the barriers of Yiimen-iwan 
and Yang-kwan, and on the west by the Tsung-ling (Pamirs). But 
the Tsung-ling is the trunk from which the great mountain-ranges 
branch out, which enclose the district on the north and the souths and 
these same ranges bound the districts of Nan-lu and P'ei-lu on the south 
and north. " And again : The land along the Nan-shan (Kuen-lun) 
is called Nan-tau, and that along the P'ci-shan (Tian-shan) is called 
P'ei-tau. Both these provinces lie to the south of Pei-shan. 
Hsi-yii extends 6000 // from east to west, and 1000 // from south to 
north. " 

That is, Tibet and Sungaria had no part in the transcontinental 
silk-trade in Roman times. 

This Central Asian trade-route was first comprehensively de- 
scribed by Marinus of Tyre, some two generations later than the 
Periplus. His account is preserved by Ptolemy, and is said to be 
based on the notes of a Macedonian silk-merchant named Maes, 
whose Roman name was Titianus; who did not perform the whole 
journey, but repeats what he learned of Turkestan from his agents" 
or trading associates whom he met at the Pamirs. The route, he 
says, began at the Bay of Issus in Cilicia, crossed Mesopotamia, As- 
syria and Media, to Ecbatana and the Caspian Pass ; through Parthia 
and Hyrcania, to Antiochia Margiana (Merv); thence through Aria 
into Bactria. Thence the route passed through the mountainous 
country of the Comedi, and through the territory of the Sacae to the 
"Stone Tower," the station of those merchants who trade with the 
Seres ( Tashkurghan, in Sarikol, on the upper Yarkand River in the 
Chinese Pamirs; a fortified town built on a great rocky crag that 
rises from the Taghdumbash valley, at the convergence of routes from 
the Oxus, the Indus and the Yarkand. See Stein, op. cit., 67-8.) 
Thence to the Casii (Kashgar) and through the country of the Tha- 
guri, until after a seven-months' journey from the Stone Tower" 
the merchants arrived at "Sera Metropolis, " the "City called Thinae" 
of the Periplus. 

By too literal an application of this seven-months' journey" 
both Marinus and Ptolemy were led into grave error as to the longi- 


tudinal extension of Asia; but the evidence of direct trade between 
Rome and China is remarkable. 

The first part of the route was minutely described before our 
author's time, in the Mansiones Parthica of Isidorus of Charax Spasini. 

This route of Maes the Macedonian followed very nearly the 
same direction as the Chinese Nan-lu, after leaving Bactra, crossing 
the Pamirs diagonally to Kashgar, on the Pei-/u, but then turning south- 
ward through Yarkand to Khotan, and in passing Thagura" took a 
more southerly, and also a more direct route than the Nan-lu itself, 
which it joined half-way between Lop Nor and the Bulunzir (the 
"river of the Hiong-nu" ) ; east of which all three routes were iden- 
tical as far as Singanfu. 

(See map to face p. 500, Vol. I, of Richthofen's China; — Stieler's 
Hand-Atlas, maps 61-2; — Stanford, Atlas of the Chinese Empire, plates 
12, 13, 19, 21; — Lansdell, Chinese Central Asia, Vol. II; — Stein, 
op. cit., chap. V. and map.) 

At Bactra this overland trade-route branched again, following 
westward through the Parthian highlands to the Euphrates, or southward 
to Bamian, the Cabul valley, the Khyber Pass and the Indus. From 
Taxila the highway of the Maurya dynasty led through the Panjab to the 
capital at Palibothra, with a branch from Mathura southward to Ozene 
and the Deccan. The route down the Indus to its mouth was less 
important owing to the character of the tribes living on the lower 
reaches. This is indicated by the text, which says far more of the 
products carried by the overland route to Barygaza than of those 
coming to Barbaricum. 

Yet a part of the Chinese trade was, apparently, localized at the 
mouth of the Indus. While the valuable silk cloth went to Barygaza, 
the yarn, or thread, went to Barbaricum, where it was exchanged for 
a product always more highly valued in China than in India — namely, 
frankincense; the white incense, or shehri luban, which Marco Polo 
still found in extensive use in China under the name of "milk per- 
fume." This is not listed in the Periplus among the imports at other 
Indian ports, and evidently found its way up the Indus to Peucelaotis 
and Bactra, and thence to China. The silk yarn, in return, went to 
Arabia, where it was used in making the embroidered and silk-shot 
fabrics for which Arabia and Syria were so famous in the Roman 

Concerning the frankincense of the Deir-el-Bahri reliefs Mr. 
R. E. Drake-Brockman writes again from Bulbar, Sept. 18, 1910, that 
the cattle shown in those reliefs are not the humped cattle peculiar to. 


■Somaliland (and likewise to much of East Africa, Madagascar and 
Western India) but the ordinary type, without humps; which are 
bred in Southern Arabia and Socotra. 

The cattle of these regions and in fact the whole of Gallaland 
and Southern Abyssinia are all the humped variety. I have travelled 
fairly extensively in these regions and have never seen the non-humped 
breed, and very much doubt if they ever existed in these dried-up 
parts, as the hump is to these cattle what the camel's hump is to the 
camel, a sort of storehouse. Besides this, cattle are rare in Somali- 
land proper, and it is improbable if they ever existed in greater num- 
bers or were exported." 

Vase of black pottery ornamented with figures of humped cattle. From the 
Madagascar collection in the Commercial Museum, Philadelphia. 

This is one more proof that the Punt Expedition did not make 
its terminus on the Somali coast, but must have gone to the Plain of 
Dhofar, or possibly to the south side of Socotra, which was a depen- 
dency of Dhofar. The localization of the island Pa-anch of the 
Xlllth dynasty tale, and the incense-land Panchaia of Virgil, in 


Socotra, makes that an interesting possibility; but altogether the scene 
on the reliefs is more strongly suggestive of Dhofar, the Sachalites 
of the Periplus. (See also pp. 120, 141-2, and 218.) 

See Ptolemy, I, 11-12, VI, 13; — De Guignes, Sur les liaisons et 
le commerce des Romains avec les Tartares et les Chinois: in M'emoires de 
? Academic Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Vol. xxxii (1798) pp. 
355-69; — Remusat, Remarques sur l' extension de T Empire Chinois du cote 
de t Occident (1825) ;— Lassen, I, 13-14, 11,519-660;— Yule, Cathay 
and the Way Thither; — Stein, Sand-Buri(d Ruins of Khotan; — Gen. 
AI. R. Haig, The Indus Delta Country; — Richthofen, China, Vol. I; 
— Vincent, II, 573-618; — Merzbacher, The Central Tian-Shan Moun- 
tains; — Bonin, Grandes voies commerciales de F Asie Centrale; — Manifold, 
Recent Exploration and Economic Development in Central and Western 
China (with map) in Geographical Journal, xxiii, 281-312, Mar. 1904; 
— Geil, The Great Wall of China; — Keane, Asia, I, chap. v. CoL 
AI. S. Bell, in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 1890, de- 
scribes his journey of 1887 along the entire Central Asian trade- 
route between Kashgar and Peking. 

64. To Damirica by way of the Ganges. — This was the 

route across the Tibetan plateau, starting in the same direction as the 
Turkestan routes, from Singanfu to Lanchowfu; branching here, it 
led to Siningfu, thence to Koko Nor, and southwestward, by Lhasa 
and the Chumbi \'ale to Sikkim and the Ganges. The route from 
Lhasa by the lower Brahmaputra was little used, owing to the savage 
tribes inhabiting it. There were numerous other passages into India; 
as, for instance, a frequented route by the Arun River through Nepal 
to the Ganges, or by following the upper Brahmaputra to the sacred 
peak of Kailas and the source of the Sutlej, or continuing through 
Gartok to the upper Indus. But natural conditions, as stated in § 66 
of the Periplus itself, made these routes through Western Tibet 
almost impracticable for commerce. 

This was the route which later became the great highway of 
Buddhist pilgrim-travel between Mongolia and Lhasa. It is best 
described by one of the few white men who have ever traversed it: 
Hue, Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, Thibet and China during 

The Chinese Buddhist monk Fa-Hien spent two years in "the 
country of Tamalipti, the capital of which is a seaport . . . ^fter this 
he embarked in a large merchant-vessel, and went floating over the 
sea to the southwest. It was the beginning of winter and the wind 


was favorable ; and after fourteen days, sailing day and night, they 
came to the country of Singhala." (^Travels, chap, xxxvii. ) 

'To Damirica" came the eastern shipping, according to the 
text; that is, the Chera backwaters were a meeting-point for the trade 
from the China Sea to the Gulf of Suez. Our author did not meet 
these vessels at Nelcynda, because the same monsoon that brought 
them would have taken him away. 

Alarco Polo tells us something of this trade in his day (III, xxv) : 
There is in this kingdom of Melibar a great quantity of pepper, and 
ginger, and cinnamon, and turbit, and of nuts of India. They also 
manufacture very delicate and beautiful buckrams. The ships that 
come from the east bring coffee in ballast. They also bring hither 
cloths of silk and gold, and sendels; also gold and silver, cloves and 
spikenard, and other fine spices." 

See Holdich, Tibet the Mysterious; — Rockhill, The Land of the 
Lamas; — Sven Hedin, Central Asia and Tibet; — Waddell, Lhasa and 
its Mysteries; Younghusband, The Geographical Results of the Tibet 
Mission, in Geographical Journal, xxv, 1905; — Crosby, Tibet and Turk- 
estan; Candler, The Unveiling of Lhasa; — Landon, Lhasa, and The 
Opening of Tibet; — Sarat Chandra Das, Journey to Lhasa and Central 
Tibet; — Littledale, A Journey across Tibet; — Deasy, In Tibet and Chinese 
Turkestan; — Carey, Adventures in Tibet; — Sandberg, The Exploration 
of Tibet; — Tsybikoff, Lhasa and Central Tibet (Smithsonian Report, 
1903); — Prjevalski, iMongolia, the Tangut Country, and the Solitudes 
of Northern Tibet; — Sherring, JFestern Tibet and the British Borderland. 

64. Few men come from there, and seldom. — Until the 
subjugation of Turkestan by China, travel and trade overland were 
naturally hazardous. The routes through Tibet and upper Burma 
were never so actively used as those leading through the Pamirs. For 
this, racial and topographical reasons were alike responsible. 

See Lassen, 1,167-9; — Kemp, The Face of China; also, for a 
most useful and detailed account of a recent journey along the little- 
travelled Burmese route, R. F. Johnston, From Peking to Mandalay. 
Another theory, outlined by Kingsmill ( The Mantse and the Golden 
Chersonese, and Ancient Tibet and its Frontagers, in Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, China Branch, xxxv and xxxvii), and Terrien de La- 
couperie (in his introduction to Colquhoun' s Among the Shans), locates 
this entire traffic in upper Burma; identifying Thinae with Theinni, 
the Burmese form of Hsen-wi, or the Northern Shans, and with Tien, 
the name given by Marco Polo to the Chinese province of Yunnan. 
(See also Rocher, La Province Chinoise de Yunnan. ) But whatever 
may be the relation of Ptolemy' s &'«<s and Cosmas' Tzinista to Burma^ 

. 274 

it may be asserted that the Thinas of the Periplus had nothing to do 
with that region. Silk was brought thence overland through Bactria 
to Barygaza," that is, by the Turkestan route. Why ignore the 
ancient center of the silk industry, Singanfu, to find a fancied similarity 
of name in a locality never important in silk production, separated 

Early Chinese Buddhist 9-storied pagoda: compare illustrations of Hindu 
and Abyssinian tyjics, on pp. 64-5. From a model exhibited in the Commercial 
Museum, Philadelphia. 


from the silk-route by 1000 miles of the most difficult travelling in Asia, 
and not certainly settled by Shan tribes until some centuries later than 
the Periplus? The theory is manifestly impracticable. 

With the rise of the Kushan dynasty in the northwest, and their 
relations towards their former home on the Chinese border, it was 
natural that communication by the Turkestan routes should increase. 
While the military successes of China did not begin until 73 A. D., 
it is known that the Chinese Emperor Ming-ti (who ruled from 58 
to 75) introduced Buddhism into China by the invitation of two 
Indian Sramanas, Kasyapa Matanga and Bharana, who arrived in 67 
A. D. (Takakusu, Introduction to his edition of I-tsing, p. xvii. ) 
Before such an invitation there must have been considerable activity 
on the part of missionaries, then as now the forerunners of commerce. 

The text seems to be describing conditions prior to the journey 
of the Sramanas in 67 A. D. 

As contrasting with the knowledge, or lack of it, which the Ro- 
mans displayed concerning China, the following account of Roman 
Syria, particularly the district of Antioch, taken from Chinese annals 
of almost the same date as the Periplus, is of interest. (Quoted 
from Hirth, China and the Roman Orient.): 


Chapter 88 

(Section Hou-han-shu," partly written during the 5th century A. D., 

and embracing the period A. D. 25 to 220) 

The first detailed account of the Roman empire contained in the Chinese annals: 

this account describing Roman Syria and its capital Antioch, and being 

based on the report of the Ambassador Kan Ying, A. D. 97 

(1) The country of Ta-ts in is also called Lichien (Li-kin j and, 
as being situated on the western part of the sea, Hai-hsi-kuo, (i. e. 
' 'country of the western part of the sea' ' ). (2) Its territory amounts 
to several thousand /i; (3) it contains over four hundred cities, (4) 
and of dependent states there are several times ten. (5) The de- 
fences of cities are made of stone. (6) The postal stations and mile- 
stones on the roads are covered with plaster. (7) There are pine 
and cypress trees and all kinds of other trees and plants. (8) The 
people are much bent on agriculture and practice the planting of trees 
and the rearing of silk-worms. (9) They cut the hair of their heads, 
(10) wear embroidered clothing, (11) and drive in small carriat^es 
covered with white canopies; (12) when going in or out they beat 
drums, and hoist flags, banners, and pennants. (13) The precincts 
of the walled cities in which they live measure over a hundred // in 


circumference. (14) In the city there are five palaces, ten // distant 
from each other. (15) In the palace buildings they use crystal to 
make pillars; vessels used in taking meals are also made. (16) The 
king goes to one palace a day to hear cases. After five days he has 
completed his round. (17) As a rule, they let a man with a bag 
follow^ the king's carriage Those who have some matter to submit, 
throw a petition into the bag. When the king arrives at the palace 
he examines into the rights and wrongs of the matter. (18) The 
official documents are under the control of thirty-six chiang (generals.') 
who conjointly discuss government affairs. (19) Their kings are not 
permanent rulers, but they appoint men of merit. (20) When a 
severe calamity visits the country, or untimely rain-storms, the king 
is deposed and replaced by another. The one reheved from his duties 
submits to his degradation without a murmur. (21) The inhabitants 
of that country are tall and well-proportioned, somewhat like the 
Chinese, whence they are called Ta-ts in. (22) The country con- 
tains much gold, silver, and rare precious stones, especially the 
"jewel that shines at night, " the moonshine pearl,'' the hsieh-cht- 
hsi, corals, amber, glass, lang-kan (a kind of coral), chu-tan (cinna- 
bar.''), green jadestone {ching-pi), gold-embroidered rugs and thin 
silk-cloth of various colors. (23) They make gold-colored cloth 
and asbestos cloth. (25) They further have fine cloth," also called 
Shu'i-yang-ts ui, (z. e. down of the water-sheep); it is made from the 
cocoons of wild silk-worms. (25) They collect all kinds of fragrant 
substances, the juice of which they boil into su-ho (storax). (26) 
All the rare gems of other foreign countries come from there. (27) 
They make coins of gold and silver. Ten units of silver are worth 
one of gold. (28) They traffic by sea with An-hsi (Parthia) and 
T ien-chu (India), the profit of which trade is ten-fold. (29) They 
are honest in their transactions and there are no double prices. (30) 
Cereals are always cheap. The budget is based on a well-filled 
treasury. (31) When the embassies of neighboring countries come 
to their frontier, they are driven by post to the capital, and on arrival, 
are presented with golden money. 02) Their kings always desired 
to send embassies to China, but the An-hsi ' Parthians) wished to 
carry on trade with them in Chinese silks, and it is for this reason that 
they were cut off from communication. (33) This lasted till the 
ninth year of the Yen-hsi period during the emperor Huan-ti's reign 
{r= A. D. 166) when the king of Ta-ts in, An-tun ( Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus) sent an embassy who, from the frontier of Jih-nan (Anam) 
offered ivory, rhinoceros horns, and tortoise shell. From that time 
dates the (direct) intercourse with this country. The list of their 


tribute contained no jewels whatever, which fact throws doubt on the 
tradition. (34) It is said by some that in the west of this country- 
there is the Jo-shai ("weak water") and the Liu-sha ("flying sands, 
desert") near the residence of the Hsi-wang-mu ("mother of the 
western king"), where the sun sets. (35) The Ch' ien-han-shu 
says from T' iao-chih west, going over 200 days, one is near the 
place where the sun sets;" this does not agree with the present book. 
(36) Former embassies from China all returned from Wu-i; there 
were none who came as far as T^ iao-chih. (37) It is further said 
that, coming from the land-road of An-hsi (Parthia), you make a 
round at sea and, taking a northern turn, come out from the western 
part of the sea, whence you proceed to Ta-ts'in. (38) The country 
is densely populated; every ten li (of a road) are marked by a t' ing; 
thirty //' by a chih (resting-place). (39) One is not alarmed by 
robbers, but the road becomes unsafe by fierce tigers and lions wha 
will attack passengers, and unless these be traveling in caravans of a 
hundred men or more, or be protected by military equipment, they 
may be devoured by these beasts. (40) They also say there is a 
flying bridge {jei-chiao) of several hundred //, by which one may cross 
to the countries north of the sea. (41) The articles made of rare 
precious stones produced in this country are sham curiosities and 
mostly not genuine, whence they are not (here) mentioned. 

64. Under the Lesser Bear — meaning far to the north (of 
the Himalayas). No part of China is actually so far north as to have 
Ursa Minor in the zenith; this would require it to be within the 
Arctic Circle. 

64. Empty into the Ocean. — This was the belief of most 
of the Greek and Roman geographers. See p. 100, where the 
map according to Pomponius Mela shows the Caspian directly 
connected with the Arctic Ocean, and Lake Maeotis connected by 
means of the Tanais, or Don, river. So Strabo (XI, vi, 1): "The 
Caspian is a bay extending from the ocean to the south. At its com- 
mencement it is very narrow; as it advances further inward, and 
particularly toward the extremity, it widens. . . Eratosthenes says 
that the navigation of this sea was known to the Greeks; that the 
part of the voyage along the coast of the Albanians and the Gadusii 
comprised 5400 stadia; and the part along the country of the Anariaci, 
Mardi, and Hyrcani, as far as the mouth of the river Oxus, 4800 
stadia, and thence to the Jaxartes, 2400 stadia." This passage, often 
ridiculed, is rather an indication of the strong probability that the Cas- 
pian and Aral Seas were joined together until after the Christian era, 
so that the Amu and Syr were in truth accessible to the Greek adven- 


turers from Colchis, crossing from the Euxine Sea. As to Lake Maeotis 
(the Sea of Azov) Strabo says (XI, i, 5) : "Asia has a kind of penin- 
sular form, surrounded on the west by the river Tanais and the Palus 
Maeotis as far as the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and that part of the coast 
of the Euxine which terminates at Colchis; on the north by the 
Ocean, as far as the mouth of the Caspian Sea; on the east by the 
same sea, as far as the confines of Armenia. " 

These errors were corrected by Ptolemy, but subsequently revived. 
See Tozer, History of Ancient Geography, 345, 367; — Huntington, The 
Pulse of Asia; — Mackinder, The Geographical Pivot of History, in Geo- 
graphical Journal, xxiii, 422-437, April, 1904; — Kropotkin, The Desic- 
cation of Eurasia, ibid. , June, 1904. 

In this group of modem Tibetans may be found all the types mentioned in 
the closing paragraphs of the Periplus: "the men with flattened noses," the 
"Horse-faces" and the "Long-faces," of § 62, and the "men with short, thick 
bodies and broad, flat faces" of § 65. 

65. Besatae. — These were another Tibeto-Burman tribe, allied 
to the Cirrhadae, and to the modern Kuki-Chin, Naga and Garo 


tribes. Ptolemy places them east of the Ganges, and corroborates 
the Periplus as to their personal appearance. Lassen (III, 38) iden- 
tifies the name with the Sanscrit vaishada, "wretchedly stupid," and 
says they were a tribe of Sikkim. Our author locates them "on the 
borders of the Land of This," indicating that Tibet was then subject 
to China. The location of their annual fair must have been near the 
modern Gangtok (27° 20' N., 88° 38' E.) above which the Cho-La 
or the Jelap-La Pass leads to Chumbi on the Tibetan side of the fron- 
tier, from which the overland route mentioned in § 64 led across 
the table-land to Koko Nor, Siningfu and Singanfu. Other passes 
through Nepal are possible, particularly that by the Arun River, but 
the route through Sikkim involves the least deviation from the direct 
line from Koko Nor to the Ganges; while from Gyangste to the 
source of the Arun a pass must be scaled higher by 3000 feet than 
Jelap-La. (See Freshfield, The Roads to Tibet, in Geographical Journal^ 
xxiii, Jan. and March, 1904; and The Highest Mountain in the IVorld, 
ibid., xxi, March, 1903; — O'Connor, Routes in Sikkim; — Louis, Gates 
of Tibet. ) 

Pseudo-Callisthenes (III, 8) refers to the Bisada who gather a 
leaf. They are a feeble folk, of very diminutive stature, and li\'e in 
caves among the rocks. They understand how to climb precipices 
through their intimate knowledge of the country and are thus able to 
gather the leaf. They are small men of stunted growth, with big 
heads of hair which is straight and not cut." (McCrindle, Ancient 
India, p. 180. ) 

Fergusson {^History of Indian Architecture, I, 13) says: The 
Tibetans are a fragment of a great primitive population that occu- 
pied both the northern and southern slopes of the Himalayas at some 
very remote prehistoric time. They were worshippers of trees and 
serpents; and they, and their descendants and connections, in Bengal, 
Ceylon, Tibet, Burma, Siam and China, have been the bulwark of 
Buddhism. In India the Dravidians resisted Buddhism on the south, 
and a revival of Aryanism abolished it in the north.' ' 

65. Feast for several days. — This description of a tribal 
festival and market resembles many accounts of other primitive peo- 
ples. Compare the following from Herodotus (IV, 196) : 

"The Carthaginians further say that beyond the Pillars of Her- 
cules there is a region of Libya, and men who inhabit it; when they 
arrive among these people and have unloaded their merchandise, they 
set it in order on the shore, go on board their ships, and make a great 
smoke; that the inhabitants, seeing the smoke, come down to the 
sea, and then deposit gold in exchange for the merchandise, and with- 


draw to some distance from the merchandise; that the Carthaginians 
then, going ashore, examine the gold, and if the quantity seems suf- 
ficient for the merchandise, they take it up and sail away; but if it is 
not sufficient, they go on board their ships again and wait; the natives 

On a modem trade-route througfh the mountains of Sikldm. The shoulder- 
bankets and rrivfrs of mattinfr are easily distinguishable. 


then approach and deposit more gold, until they have satisfied them; 
neither party ever wrongs the other; for they do not touch the gold 
before it is made adequate to the value of the merchandise, nor do the 
natives touch the merchandise before the other party has taken the 

Pomponius Mela (III, viii, 60) seems also to speak of the silent 
trade of the Himalayas; Ammianus Marcellinus, in the passage 
already quoted, tells of such a custom at Tashkurghan, the "Stone 
Tower' ' of the Pamirs, where silk passed from Eastern hands to 
Western; while Fa-Hien, describing a similar custom in Ceylon, 
ascribes it to the spirits and nagas, ' ' the tutelary guardians of the pre- 
cious articles of trade. ( Travels, chap, xxxviii. ) 

65. Great packs and baskets. — The same thing is in con- 
stant use today in this region, being the regular burden of the coolies 
of Nepal and Sikkim. 

65. Petri. — Our author is misled by a fancied resemblance to 
the Greek, petros, fiber; the word is the Sanscrit />«;rtf, leaf. Other- 
wise the description of the preparation of the tamala leaves is correct, 
being corroborated throughout by Pliny. 

65. Malabathrum. — The Cinnamomum tamala is native in this 
part of the Himalayas, being one of the principal trees. 

So Marco Polo (II, xlvi), in his account of Tebet: "It contains 
in several quarters rivers and lakes, in which gold-dust is found in 
great abundance. Cinnamon also grows there in great plenty. Coral 
is in great demand in this country and fetches a high price, for they 
delight to hang it round the necks of their women and of their idols." 
(See pp. 82-4, 87, 89, 216-18, 256. ) 

66. Influence of the gods. — This is still the geography of 
Brahman writings. Like Tavernier in the 17th century, who sum- 
marized the Ramayana in his Travels, so this merchant of Berenice in 
the 1st century came under the spell of the great epics of India, as he 
sojourned among 

"the sister nations three, 
Cholas, Cheras, and the Pandyas dwelling by the southern sea." 

The region beyond Sikkim, impassable by reason of its great 
cold, " and including the mightiest peaks of the Himalayas, was within 
the sphere of the Kurukshetra of the later Vedas, the Brahmanas, and 
the Mahabharata, the home-land of the Brahman faith; with the 
greatest of all mountains, Everest, is associated the name of Gauri- 
sankar, a name of Siva and Durga; in the western curve of the great 

chain is the sacred peak of Kailas, the Olympus of the Hindu gods, 
the axis of the universe and the way to heaven; while the ending of 
the Periplus is that of the Sita-quest in the Ramayana : 

"Halt not till you reach the country where the northern Kurus rest. 
Utmost confines of the wide earth, home of Gods and Spirits blest!" 



Enumerated according to the ports 

Red Sea Coast. 




Undressed cloth from Egypt 

Robes from Arsinoe 

Cloaks of poor quality, dyed 

Double-fringed linen mantles 

Flint glass, in many forms 

Murrhine (glass imitation made 
In Diospolis) 

Brass (for ornament and in cut 
pieces as coin) 

Sheets of soft copper (for cook- 
ing-utensils, and bracelets 
and anklets) 

Iron (for spears) 

Axes, adzes and swords 

Copper drinking-cups, round 
and large 

Coin, a little 

Wine of Laodicea and Italy 

Olive oil 

Presents for the king : gold and 
silver plate, military cloaks, 
thin coats of skin 

Indian iron and steel (from 

Indian cotton cloth (the broad 
monache), also the sagma- 
togetie, perhaps -aw cotter 


Coats of skin 

Mallow-colored c'.oth 






Horn of Africa (The "far-side" 
coast) . 



Flint glass, assorted 

Juice of sour grapes from Di- 

Dressed cloth, assorted 



(Exports partly to Ocelis and 



Myrrh (better than , rest). 

The things already mentioned. 


Cloaks from ^AjrsLnoe, dressed 
and dyed 

Drinking cups 

Sheets of soft copper 


Gold and silver coin. 


Frankincense (the far-side) 

Cinnamon (the harder) 

Duaca (var. of frankincense) 

Indian copal 

Macir (medicinal bark from 
(These exports going to Arabia) 

Slaves, rarely. 


The things already mentioned. 

The things already mentionedj 


Mocrotu (var. of frankincense). 
The things already mentioned; 

Silver plate 
Iron, very little 
Cinnamon, in great quantity 
Fragrant gums and spices 
Mocrotu incense 
Frankincense (the far-side) 
Elephant River. 
Frankincense (the best far-side) 
Market of Spices (Cape Guarda- 

The things already mentioned. 
Cinnamon (varieties, gizir, 
asypha, arebo, magla, 

The things already mentioned. 
Cinnamon (the better sort, areio 
and moto, in great quantity) 
Slaves of the better sort, for 
Egypt, in increasing num- 
Tortoise-shell, good quality, 
in great quantity 
(Goods brought in Indian ships 
to this and the preceding far- 
side ports) : 

Clarified butter 
Sesame oil 
Cotton cloth (the monache, also 


Honey from the reed called 

East Africa. 

Rhapta, Menuthias, &c. 

{Imports, chiefly in Arabian ships) 
Lances made at Muza 
Hatchets, daggers and awls 
Glass, various kinds 
Wine, a little 
Wheat, for free distribution to 

the savages. 

Ivory (in great quantity, but 

inferior to that of Adulis) 
Tortoise-shell (the best after 

that from India) 
Palm-oil, a little. 



Purple cloths, fine and coarse 

Clothing in Arabian styles, with 
sleeves ; (plain, ordinary, 
embroidered, or interwo- 
\en with gold) 





Blankets, plain and in the local 

Sashes of different colors 

Fragrant ointments 

Wine and wheat (not much, the 
country producing both) 

Presents to the King and Chief: 
horses, sumpter - mules, 
vessels of gold and polished 
silver, finely woven cloth- 
ing, copper vessels. 
{Exports, the products of the 

Myrrh, selected 

Myrrh, the Gebanite-Minaean 


All the things already men- 
tioned from Avalites and the 

far-side coast. 


Cana (which has trade with Egypt, 
the far-side coast, India and the 
Persian Gulf). 
Wheat and wine ; a little, as at 

Clothing in the Arabian style, 

poor quality 

Other things such as go to Muza 
Presents for the king; wrought 
gold and silver plate, 
horses, images, thin cloth- 
ing of fine quality. 
(Exports, the native produce) 

The rest of the things men- 
tioned from the otherports. 
DioscoRiDA Island. 
Tortoise-shell, various kinds 
Indian cinnabar (dragon's 
(Imports, brought by merchants 
from Muza and by chance 
calls of ships returning 
from India) 
Indian cloth 
Female slaves, a few 


Sesame oil. 

Sarapis Island. 

(Exports, to Cana, at regular in- 
Persian Gulf. 

Ommana and Apologus. 

Teakwood timbers 
Blackwood logs (from India) 
Ebony logs " " 

Frankincense ('from Cana to 


Sewed boats called madarata 

(from Ommana to South 

Pearls, inferior to the Indian 
Clothing, after the fashion of 

the place 

Dates, in great quantity 
Slaves (to both India and S. 

Makran Coast. 








Barbaricum (at mouth of Indus 

Thin clothing, in large quantity, 
some spurious 

Figured linens 





\'essels of glass 

Silver and gold plate 

\\^ine, a little. 






Lapis lazuli 

Seric skins 

Cotton cloth 

Silk yam 



India (the kingdom of Nambanus). 


Wine: Italian preferred, also 
Laodicean and Arabian 






Thin clothing and inferior sorts 
of all kinds 

Bright-colored girdles a cubit 


Sweet clover 

Flint glass 



Gold and silver coin (yielding 
a profit on the exchange) 

Ointments, not costly, a little 

Presents for the King : 

Costly vessels of silver, 
singing boys, beautiful 
maidens for the harem, fine 
wines, thin clothing of the 
finest weaves, the choicest 


Spikenard (coming through 
Scythia, also through Po- 
clais, from Caspapyra, Pa- 
ropanisus and Cabolitis) 




Agate and camelian (onyx and 


Cotton cloth of all kinds (mus- 
lins and ordinary) 

Silk cloth 



Long pepper 

Other things coming from the 
various potts. 

India (Chera and Pandya kingdoms). 
MuziRis, Nelcynda and Bacare; 
(to which large ships come for 
pepper and malabathrum). 


Coin, in great quantity 


Thin clothing, not much 

Figured linens 



Crude glass 




Wine, not much, but as much 

as at Barygaza 
Wheat (for the sailors, the 

country not producing it) . 

Pepper, produced in Cottonara 
Fine pearls in great quantity 
Silk cloth 

Spikenard from the Ganges 
Malabathrum from the interior 
Transparent stones of all kinds 

Tortoise-shell, from Chryse 
and from near-by islands 

India ( Chola kingdom ) 

Argaru (inland) 



Muslins (namedfrom the place) 

India (East Coast). 

Camara, Poduca and Sopatma 
(where ships come from the 
west coast, also from the Gan- 
ges and Chryse). 

Everything made in Damirica 
and the neighboring coun- 
tries and most of what 
comes from Egypt. 


pal.ssimundu, formerly called 


Transparent stones 

India (East Coast, farther north) 


Muslins, in great quantity. 


India (Ganges delta). 
Gangetic spikenard 

Muslins of the finest sort, called 

(The place has- a gold coin 
called caltis). 


Chryse Island. 
Tortoise-shell, the best of all. 



(Difficult of access; few men 

come from there, and seldom) 

{Exports, overland through Bac- 

tria to Barygaza, also by 

vfay of the Ganges to Da- 


Raw silk 

SUk yam 

Silk cloth. 

Himalaya mountains. 

The Besat^. 


Malabathrurn ; in three forms, 
the large-ball, the medium- 
ball, and the small-ball. 




Classified as follows : 

(1) Precious stones, etc. 

Diamond {adamas) 




Alabaster (onyx arabicus) 

Lapis lazuli 




Garnet (alabanda) 

Pearls and pearl shell 

Tortoise shell 


( 2 ) Vegetable products •valued for their 
fragrance: as incense, per- 
fume, or medicine. 





Incense g'ums 

Gum dammar 








Frankincense, Arabian and Af- 

(3) Dyes. 


Fucus (rock lichen or orchil). 

(4) Textile. 

Byssus (flax cloth?) 
Cotton cloth 
Wool (Tibetan?) 
Capilli Indici(?) 
Silk, yarn and cloth. 

(5) Metal 

Indian steel (Haidarabad). 

(6) Animal. 




Lions and lionesses 

Babylonian skins. 

(7) Human 




The dates assigned fall into three groups. The first, which 
dates the Periplus before Pliny, assumes the trade to have been that 
which existed under Nero, and includes the possibility that Pliny 
quoted from or summarized the Periplus in his description of Arabia 
Felix. The latest date possible under these suppositions is the end of 
the reign of Malichas, whose inscriptions indicate that he ruled be- 
tween 40 and 70 A. D. 

The second group depends on the identification of Zoscales with 
Za Hakale in the Abyssinian Chronicle, whose dates were given by 
Henry Salt as 76 to 89 A. D. The dependence placed on these two 
dates, on which Salt himself cast doubt, is surprising in view of the 
fact that he antedated two kings in the list (El Abreha and El Atzbeha) 
more than 100 years, to bring them within the reigns of the Roman 
emperors Constantine and Constantius, who are known to have had 
relations with them ; and if so great a liberty can be taken with the 
monarchs of the fourth century, it seems reasonable to suppose that 
one of the first century may be a score of years out of his proper 
order. The supposed confirmation of these dates by mention of 
contemporary Indian rulers points to an earlier date during the period 
of their viceroyalties rather than of their reigns. 

The third group of identifications depends on the reference in 
tne text to the "emperors," assuming this to be a time when there 
were two Roman emperors reigning jointly. This assumption is 
entirely unnecessary. 

First group: 

In the middle of the first century after Christ, nearly contem- 
porary with Pliny. ' ' 

Salmasius, Exercitationes Pliniana, 835. 
"A little earlier than Pliny." 

Mannert, Geographic der Griechen und Rimer aus ihren Schrif- 
ten dargesullt, Niirnberg, 1799, I, 131. 
"Soon after Claudius; about the tenth year of Nero" (which 
would be 63 A. D.). 
Vincent, II, 59. 
"Under Claudius or a little later." 

Ukert, Geographic der Griechen und Rimer, Weimar, 1816, 
I. i, 209. 


"60 A. D." 

Benfey, article Indien in Ersch and Griiber's hncyklopddie. 

Sect. II, Vol. 7, p. 90: Leipzig, 1840. 
Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, II, 538; III, 3. 

Unquestionably before Pliny's Natural History." 
Schwanbeck, in Rheinischen Museum, VII, 338. 

A little earlier than Pliny, who seems to quote from it ; that is, 
prior to 77 A. D." 

Dillmann, in Berichte der K. Preuss. Akad. der Whsenschaften, 
1879, pp. 413-429. 

Nearly contemporary with Pliny, written before the dedication 
of the Natural History in 77 A. D." 
Fabricius, p. 27. 

"56-67 A. D." 

Glaser, in Ausland, Miinchen, 1891, pp. 45-6. 

Skiz%e der Geschichte und Geographie Arahiens, II, 

Next before Pliny. ' ' 

Robertson, Disquisition on Ancient India. 

"60-63 A. D." 

Watt, Commercial Products of India, p. 371, etc. 

56-71 A. D., as shown by Glaser." 

"Before 77 A. D." 

Speck, Handelsgeschichte des Altertums, I, 35; III, 2b., 919. 

"During the reign of Malik III, King of the Nabataeans, 40-70 
A. D." 

Vogiie, S^rie Centrale: Inscriptions Semitiques, p. 107. 
(Paris, 1869.) 

' During the reign of Kariba-il Watar Juhan'im, the Homerite 
King, about 40-70 A. D. " 

Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien und Africa, pp. 37-8. 

''During the reign of Ili-azzu Jalit, King of the Hadramaut, 
about 25-65 A. D." 

Glaser, Die Ahessin'ier, etc., p. 34. 

'The author made his voyages at various times between 65 and 
75 or 80 A. D. The work was written in the last quarter of 
the first century A. D. " 

Haig, The Indus Delta Country, 28. 


Second group: 

"80-89 A. D." 

C. Miiller, Geographi Greed Minores, I, xcvi; depending 
on the doubtful dates given Za Hakale by Henry Salt, in 
his rearrangement of the Abyssinian Chronicle in 1812. 

"75 A. D." 

Bunsen, de Azania commentatio philologica, Bonn, 1852. 
"80-85 A. D." 

Vivien de Saint Martin, Histoire de la Geographie et des decou- 
vertes g'eographiques, 1873; also LeNordde I' J frig ue dans 
r antiguit'e grecque et romaine. 

"11 -m A. D., as shown by Mailer." 

Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, II, 445 ; London, 


"About 10 years after Pliny's death" (which occurred in 79 A. D.) 

To-Ltr, History of AncientGeographyt'p. 11^: Cambridge, 1897. 

"About 90 A. D." (referring to Nahapana, the Nambanus of 


A.-M. Boyer, in Journal Asiatique, Paris, July-Aug. , 1897, 
pp. 120-151. 
"83-84 A. D." (referring to Sundara Satakarni, the Sandares 
of §52). 

C. R. WUson, in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
June, 1904. 
"Between 77 and 105 A. D." 

Vincent Smith, Early History of India, p. 371, etc. 

"Between 80 and 89 A. D." 

McCrindle, in Indian Antiquary, VIII, 108-151. 

"About 85 A. D. " 

J. F. Fleet, article Epigraphy, in Imperial Gazetteer of India, 
new edition, II, 76. 

Third group. 

The following belong to the curiosities of criticism, all being 
based on the "emperors" of § 23: 

"In the 2d century A. D., later than 161, under Marcus Aure- 
lius and Lucius Verus. " 

Dodwell, in Hudson' s Geographite Feteris Scriptores, pp. 85-105. 
Heeren, De Inaia Romanis cognita, in Commentationes societatis 
regite scientiarum. Gottingen, 1793, XI, 101. 


'Apparently of the 1st, or at latest of the 2d century A. D. " 
Heeren, Ideen ilber die Politik, den Verkehr und den Handel der 
vomehmsten V'dlker der atten Welt. Gottingen, 1824, 
I, iii, 316. 
'A ship's log of the 2d century A. D." 

Bohlen, Das alte Indien, mit besonderer Riicksicht auf Aegypten. 
K5nigsberg, 1830, I, 71. 
'A merchant of Alexandria who lived in the first half of the 2d 
century A. D." 

Kiilb, Lander- und Volkerkunde in Biograp/iien, Berlin, 1846, 
I, 245. 
'Of the 2d century A. D. " 

Ritter, Geschichte der Erdkunde und der Entdeckungen , Berlin, 
1861, p. 124; also Erdkunde Asiens, IV, 1. 
'Of the 1st or, rather, the following century." 

Ritter, Erdkunde Jsiens, VIII, 1. 
'Of the 3d century. " 

Letronne, Christianisme de Nubie, 47. 
'200-217 A. D." 

Letronne, in Nouveau Recueil de I' Acad'emie des Inscriptions^ 

IX, 173. 
Alex. V. Humboldt, Kritischen Untersuchungen, 1, 315. 

Kosmos, II, 458. 
Forbiger, Handbuche der alten Geographe aus den Quellen 
hearbeitet, Leipzig, 1842, I, 442. 
'246-247 A. D., under the emperor Philip and his son." 

Reinaud, in Journal A siatique, series V, vol. 18, Paris, 1861. 

p. 226. 
Reinaud, Memoires de t Academie des Inscriptions et belles lettres, 

vol. xxiv, pp. 227-278 (1864). 
O. Peschel, Geschichte der Erdkunde, Miinchen, 1865. 

These views are vigorously combated by 

O. Blau, in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischcn Gesell- 

schaft, xxii, 656. 
A. Weber, Indisch'' Stretfe, II, 266 (1869). 
Vivien de Saint Martin, Le Nord de l Afrique dans F antiquitt 

grccque et romaine, 1863, p. 197. 
Dillmann, loc. cit., pp. 414-428. 



§ 5. Zoscales, king of the people called Axumites. 

(Dates fixed by Salt in 1804 as 76-89 A. D. ; his conclu- 
sions, depending on an arbitrary arrangement of the Abys- 
sinian Chronicle, as he said himself, are not to be de- 
pended upon ; " a more probable period for this reign 
would be 59-72 A. D.) 

§ 19. Malichas, king of the Nabataeans. 

(Mentioned also by Josephus, Bell. lud.. Ill, 4, 2. In- 
scriptions cited by Vogiie fix his dates as 40-70 A. D. ) 

§ 23. Charibael, king of the Homerites and Sabaites. 

(Inscriptions cited by Glaser fix his reign about 40-70 A. D. ) 

■§ 23. The Emperors. 

(Probably Claudius and Nero, 41-54 and 54-68 respectively. ) 

§ 27. Eleazus, king of the Frankincense Country. 

(Inscriptions cited by Glaser fix his reign about 25-65 A. D. ) 

§ 38. Parthian princes at war with each other. 

(Probably within the decade following the death of Gon- 
dophares, which occurred 51 A. D.) 

§ 41. Nambanus, king of Ariaca. 

(Perhaps Nahapana, the Saka satrap — or a predecessor of 
that name — but before the victories which led to the estab- 
lishment of the Saka era of 78 A. D. ) 

§ 52. The elder Saraganus, who had previously governed Calliena. 

r Probably ArishtaSatakarni, then the Andhra king, who ruled 
about 44-69 A. D. ; whose court was held at his eastern 
capital, Dhanyakataka, so that to the author of the Periplus, 
landing on the west coast, he was no more than a name, 
and the visible authority was vested in the western viceroy.) 

§ 52. Sandares, who possessed Calliena. 

(Probably Sundara Satakarni — who ruled as Andhra king in 
83-4 A. D. — but before his accession to the throne, while 
as one of the heirs presumptive he was acting as viceroy at 
Paethana, toward the end of the- reign of Arishta Satakarni, 
the ' 'elder Saraganus. ' ') 



References to the text are in bold-faced type ; to the notes in light-faced 

Abalit, 73 

Abasa, 62, 124, 145, 146 

Abaseni. See Abyssinians, Habashat, 

62, 140, 145 
Abd-er-Razzak, 147, 2fl3 
Abd-es-Shems, 108 
Abiria (Abhira), 39, 175, 257 
Abissa Polis, 62, 140 
Abraham, 135, 162 
absinth, Persian, 157 
Abu Thabi, 150 
Abu Thanni, 150 
Abydos ,158 
Abyssinia (see Axumites), 5, 6, 7, 8, 

57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 73, 

75, 77, 88, 92, 96, 99, 106, 

107, 109, 119, 141, 142, 153, 

167, 172, 179, 230, 271 
Abyssinian Chronicle, 9, 64, 66, 67, 

133, 200 
Abyssinian Church, 75 
acacia, 87, 113, 130, 131 
Acannae, 26, 85 

Accadian-Dravidian trade, 173, 175 
Achaea, 71 

Achasmenidas, the, 221 
achates. See agate, 223 
Achenkoil river, 212 

(in S. W. Arabia), 114 
(in S. E. Arabia), 147, 237 
Ad, Adiles, 141, 142 
adamant, 155 
adamas, 222, 224 
Adam's Bridge, 234, 241 
Adams, Brooks, 220 
Aden, 74, 75, 80, 85, 101, 109, 115, 

116, 118, 227 
Aden,, gulf of, 3, 4, 52, 75, 85, 138 
Adi-Ganga, 255 
Adler, Nathan, 164 
Adonis, 131, 138 
Adulis, 22, 23, 29, 52, 60, 61, 63, 

65, 67, 96, 114, 141, 209, 228, 

251, 25^ 
adzes, 24 

Aegean islands, 77 
Aegidii, island of the, 44, 202 
Aelana, 108 
Aelius Gallus, 10, 108 
Aesculapius, 131 
Aesopus, 240 
Aethiopia, 29, 58, 59, 62, 66, 69, 

83, 153, 159, 167, 218, 250 

Aethiopia (continued) 

language, 146. (See Geez) 

Aethiopians, 62, 117, 119, 134, 146, 
Asiatic, 162, 163 
dynasty in Egypt, 162 

Aetna, 133 

Afghanistan, 177, 184, 186, 187, 190, 

Africa, 3, 5, 10, 29, 52, 56, 74, 75, 
76, 77, 87, 88, 89, 92, 94, 96, 
97, 99, 106, 109, 118, 119, 
129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 138, 
141, 142, 156, 160, 161, 163, 
164, 175, 176, 177, 178, 210, 
217, 218, 226, 228, 271 
trade from interior of, 75 
Arab slave trade in, 96, 161 
circumnavigation of, 101 
Southern extension of, 101 
negroes of, 163 

African rift-valley, 98 

agate, 42, 193, 223 

Agatharchides, 4, 15, 50, 51, 52,63, 
87, 102, 115, 118, 133, 160 

Agisymba, 98 

Agni, 229 

Agra, 179 

Ahmadabad, 179 

Aizanas (el Abreha), 60, 61, 67 

Ajanta, 196, 244, 247 

Akaba, Gulf of, 101, 102 

Akko, 129 

Aksu, 268 

alabandic stone, alabandenum, 223, 

alaba-ster, 31, 114 

Alalaei islands, 23, 61, 66 

Alaric, 214 

Alashia (Cyprus), 78 

Albanians, 277 

Alexander the Great, 4, 39, 41, 42, 
51, 58, 69, 70, 123, 131, 149, 
161, 162, 164, 166, 170, 180, 
184, 187, 189, 264 

Alexander, the sailor, (See Marinus 
of Tyre), 260 

Alexandria, 5, 16, 32, 65, 76, 77, 
101, 103, 125, 132, 167, 214, 
232, 239 

Alfragan, 55 

Algeria, 168, 192 

Alilat = Urania, 132 

alkanet, 112 


Allazi, 17 

Alleppey, 211 

almonds, oil of, 113 

aloes, 33, 129, 139, 141, 145, 250 

'Ain = Amon, 132 

Amara, country of, 87, 88, 230 

Amaravati, 195 

amber, 259, 276 

ambergris, 130, 157 

Amenemhet I, 121 

amethyst, 226 

Amhara, 57 

Ammianus Marcellinus, 102, 267, 281 

amomum, 112 

Amon, Amon-Re, 78, 121, 122, 124, 

132, 158, 228 
Amos, Book of, 193, 264 
Amoy (see Zayton), 214 
Amphila, 66 
Amritsar, 180 

Amu Daria. (See Oxus), 277 
Anaimalai Hills, 204 
Anam, 90, 263, 276 
Anariaci, 277 
anchors, anchorage, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 

38, 40, 44, 182 
andante, 70 

Andhra, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 
204, 235, 236, 243, 252, 253 

coinage, 198, 243, 244, 245 

ship-symbol, 243, 244, 245 
Angkor- Wat, 261 
An-hsi (see Parthia), 276, 277 
■ animism, 131-2, 236-7, 253 
-anise, 213 
Anjengo, 234 
Anjidiv (see Aegidii), 202 
Anneslev Bay, 60, 66 
Annius Plocamus, 8 
anointing oil, Hebrew, 111, 113, 169 
Ansichow, 268 
antelope horns, 74 
Antichthones, continent of, 252 
Antigonus, 102 
antimony, 42, 45, 190, 192 
Antioch, 65, 76, 77, 149, 275 

Antiochia (Charax), 149 

Antiochia Margiana (Merv), 
268, 269 
Antiochus, 111 

Antiochus Epiphanes, 147, 160 

Antiochus Hierax, 123 

Antiochus Theos, 184 
Antiphili Portus (see Amphila), 66 
Antony, Mark, 103, 240 
ants, gold-digging (see Tibetan gold), 

An-tun ( Marcus Aurelius Antonius), 

Aparantika, 175 
apes, 61, 113, 121, 175 
Apirus river (see Ophir), 160, 175 
Apollo, 123, 132, 138 
Apollodotus, 42, 184, 185 

Apollo's Valley, 86 
Apologus, 36, 149, 151, 153 
apyron gold (see Ophir), 160 
aquamarine, 222 

Arabia, 4, 14, 16, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 
36, 44, 58, 60, 63, 64, 71, 75, 
80, 82, 83, 89, 96, 97, 98, 99, 
103, 104, 105, 106, 109, 115, 
117, 118, 119, 121, 124, 128, 
130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 140, 
141, 142, 147, 150, 151, 154, 
157, 158, 160, 163, 164, 168, 
176, 177, 192, 198, 210, 228, 
230, 232, 233, 270 
Sovereignty of the state that is 
first in, 96, 97 
Arabia Felix, 10, 132 

Araby the Blest, 143 
Arabia Petrasa, 102 
Arabian Gulf, 4, 24, 63 
Alps, 116 

caravan trade, 102, 103, 104 
geographers, 115 
language, 35, 146 
sea, 159 
Arabian shipping, 89, 97, 118, 148, 
155, 201, 228 
down coast of East Africa, 96 
Arabic language, 104 
Arabis, river, 161, 162 
Arabs, 3, 4, 5, 28, 30, 34, 59, 62, 88, 
89, 96, 97, 98, 101, 104, 105, 
107, 109, 121, 123, 125, 126, 
127, 131, 132, 135, 145, 149, 
150, 152, 161, 162, 217, 247 
infusion with negroes in E. Af- 
rica, 98 
in Sumatra and Java, 127 
historians, 142 
of India, 161, 162 
Arachosii, 41, 183, 189 
Arad-Ea, 135 
Arakan, 252 
Aral Sea, 277 
Aram, 142 
Aramaeans, 102 

Aramaic language, 104 
Arattii (Arashtra), 41, 183 
Arctic Circle, 27 
Arctic Ocean, 277 
Arcturus, 221 
areho, 26, 27 
Ares, 132 

Aretas (Hareth), 11, 103 
Argaru (see Uraiyur), 46, 241 
Aria, 189, 269 
Ariaca, 24, 27, 39, 70, 87, 174, 175, 

Arib, 109 

Arishta Satakami, 189, 199, 200 
Aristotle, 264, 266 
Arjuna, 254 
Armenia, 14, 150, 278 
Arnold, Matthew, 187 


Arphaxad, 107 

Arrian, 7, 15, 161, 163, 164, 170, 

184, 189, 238, 259 
Arsacid dynasty, 63, 65, 127, 161 
arsenic, 151, 191, 192, 221 
Arsinoe, 24, 52, 69 
Artemidorus, 66, 114 
Arun river, 272, 279 
Arwe, the serpent, 67, 133 
Aryans, 174, 187, 202, 210, 228, 

229, 230, 235, 238, 241, 250, 

253, 254, 257, 264 
Aryanism ( Brahmanism ) , 279 
Asabon, Asabi, 36, 108, 147, 148 
Asachae (see Asich), 61, 62 
asafoetida, 177 
asbestos cloth, 276 
Ascitae (see Asich), 62, 126, 145 
Ash-shihr (see Es-shehr), 130 
Ashur, 123 
Asia, 60, 92, 132, 153, 156, 163, 171, 

172, 176, 185, 186, 194, 222, 

236, 260, 263, 266, 270, 275, 

Asia Minor, 5, 58, 76, 128, 213 
Asiatics of the desert, 192 
Asich (see Axum),35, 62, 118, 126, 

Asmirasa (see Tsiemo), 268 
Asoka, 175, 180, 188, 195, 204, 235, 

236, 238, 249 
aspralathus, 112 
Assam, 84, 194, 254, 255, 259, 264, 

asses, 61 
Asshur, 107 
Assuan, 57, 61 
Assurbanipal, 58 
Assyria, 118, 123, 160, 171, 269 
Assyrian inscriptions, 74, 92, 123, 

128, 149, 160 
Astabora river, 59 
Astacampra, 39, 40 
Astaphus river, 59 
Astola, 162 
Astomi, 267 

astrobolus (see cat's eye), 223 
Asvavadana (see Horse-faces), 254 
asypha, 26 

Atbara river (Astabora), 56, 57, 63 
Athenaeus, 15 
Athenodorus, 102 
Atlantic Ocean, 3, 10, 81, 190 
Atramitae (see Chatraraotitas), 124 
Attacori, 260 
Attana, 150 
Attock, 189 
atyob^ 62 
Augustus, 5, 63, 131, 140, 149, 150, 

157, 187, 219, 220, 264, 265 
Aulus Hirtius, 103 
AUM, 138, 139 
Aurannoboas ( Aranya-vaha ? ) , 43, 

202, 258 

Aurea Chersonesus (see Chryse), 

259, 260 
Aurelian, 265 
Ausal, Ausan, Ausar, 74, 96, 115, 

146, 267 
Ausanitic coast, 28, 74, 94, 96, 115 
Austrian South Arabian Expedition, 

109, 119, 136, 139 
Auxumites, city of the, 23, 51, 59, 61 
Avalites, 24, 25, 31, 65, 73, 74, 114 
Avanti, 187 
awls (or bodkins), 28 
axes, 24 
Axum. 5, 9, 10, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 

65, 67, 89, 119. 126, 133, 141 
Ayodhya (see Oudh), 242 
Azania, 27, 28, 29, 34, 47, 81, 92, 

106, 179, 252 
bluffs of, 27, 92 
courses of, 27, 92 
A20V, Sea of (see Maeotis), 278 

Bab-el-Mandeb, Straits of, 8, 52, 73, 

114, 117 
baboons, 43 
Babylon, 62, 96, 122, 123, 163, 167, 

227, 228 
Babylonia, 3, 107, 142, 145, 159, 164, 

165, 213, 228, 236 
Babylonian creation-story, 138 
Babylonian inscriptions, 149 
Bacare, Barkare, Barace, 44, 46, 211, 

212, 233, 234 
Bacchus, 76, 83, 132, 238 
Bactra, 268, 270 
Bactria, 9, 11, 48, 132, 164, 166, 183, 

185, 186, 261, 268, 269, 274 
Bactrians, 41, 184, 185 
Badakshan, 171 
Baeones, 39, 181 
Bagamoyo (see Rhapta), 94 
Bagdad, 91, 152, 228 
Bahardipur (see Barbaricum) , 165 
Bahlika (see Baraca), 174 
Bahmanabad, 166 
Bahrein Islands, 51, 80, 91, 151, 156, 

163, 164, 222 
Bains, J. A., 208 
balanus, oil of, 112 
Balasri, 235 
Balearic Islands, 168 
Ba-l-Haf, 116 

Balita (see Varkkallai), 46, 234, 235 
Ball, Vincent, 84, 168, 171, 172, 

212, 215, 224, 225, 258, 259 
balms, 6, 121 
balsam, 112, 214 
balsamum, seed of, 112 
bamboo, 155 
bamboos, 263 
Bamian, 270 
Bandar Abbas, 91 
Bandar Hais (see Mundus), 81 
Bandar Muriyeh, 85 


Bandar Ululah, 85 

Bankot (see Mandagora), 201 

Bantu migrations, 98 

Baraca, 38, 39, 174, 175 

Barawa, 88, 92 

Barbaricum, 37, 39, 128, 165, 270 

Barbary States, 56 

barberry (see lycium), 169 

Barbosa, 194 

Bargysi, Bhargas, 47, 254 

barley, 178 

Barr el Ajam, Ajjan, 75, 92 

Barygaza, 27, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 

39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 48, 128, 

151, 153, 178, 180, 182, 184, 

185, 188, 190, 193, 196, 198, 

199, 205, 221, 236, 245, 268, 

270, 274 
Basilis, 15 

baskets, wicker, for fishing, 28, 94, 95 
plaited, for shoulder-burdens, 48, 

280 281 
Bassora, 80, 91, 179, 247 
Batavia, 127 
bathing, 46 
Batineh coast, 151 
Batrasave, 150 

bdellium, 3, 37, 38, 42, 120, 163-5 
Beach, small and great, 27 
Beazley, C. R., 267 
Beckmann, 69, 79, 111, 171 
Beduins, 104, 105, 119, 141 
beef, 123 
Bel, 123 

Bell, Col. M. S., 272 
Bellary, 224 
Bellasis, 166 

Beluchistan, 8, 16, 147, 164, 170 
Belus, 68 
Benadir, 92 
Benares, 187 
Benfey, 242, 243, 259 
Bengal, 178, 194, 197, 236, 242, 252, 

253, 255, 257, 258, 259, 264, 

Bay of, 196, 241, 252 
muslins, 258 
Benguela, 75 
Benmasan, 192 

Benjamin of Tudela, 164, 211 
Bent, J. Theodore, 60, 97, 117, 119, 

127, 129, 130, 138, 139, 140, 

141, 142, 145, 156, 168, 237 
benzoin, 120, 128 
Berber, 56, 60 
Berbera, 56, 66, 74, 75, 79, 80, 81, 

87, 89, 116, 217 
fair of, 80, 91 
Berbers (Barbari), 22, 23,24,25,26, 

31, 56, 59, 63, 74, 114 
meaning of, 56 
Berenice, 16, 22, 29, 30, 52, 55, 68, 

101, 104, 106, 121, 132, 167, 

168, 228, 233, 260 

beryllium, 222 

beryls, 204, 210, 221, 222, 223 

Besatas, Bisadae, 48, 278, 279 

betel, 216 

Bethlehem, 123 

Beypore, 204 

Bhandarkar, R. G., 209 

Bharana, 275 

Bharata, 235 

Bharukacha, 65, 180 

Bhils, the, 190, 194 

Bhota, 253 

Bhrigu, 180 

Bhumaka (see Nahapana) 198 

Bhutan, 151, 253 

Biddulph, Col. J., 200 

Bikrampur (see Vikramapura), 255 

Bilbilis, 70 

Bion, 62 

Bir Ali, 116 

Bir Barhut, 119, 133 

birds, sacred (see serpents), 226, 241 

Birdwood, 120 

Bit-Yakin, Land of, 149, 160 

Black Sea 77 

blackwood, 36, 152, 153, 197, 201 

Blancard, 18, 19 

Blandi, 18 

blankets, 31, 257 

Blest, Island of the, 133, 134, 135, 
139, 163, 197 
mountain of the, 148 

"blood of two brothers," 138 

bloodstone, 223 

boats, small, 22, 25, 32, 41 

sewed, 28, 36, 151, 154, 244 
of osiers covered with hides, 190 
hollowed from logs, 234, 243 

Bodh-Gaya, 64 

Bodhisattva, 197 

Bohlen, 242 

Bokhara, 171, 186, 269 

Bombay, 80, 91, 118, 138, 143, 152, 
155, 156, 167, 169, 176, 182, 
183, 194, 196, 197, 200, 252, 

Bonin, 272 

Book of the Dead, 237 

Borheck, 18 

Boroboedor, 174, 244, 245, 261 

bosmoros, Vll , 178 

Boulger, D. C, 263 

Aoa/)'n)«( see clarified butter), 89, 177 

boutyros (see asafcetida), 177, 178 

Boyer, A.-M., 200 

bracelets, 75 

Brahma, 138 

Brahmanism, 138, 139, 188, 236, 237, 
241, 253, 257, 281 
Brahman writings, 210, 281, 282 
Brahmanas, 281 

Brahmaputra river, 165, 253, 255, 

264, 272 
Braho, 162, 180 


Brahui, 162, 180 
Brambanan, 174, 261 
Biandis, 215 
brass, 12, 24, 69, 197, 221, 251 

Corinthian, 69 
Breasted, Prof. J. H., 61, 78, 113, 

122, 324, 158, 218, 228 
Bredow, 19 

Britain, British, 190, 203 
Broach (see Barvgaza), 179, 180, 

193, 196 
brocades, 257 
bronze, 78, 187, 193 
Bruce, 73 

Bucephalus Alexandria, 41, 184 
Buchanan, Dr., 221 
buckram, (see cotton cloth), 273 
Buddhism, 64, 65, 70, 138, 185, 187, 

188, 235, 236, 249, 253, 263, 
275, 279 

in Java, 174 

Buddha, 189, 197, 229, 259 

Buddhist Monastery, Southern 

Mount, 188 
pagodas, 64, 65, 274 
Buddhist pilgrim route, 272 
Buddhist writings, 197, 210, 228, 
buffalo's milk, 177 
Biihler, 209, 229 
Bulhar, 80, 81, 270 
bulls, 58 
Bulunzir, 270 
Bunbury, 106, 252, 268 
Burckhardt, 104 

Burma, 81, 82, 84, 90, 152, 176, 182, 
183, 191, 223, 226, 227, 231, 
235, 254, 255, 259, 263, 273, 
Bumell, Dr., 204, 205, 209, 221, 234 
Bums, 174 
Burnt Island, 30, 106 

off Somali coast, 81 
Burton, Sir Richard Francis, 72, 74, 

75, 79, 80, 89, 91, 182 
Buto, 131, 132, 226 
butter, 177 

Byzantine emperors, 7, 59, 172 
Byzantium, 43, 65, 201, 220 

Cabolitic, 42, 190 

Cabul, 166, 167, 170, 183, 184, 185, 

189, 190, 270 
cactus, 141 
Cadmus, 132 

Ca;lobothras (see Cerobothra), 233 

Csenitae, island of the, 44, 202 

Csesar, 115, 219, 264 

Cairo, 127 

Caius (Caligula), 240 

cake-dishes, 34 

cake, salted, 123 

Cahfl Islands, 36, 61, 147 

calamus, 111, 112 

Calcutta, 152, 169 

Caldwell, Bishop, 205, 208, 209, 221, 

234, 243 
Calf- Eaters (Moschophagi), 22,23, 

Calicut, 203, 204, 215, 221, 227 
Caligula, 11, 103, 220 
Caliphate, 228 
callaina, callean stone (see turquoise), 

38, 170, 223_ 
Calliena (see Kalyana, Calliana), 43, 

167, 196, 197, 198, 199, 236, 

Calon mountains, 36, 61, 147 
caltis, a coin, 48, 289 
calves, 58 
Camanes, 182 
Camara, 46, 242 
Cambay, Gulf of, 68, 70, 85, 88, 89, 

135, 172, 175, 176, 177, 181, 

182, 183, 193, 194, 195, 232, 

237, 258 
Cambodia, 259, 261 
Cambridge Natural History, 136, 137, 

148, 264 
Cambyses, 59 
camels, 30, 32, 52, 91, 104, 108, 121, 

122, 126, 130, 137, 233 
camel's flesh, 74 
Cammoni, 40, 182 
Camoes, 143 
Campania, 77, 190 
Campbell, Sir James, 196 
Cana, 32, 33, 35, 36, 45, 115, 116, 

117, 126, 128, 129, 139, 146, 

151, 233 
Canaan, 160 
canal between the Nile and Red Sea, 

connecting South Indian back- 
waters, 234 
Candace, 12, 59 
Candler, 273 

Cannanore (see Naura), 204, 221 
Canneh, 117 

cannibals, 47, 254, 255, 260 
canoes of single logs, 28, 93, 234, 

Cantabria, 190 
Canton, 84, 228 
Cape of Good Hope, 143 
Cape of Spices (Guardafui), 82, 85 
Cape route to India, 214 
Cappadocia, 7 
caravan routes between the Nile and 

Red Sea, 51, 57, 121 
from China to Bactria, 261 
carbunculus, 222, 227 
carchedonia (see jasper), 223 
cardamoms, 99, 112, 202 
Carey, 273 
cargo-ships, 35, 126 
Carmania, 150, 151, 160, 161, 191, 

192, 194, 221 


carmesin, 73 
carmine, 73 
Cama (see Kama) 
Camaites, 30, 104, 105, 109 

Canraites, Cassanites, Cananites, 

Camatic, 241, 257 
Carnegie Institution, Washington, 

carnelian, 42, 43, 190, 193, 194, 223 
Carreri, Geraelli, 155 
Carter, H. J., 142, 143 
Carthage, 147, 219 
Carthaginians, 78, 101, 217, 279, 280 
Caseri, 260 
Cashmere, 166, 257 
Casii (see Kashgar), 269 
caskets, 34 

Caspapyrene, Caspapyra, 42, 189 
Caspian Sea, 48, 172, 183, 186, 263, 

Pass, 269 
cassia, 82, 83, 84, 112, 169, 202, 217 

false, 86 
caste system, in the Hadramaut, 118, 
■'145, 146 
in India, 180, 230, 235, 238 
castor musk, 251 
castor oil, 264 
Catalonia, 168 
Catherine de Medici, 199 
cat's eve, 193, 223 
Cattigara, 228 
cattle, 30, 39, 121, 139, 149, 176, 

218, 225, 270, 271 
humped, 270, 271 
ca\e-dwellers, 35 
cedar, 78 
celibacy, 46 
Central Arabia, 108 
Central Asia, 166, 176, 177, 187, 264 
Central Asian trade-route, 186, 269, 

centurion, 29, 104 
Cerobothra, Kingdom of (seeChera), 

44, 208 
Cevlon, 8, 52, 84, 148, 152, 163, 

170, 171, 194, 209, 213, 216, 

220, 222, 226, 227, 229, 230, 

235, 237, 239, 241, 243, 248, 

249, 250, 251, 252, 255, 261, 

279, 281 
embassy from, to Augustus, 252 
Chaberis emporion (see Camara), 242 
Chahbar, Bay of, 151 
Chakora, 199 
Chalcedony, 223 
Chalcidice, 190 
Chaldiea, Chaldaeans, 107, 123, 142, 

159, 160, 162 
Chalukya kings, 197 
Cham, 163 

Champavati (see Sem^dla), 200 
Chanda, 224 

Chandikabai, 201 

Chandragiri river, 204, 205 

Chandragupta Maurya, 180, 187, 186 

Chandragupta Vikramaditya, 255 

Chandristhan, 230 

chaplets, 190, 191, 265 

Charax Spasini, 36, 63, 149, 150 

Charibael, Kariba-il, 11, 30, 32, 11)7, 

chariots, 13 

Charsadda, 184 

Chashtana, 188 

Chatramotitas, Chatramotitis (see Ha- 
dramaut), 62, 116, 119, 127, 
139, 140, 145 

Chatterton, 246 

Chaul, (see Semylla), 2110 

Chau, 261 

Chera, 195, 197, 2(14, 205, 208, 209, 
211), 222, 237, 238, 267, 273, 

Chersonesus, 44, 202 

Ch'ien-han-shu, the, 277 

Chin, 248 

China, 9, 11, 14, 82, 84, 90, 118, 
128, 152, 169, 172, 176, 178, 
183, 185, 186, 191, 194, 213, 
222, 223, 227, 228, 235, 247, 
259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 
266, 269, 270, 273, 275, 276, 
277, 279. (See This.) 
sea-trade to Persia, 84, 152 
sea-route to, via Malacca, 260 
great wall of, 261, 263 
Sea, 273 

china. Nankin, 97 

Chin Hills, 255 

Chindwin river, 246 
trader, 246 

Chinese, 76, 227, 247, 263, 266, 268, 
account of Roman Syria, 275-7 
annals, 128, 185, 246, 247, 259, 

261, 268, 275, 276, 277 
ships, 227, 228, 259 
silks, 276 

Chlshull, 169 

Chitor, 180, 184 

Chna, 160 

Chola, Chola-mandalam (see Coro- 
mandel), 195, 197, 204. 205, 
209, 237, 238, 241, 242, 249, 

Cho-La, 279 

Chola;bus, Kula'ib, 30, 107, 116 

Chota Nagpur,258 

Chou dynasty, 261 

Chou-li, 263 

Christ, 9, 10, 67, 155 

Christianity, 64, 65, 67, 135, 162 

Christians, Syrian, 206 
in Ceylon, 250 

Chronicles, Book of, 122, 124, 175 


Chryse Island, 45, 46, 47, 48, 227, 

246, 259-61 
chrysolite, 167 
chrysolithos, 223 
chrysoprase, chrysoprasus, 223 
Chu river, 185 
Ch'u, 261 

Chumbi Vale, 272, 279 
Chuse (see Cush), 163 
Chwan-chau (see Zayton), 214 
Cicero, 132 
Cilicia, 71, 123, 269 
Cimmerian Bosphonis, 278 
Cimolian chalk. 111 
cinnabar, 112, 137, 192, 263, 276 
cinnabar, Indian (see dragon's blood), 

34, 137-9 
cinnamon, 4, 6, 13, 25, 26, 27, 77, 
80, 82-4, 86, 87, 89, 112, 113, 
121, 122, 132, 136, 145, 169, 
213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 227, 
236, 273, 281 
Cirrhadae, 47, 253, 254, 256, 266, 278 
citronella, 170, 256 
Cizimba language in E. Africa, 98 
clarified butter, boutyron, 27, 39, 74, 

89, 99, 139, 177, 178 
Claudius, 8, 12, 109, 204, 219, 220 
Clement, 132 
Cleopatra, 5, 240, 264 
Clifford, H. C, 260, 261 
cloaks, 25, 31 

dyed in colors, 24 
Clodius, 240 
cloth, dressed, 25 

asbestos, 276 

Egyptian, 68 

gold-colored, 276 

Indian, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 172, 

undressed, 24 
cloths, 4, 251, 257 

purple, 31 

scarlet 214 
clothing, 31, 33, 36, 37, 42, 44, 72, 
121, 123, 127, 197 

Arabian style, with sleeves, 31 

embroidered, 275 

plain, ordinary, embroidered, in- 
terwoven with gold, 31 

striped, 149 
clover, sweet, 42, 190, 191 
cloves, 227, 250, 273 
Coa •vestiJ, transparent silk gauze, 264 
Coast Country (see Chola), 43, 46, 

283, 241 
coats of skin, 24, 70 
cobalt, 69, 171 
cobra, 236 
Cochin, 204, 208, 212, 215 

backwaters, 205, 207, 209, 212 
Cochinchina, 252 
cochineal, 73 

cocoanut palm, its products, 99, 154, 

177, 250 
coffee, 105, 273 
Coimbatore, 204, 210, 222 
coin, 24, 25, 42, 44, 48, 160, 190, 

192, 193, 219, 220, 221, 243, 

244, 245, 252, 259, 276 
colandia, 46, 228, 246 
Colchi, 46, 211, 237 
Colchis, 278 
collector of customs, 29 
Coloe, 23, 60, 141 
Columbus, 3, 6, 55 
comacum, 112 

Comari, Cape and Harbor of, 46, 235 
Coroedi, the, 269 
Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, 

247, 262, 271, 274 
Commodus, 70, 220 
Comorin, Cape (see Comari), 208, 

234, 235, 250 
Comoro Islands, 88 
compass (in Chinese records), 246-7 
Comum, 70 
conch-shells, 251 
Congo, 75 

Constantine, 67, 214, 220 
Constantinople, 6, 7, 63, 76, 172, 267 
Constantius, 67, 107, 115 
Conti, Nicol, 225 
Coorgs, 190 
copal, 80 

Indian, 25, 80 
copper, 31, 33, 36, 42, 45, 69, 75, 

77, 78, 111, 122, 127, 151, 

169, 193, 219, 221 
Cyprian, 69 
ochre, 171 

soft, in sheets, 24, 25, 70 
Coptos, 16, 52, 55, 68, 103, 121, 132, 

232, 233 
coral, 33, 37, 42, 45, 74, 82, 127, 

128, 168, 223, 224, 227, 259, 

276, 281 
Cordier, Henri, 144, 155, 157, 170, 

coriander, 99, 164 
Corinth, 219 
Cornelius Nepos, 157 
Cornwall, 77, 78 
Coromandel (see Chola), 155, 243, 

corsairs, 135 
Corsica, 168 
corundum, 227 
Cos, 264 
Cosmas Indicopleustes, author of the 

Christian Topography, 60, 92, 

96, 99, 135, 152, 197, 201, 

209, 229, 249, 250, 273 
costus, 38, 42, 112, 168 
cotton, 39, 71, 72, 76, 179, 196, 215, 

257, 265, 266 
Cottonara, 45, 221, 234 


cotton cloth, 24, 27, 38, 39, 42, 71, 

72, 73, 179, 252, 263 
painted chintzes, 252 
spinning, 256 
thread, 256 
cotymha, 40, 182, 245 
Cousens, H., 196 
cow's blood, 70 

millc, 177 
cramoisi, 73 
Cranganore, Kodungalur Kee Mu/i- 

ris), 205, 208 
Crawley, Ernest, 236 
Crete, 105, 190 
crimson, 73 
crocodiles, 28, 34 
Crosby, 273 
Cruttenden, Lieut., 89, 91, 116, 142, 

crystal, 220, 221, 223, 224, 226, 276, 
Ctesias, 70 
C^tesiphon, 127 
cummin, 99, 213 
Cunningham, 200 
cups, 24 

Curzon, Lord, 147, 162 
Cush, 5, 58, 61, 159, 160, 162, 175, 

Cusha-dvTpa, 230 

Cushites, 64, 141, 142, 146, 161, 218 
language in Africa similar to the 

Ural-altaic, 134 
Cushite - Elamite migration, theory 

concerning, 51, 58, 134 
Cutch, 4, 711, 160, 173, 174, 175, 176 

Rann of, 135, 166, 173 
Cyeneum, 23, 61 
Cyncilim (see Kelc\-nda), 215 
Cynocephali, watering-place of, 86 
Cynos river (Wadi-ed-Dawasir? ), 

149, 150 
cypirus, 112 
cypress, 112 
C\'prus, 61 
Cyrene, 69 

Dabhol (see Palsepatmae), 201 

Dacca, 256, 258, 259 

Dachinabades (see Deccan), 43, 195, 

Dagaan, 85 
daggers, 28 
Dahalak, 66 

Daimaniyat Islands, 147 
Dakshina (see Deccan), 252 
Damascus, 77 

blades, 172 
damask, 264 

Damirica, 34, 35, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 
47, 48, 203, 204, 205, 272, 273 
dammar gum, 80 
Dana, 224 
D'Anville, 268 
Daphnus, 86 

Dar-es-Salaam, 94 

Darius the Great, 7, 51, 123, 189, 

213, 264 
Darror valley, 219 
Das, Sarat Chandra, 273 
Dasarna (see Dosarene), 253 
dates, 35, 37, 154, 157, 158, 159 
date-palm, 136, 158 

fiber, 156 

syagri, 158 

wine, 157, 158, 159 
Daulatabad, 196 

Davids, Prof. T. ^V. Rhys, 223 
Dawson, 209 
Day, Francis, 209 
Dead Sea, 101 
Deasy, 273 
De Candolle, 76, 157 
Deccan, 177, 188, 193, 195, r)6, 197, 

224, 235, 236, 252, 27J 
December, 234 

Dedan, 153, 159, 162 

Deir el Bahri, 120, 121, 141, 142, 

218, 228, 270, 271 
Delgado, Cape, 94, 97 
Delitzsch, 128 
Delphi, 138 
Demetrius, 184 
Dera Ghazi Khan, 174 
designated ports, 22, 51-2 
Devgarh (see Togarum), 201 
Dhamari, 258 
Dhanavriddhi, 229 

Dhanyakataka, Dharanikotta, 195, 199 
Dhofar, 107, 109, 118, 126, 129, 140, 

143, 218, 237, 271, 272 
Dholbanta, 87 
diamonds, 45, 215, 216, 222, 224, 

225, 226, 241 
Dillmann, 66 

Dio Cassius, 103 

Diocletian, 220 

DioJorus i^land, 23, 31, 114 

Diodorus Siculus, 160, 162 

Dionysos, 76, 132 

Dionysiac revels, 131 

Dionysius Periegetes, 171, 226 

Dioscorida, 33, 133-6 

DIoscorides, 80, 82, 157, 171, 192, 

DiospolLs, 24, 68 
Dirbat, 141, 142 
Disan Island, 106 
Diu, 181 
Djadarot, 63 
Djesair, El, 92 
Dodwell, 18 
dogs, 113, 121 
Dog-star, 125, 233 
Dome Island (TruUas), 32 
Domitian, 66, 220 
Dosarene, 47, 253 
Dosaron river (see Mahanadi), 253 
Doughty, 104 


Douglas, R. K., 263 

drachmas, 41 

dragon, the, of Ares, 132, 226 

of Siva, 138 
dragon's blood, 137, 138, 139, 145 

legend concerning, 138-9 
Drake-Brockman, R. E., 87, 217, 270 
Dravida-desam (see Damirica), 205, 

230, 237, 238 
Dravidians, 138, 162, 173, 175, 176, 
180, 190, 194, 197, 205, 208, 
213, 228, 230, 235, 236, 237, 
238, 239, 241, 249, 279 

alphabet, 210, 229 

sea-trade, 209-11, 228-30, 237 
drill, blue, 73, 194, 202 
drinking-cups, 25 
dromedaries, 123 
duaca, 25, 80 
Duff, 209 

Durga, or ParvatI, 235, 236, 281 
Dutch government in Java, 127, 212 

Dutch, the, 192, 202, 204, 215 
Dwarka, 174 

eagles, 225, 226 

Eastern Archipelago, 243 

Eber, 107 

ebony, 6, 36, 57, 58, 61, 113, 121, 
125, 153 

Ecbatana, 269 

Eden, 115 

Edmunds, Albert J., 66, 235, 268 

Edom, 102 

Edrisi, 71 

egg, 190 

Egypt, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 22, 24, 27, 
31, 32, 33, 42, 45, 47, 51, 52, 
55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 65, 
68, 69, 71, 75, 76, 78, 80, 82, 
83, 89, 96, 101, 102, 103, 104, 
111, 118, 120, 122, 127, 131, 
132, 135, 146, 153, 157, 158, 
159, 160, 162, 167, 172, 178, 
192, 193, 213, 218, 223, 226, 
227, 228, 232, 246, 260, 261 

Egypt Exploration Fund, 218 

Egyptian cloth, 68, 167 
geographers, 230 
inscription, 153, 192, 213, 228, 

shipping, 231 
trading-voyages, 228 

Egyptians, 60, 68, 75, 76, 87, 89, 
113, 114, 132, 142, 143, 171, 
234, 236 

Eirinon, 38, 135, 166, 173, 174 

Eiselen, 159 

Elagabalus, 219 

Elam, 3, 51, 107, 134, 149 

Elan, 260 

Eleazus, 11, 32, 115, 117 

electmm, 78 

Elephant, Cape and River, 26, 85, 86 

Elephanta, 138 

Elephantine, 57 

elephants, 23,43, 60, 61, 137, 138, 

193, 236, 252 
housings for, 257 
Elis, 71 
Elisar, 115 
EUiot, Sir Walter, 209, 221, 242, 244, 

ellutu-wood, 123 
Ely, 203 

Elymais (see Elam), 149 
embalming, 113 
emeralds, 168, 240 
emery, 224 
Emperors, 30 
Emu, 113 
England, English, 66, 96, 127, 144, 

189, 203 
Engler and Prantl, 82 
Ephah, 123 
Ephesus, 65, 77 
Epiphanius, 171 
Epiphi, 27 
Erannoboas — Hiranya-vaha (see Son), 

Eratosthenes, 54, 55, 101, 108, 118, 

178, 249, 277 
Eritrea, 60 

Er-rih (Ptolemais), 60 
Erythras, 259 
Erythra;an Sea, 7, 15, 22, 29, 37, 48, 

60, 62, 101, 136, 145, 159, 

197, 260 
Agatharchides on, 50-2 
origin of name, 50-1 
Erythras, King, legend concerning, 

50-1, 87 
Esarhaddon, 7, 58 
Es-shehr^Escier = Ash-Shihr, 129, 

130, 142 
Etesian winds, 178, 233 
Ethiopia, (see Aethiopia), 9 
Etruscan, 193 
Eucratides, 184, 185 
Eudsemon Arabia, 12, 32, 45, 1J5 
euphorbia, 113 
Euphrates, 3, 4, 5, 36, 74, 117, 118, 

126, 165, 183, 184, 187, 270 
Euripides, 131, 132 
Europe, 92, 101, 151, 156, 161, 163, 

171, 179, 185, 214, 215, 224, 

234, 249, 258 
Euxine Sea, 278 
Evans, T. C, 195 
Exodus, Book of, 82, 111, 113, 122, 

164, 169 
Everest, Mount, 281 
eye cosmetic, 113, 169, 190, 192 

paint, 121, 192 
Ezekiel, Book of, 70, 77, 78, 83, 

105, 115, 117, 153, 161, 26+ 
Ezion-Geber, 260 
Ezra, Book of, 159, 228 


Fabricius, 11, 15, 19, 20, 51, 72, 80, 
89, 105, 106, 114, 115, 116, 
147, 148, 151, 152, 163, 167, 
171, 177, 178, ISO, 199, 208, 
227, 242, 265 

Fa-Hien, 209, 248, 250, 253, 255, 
272, 281 

fair, annual, of the Besat« : cf . Gaia, 

Farsan Islands, 106 

"far-side" ports and coast, 24, 25, 
27, 30, 31, 32, 75, 80 

Fartach, kingdom of (see Ras Far- 
tak), 139 

Fellatah country, 75 

fennel, 216 

fenugreek, 112 

Fergusson, James, 133, 236, 255, 279 

Ferrars, 248 

festival, tribal, 141, 142, 143, 279, 
280, 281 

Fezzan, 98 

fig, 80 

Firgamu, 171 

fish, 74, 159, 162 
oil, 154, 155 

Fish-Eaters (Ichthyophagi), 22, 23, 
29, 32, 35, 56, 143, 146, 162 

fishing, 28 

flattened noses, men with, 47, 278 

flax, 68, 72, 178 

Fleet, J. F., 196, 209 

flour, 13 

Fliickiger and Hanbury, 84, 113, 128, 

Forster, 74, 114, 116, 133, 143 

Foucher, 183 

Foulahs, 89 

Fouike, 229 

Foulkes, 209, 242 

Fourth Cataract, 58 

France, 199 

frankincense, 4, 13, 25, 26, 32, 33, 
35, 36, 37, 57, 60, 62, 80, 81, 
85, 86,102,105,113,115,116, 
117, 118, 120, 122, 123, 124, 
125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 
139, 141, 143, 144, 145, 164, 
169, 192, 214, 215, 216, 217, 
218, 225, 233, 236, 241, 270, 
customs affecting gathering of, 

dangers of gathering, 130-3 
far-side, 80 

spirit of the tree, 131-2 
trade in, 125-6 

Frankincense Country, 5, 11, 14, 16, 
32, 33, 34, 62, 115, 117, 119, 
139, 140 

Franks, 75 

Frazer, J. G., 131, 132, 133, 139, 
146, 237 

Frere, Sir Bartle, 155, 157 

Kreshfield, 279 

Froben, 17 

fruit, 34, 122, 124, 158 

Fryer, 177 

Fundy, Bay of, 183 

Fu-hi, 263 

Fumeaux, J. H., 242, 244, 258 

furs, 171, 257 

Further India (sec Chrysp), 260 

Gadusii, 277 

Gastulia, 156 

galangal, 112 

galbanum, 112, 122, 216 

Galicia, 77, 78, 190 

Galilee, 11 

Gallas, 218, 271 

Gamble, 152 

games, sacred, 191 

Gandarasi {CanJhara), 41, 183, 184, 

Ganesa, 236 
Ganga-Sagar, 255 
Ganges, 6, 9, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 

160, 165, 166, 172, 176, 187, 

188, 195, 217, 222, 242, 249, 

255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 

267, 272, 279 
Gangetic spikenard, 47, 222, 256 
muslins, 256-8 
pearls, 256 
Gangtok, 279 
Ganjam, 257 
Gara, 140, 141, 142, 218 
Gararaantes, 98 
Garcia de Orta, 84, 224 
Garhwal, 151, 188 
garlands, 190 
garnet, 223 

Gamier, Francois, 261 
Garo, 278 
garrison, 29 
Gartok, 272 

Garuda, bird of Vishnu, 253 
Gaul, 68, 76, 77, 167, 168 
Gaurisankar (see E\erest ', 281 
Gautama Buddha, 197, 249 
Gautamlputra Satakami (see ViKva- 

yakura), 197, 235 
Gaza, 123 

Gebanites, 107, 126 
Gedrosia, 36, 161, 163, 170, ISO, 

183, 189 
Geez, 63, 146 
Geil, 272 
Gelenius, 17, 18 
gems, 6, 222, 238, 240, 276 
Genaba, Beni Genab (see Zenobian,) 

143, 144, 145, 146, 162 
Genabti (see Genaba, Zenobian), 122, 

(Jenesis, Book of, 74, 105, 107, 115, 

121, 149, 159, 160, 161, 162, 

164, 194 


Genoa, Genoese, 168, 214 

George, St., 138 

Gerrha, 46 

Ghassanids, 6, 108 

Ghats, western, SO, 152, 196, 201, 

205, 211, 2i; 
Ghazipur, 187 

g/ii (see clarified butter), 177, 178 
Ghora Bari, 165 
Gibbon, 214 
Gilead, 121 
Gilgamesh, epic of, 134, 135, 139, 

163, 237 
ginger, 211, 213, 227, 273 
ginger-grass, 170, 25ft 
girdles, 24, 27, 42, 190 
Girnar, 249 

fizir, 25 
Jhser, D:-. Eduard, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
14, 51, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 
66, 68, 79, 80, 81, 85, 86, 87, 
94, 96, 102, 105, 106, 107, 
108, 109, 114, 115, 116, 119, 
128, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 
136, 140, 143, 144, 150, 151, 
158, 160, 164 

glass, 26, 28, 38, 45, 66, 68, 69, 220, 

glass, flint, 24, 25, 42 

Gnhii, 61 

Goa 'see Aegidii), 202, 203, 222 

Go«-sus, 63, 14", 150 

Goaphat point, ISl 

goats, 121, 130, 156, 224 

Gobi desert, 261 

Godaverl river, 195, 197, 224 

goddess, 46, 235, 236 

gods, 35, 49, 133, 191, 281, 282 

God's I^nd, 61, 113, 120, 132 

Golconda, 172, 224 

gold, 3, 4, 13, 24, 25, 31, 33, 36, 42, 
48, 57, 58, 61, 69, 75, 77, 78, 
99, 105, 113, 121, 122, 123, 
143, 149, 153, 160, 161, 175, 
191, 214, 219, 221, 223, 224, 
227, 238, 249, 252, 258, 259, 
265, 273, 276, 279, 280, 281 
ant-gold, 258 
embroideries, 212, 257, 273 

"golden bough" — mistletoe, 236 

Golenischef, W., 133 

Gondophares, 167, 185, 190, 2(10 

Goodchlld, W., 170, 171, 226 

Gospels, the, 213 

Glitz, W., 163, 268 

grar£, 37, 165 

Gr*-co-Bactrian coins. 184, 185 

Graen, 91 

grain, 31, 34, 61, 122, 176, 276 

grape, 75, 76, 157 
muscatel, 157 

Great Bear, the, 221 

Greece, 131, 132, 172, 190, 267 

Greek colonies, 4, 8 

(ireeks, 3, 34, 44, 51, 60, 75, 76, 78, 
82, 101, 108, 131, 132, 135,, 
160, 172, 180, 183, 190, 192, 
193, 195, 210, 236, 250, 253, 
264, 265, 277 
Byzantine, 201 
Egyptian, 106 
Syrian, 60 
Greek shipping, 89 

geographers, 189, 277 
literature, 238 
writers, 118 
Greenwich, 188 
Gregentius, St., 107 
griffins (see Tibetan gold), 259 
guano, 116 
Guardafui, 4, 6, 16, 63, 85, 86, 87, 

89, 101, 118 
Guillain, A., 97 
Guignes, de, 272 
Guinea coast, 75, 101 

gulf of, 99 
Gujarat, 70, 135, 167, 174, 175,176, 
177, 179, 196, 197, 201, 245, 
257, 261 
gum arable, 80, 217 
gums, 26, 33, 74, 77, 85, 164, 192, 
214, 218, 236 
classification of, 164 
Gundert, 234 
Gupta Empire, 188, 255 
Gurdaspur, 18 U 
Gyangtse, 279 

Habash, 9, 62, 68, 114, 116, 142 
Habashat, 62, 63, 64, 106, 117, 119, 

140, 146 
Hadramaut, 62, 63, 106, 107, 116, 

117, 118, 119, 126, 127, 129, 

130, 131, 133, 137, 142, 144, 

146, 154 
Hadramitic language, 104 
Hadrian, 220 
Haeckel, Ernst H., 168 
Hafa, 140, 141 
Haftalu, 162 

Haidarabad, 172, 196, 209 
Haig, Gen. M. R., 163, 272 
Hai-hsi-kuo, 275 
Haines, J. B., 142, 143 
Hakra canal, 174 
Hala, 199 
Halevy, 119 
Hall and Neal, 97 
Ham, 141 

Haini (Khamil), 261, 268 
Hammamat, 121 
hammo-nitrum^ 68 
Hammurabi, 7 
Handy, R. B., 71 
Han dynasty, 246, 262, 263 
annals, 269 
state, 261 
Hanfilah, Ras, 66 


Haiiuman, tl\e iiionkev-god, 230, 237 

Harkhuf, 61 

Harrar, 74, 75 

harvests, 58 

Hasik, 62 

hatchets, 28 

Hatshepsut, Queen, 73, 82, 113, 118, 

153, 158, 228 
Hauakil Bay, 66 

Haura, El — Auara, Leuke Kome, 101 
Havilah, land of, 3, 160, 161, 162, 

164, 194 
Ha2armaveth, 107, 119 
Hazin, El, 92 
Hbsti, 62 
Hebrews, 76, 122, 163, 164, 193, 260 

scriptures, 213, 228, 264 
Hecataeus, 92, 160, 189 
Hedin, Sven, 273 
hedyimata, 112 
Heeren, 216, 243, 257 
Heidelberp, 7 
Hejaz, 106, 129 
Heliocles, 185 

heliotropium (see bloodstone), 223 
hemp, 248, 263 
Henry II, 199 
Heracles, 238 
Herculaneum, 169 
Hercules, 125, 192, 259 

Pillars of, 279 
Herdman, Prof., 148 
Herod, 103 
Herod Antipas, 11 
Herodias, 11 
Herodotus, 60, 62, 71, 83, 84, 101, 

118, 123, 131, 134, 145, 153, 

162, 189, 213, 217, 254, 258, 

259, 279 
Herone, 39, 182 
Heroopolite Gulf, 68 
Hesiod, 253 
Heyd, W., 170, 268 
hibiscus, 73 
hides, 74 

Hien-yang (see Singanfu), 261, 262 
Hilprecht, Hermann V., 109, 130 
Himalayas, 81, 84, 151, 160, 169, 

179, 188, 216, 235, 253, 256, 

277, 279, 281 
Himyar, 63, 94, 105,'106, 107, 109, 

114, 119, 142 
Himvaritic langTiage, 104, 146, 148 

inscriptions, 116 
Hind, Sind and Zinj, 92, 248, 249 
Hindu Kush mountains, 164, 183, 

185, 189 
Hindu traders, 65, 88, 230 
Hindus, 253 
Hiong-nu, 185, 270 
Hippalus, 6, 8, 13, 45, 53, 212, 227, 

228, 229, 230, 232, 233 
Hipjjocrates, 82 

Hiram, King ot Tyre, 26 J 

Hirsch, L., 119 

Mirth, F., 128, 247, 263, 264, 275 

Hisn Ghorab, 116, 232 

Hitopadesa, 229 

Hoang-ho river, 165, 261 

Hogarth, D. G., 109, 119, 139, 143, 

Holdich, Sir Thomas Hungerford, 

151, 160, 161, 163, 171, 183, 

189, 273 
holm-oak, 73 
Homer, 69, 157, 159, 254 
Homerites (see Himyar), 63, 65, 96, 

116, 139, 140, 251 
Homerite Kingdom, 6, 10, 11, 30, 

51, 94, 104, 105, 106, 107, 

109, 115, 119 . 
Hommel, 51, 107, 108, 109, 119, 

120, 130, 134, 143 
Homna, 150 
Ho-nan, 262 

Honavar (see Naura), 204 
honey, 70, 74, 76, 81, 112, 169 
Horace, 217 
Hormus, Straits of, 150, 151, 155, 

163, 179, 252 
horn, 191 

Horn of Africa, 87, 218 
Horse-faces, 47, 254, 278 
horses, 13, 31, 33, 176, 191, 196 
Horus, 136 

Hou-han-shu, Chinese annals contem- 
porary with the Periplus, 275 
Hsen-wi, 273 
Hsi-ivang-mu, 277 
Hsi-yH, 269 
Huang-ti, 263, 276 
Hubli, 202 
Hue, Abbe, 272 
Hud, 142 
Hudson, 18 
Hughli river, 255 
Hultzsch, 209 
Hu-nan, 263 
Huns, 9 

White, 236 
Huntington, Ellsworth, 278 
hyacinthus, 222, 226, 250 
Hyctanis river, 221 
Hydreuma, 233 
hyenas, 43 
Hyksos dynasty, 58 
Hyrcania, 269, 277 

iaspis (see jasper^, 223 

ibis (protector of Egypt against in- 
cense-spirits in serpent form), 
131, 132 

Ibn Batuta, 74, 141, 203 

Ibn Khaldun, 116, 129, 142 

Ibn Mogawir, 107 

Hi river, 268 

Ili-azzu Jalit, 117 


images, 33, 127 

Imperial Gazetietr of India, 162, 181, 
183, 188, 190, 195, 196, 197, 
201, 202, 204, 205, 208, 209, 
210, 212, 234, 235, 237, 238, 
252, 255 

incense (see frankincense), 3, 1i>, 61, 
62, 63, 80, 82, 113, 120, 121, 
123, 124, 126, 128, 130, 133, 

136, 143, 144, 145, 169, 233 
house, 122 

ihmut (or anti), 113, 164 
sonter, 113 
Incense-Land, 63, 117, 118, 119, 121, 
122, 132, 133, 140, 142, 145, 

150, 271 
terraces, 228 

India, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 
29, 32, 36, 39, 40, 41, 45, 49, 
52, 63, 66, 70, 71, 75, 76, 77, 
78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 
88, 89, 90, 99, 101, 103, 104, 
105, 106, 109, 115, 118, 125, 
127, 128, 133, 134, 135, 136, 

137, 140, 142, 147, 148, 150, 

151, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157, 
160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 
170, 171, 173, 175, 176, 177, 
178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 
186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 192, 
194, 195, 196, 203, 204, 205, 
208, 209, 214, 217, 219, 221, 
222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 232, 
233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 
242, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 
254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 
261, 264, 265, 267, 270, 272, 
276, 279, 281 

sea-trade from, 63, 99 
southern extension of, 101 
Indian embassies, 63 
coinage, 193, 221 
empire, 189 
mountaineers, 255 
Indian Ocean, 6, 16, 50, 101, 130, 

137, 148, 164, 213, 230, 250 
Indian shipping, 63, 87, 88, 90, 115, 
213, 228 
nut, 154, 273 
traders, 228 
travellers, 115 
Indians, 34, 76, 135, 146, 161, 226, 

250, 254, 265 
indigo, 38, 172, 173 
Indo-Aryans, 70 
Indo-China, 235, 260, 261 
Indo-Parthia, 10, 166, 167, 176, 185, 

186, 200 
Indo-Scythia, 146, 165, 235 
Indore, 166, 180 

Indus (see Sinthus), 4, 8, 9, 146, 
147, 151, 153, 157, 165, 166, 
167, 170, 171, 172, 174, 176, 
177, 178, 180, 183, 184, 187, 

232, 251, 258, 269, 270, 272 
inflated rafts, 62 
inflated skins, 143, 145 
Intef, 121 
Ion, 192 
Irak, 249 
Irawadi river, 165 
Iri, 121 
iron, 13, 24, 25, 26, 69, 70, 71, 77, 

78, 111, 137, 151, 154, 155, 

156, 162, 171, 172, 202, 221, 

224, 225, 248 
bright, 70 
Indian, 70 
Isaiah, Book of, 102, 104, 123, 132, 

Ishmael, Ishmaelites, 102, 105, 106, 

Ishmaelite dialects, 104 
Isidore, 171 
Isidorus of Charax Spasini, 63, 140, 

149, 150, 270 
Isis, 86 

Islam, 7, 59, 105, 106, 146, 156 
Island of Birds (Orneon), 32, 116 
Ismenian Apollo, 132 
Israel, kingdom of, 58 
Israelites, 164 
Issus, Bay of, 269 
Isy, 61 

Italy, 24, 66, 70, 71, 77, 168, 190 
Itiopva^an, 62 
I-tsing, 213, 275 
ludadan, 159 
ivory, 4, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 

29, 42, 45, 47, 57, 58, 61, 74, 

88, 113, 121, 125, 153, 175, 

193, 253, 263, 276 
articles made of, 61 
sources of supply, 61 

Jabbalpur, 193 
jacinth, 226 

jade, jadeite, 223, 268, 276 
Jaigarh (see Melizigara), 201 
Janardan, temple of, 23 5 
Januar)', Ides of, 234 
Japan, 178 
Japhet, 163 
jars, 122 

jase, stitched ship, 155 
jasper, 233 
Jatayu, 226 
Jauf, 117 

Java, 127, 166, 174, 245, 248, 261 
Gujarat! immigration into, 245, 
Jaxartes river, 185, 268, 277 
Jebel Akhdar, 148 
Jebel Gara, 140 
Jebel Haima, 85 
Jebel Kamar, 140 
Jebel Muriyeh, 85 
Jebel Samhan, 146 


Jebel Sibi, 148 
Jebel Tair, 106 
Jelap-La, 279 
Jeniiba, Genaba, 118 
Jerah, 107, 108 
jeraki'm Kome, 107 
Jerusalem, 11, 67, 102, 103, 122 
jewelrv, 66, 219, 223, 224, 225, 277 
Jfivs, 205 
Jezebel, 192 

jhelum, Jihlam, 180, 184 
Jih-nan (see Anam), 276 
itnni, 131, 132, 133, 141, 237 
]oao I, King of Portugal, 75 
job. Book of, 104, 136 
Jobab, 159 
John, Gospel of, 114 
Johnston, R. F. , 273 
Joktan, Joktanites, 74, 107, 108, 109, 

115, 132, 142, 145, 148, 149, 

159, 160, 161 
Josephus, 11, 59, 71, 102, 103, 159, 

]o-shai^ 111 
Jove, 132 
Juba II, King of Mauretania, 10, 86, 

149, 150 
Judica, 11, 102," 108 
Judaism, 107 

Judges, Book of, ](12, 131 
juice of sour grapes (omphacium), 

25, 75 
Julien, Stanislaus, 176, 269 
Juliopolis, 232 
Julius Ca?sar, 103 
Julius Maternus, 98 
July, 27 

Jumna river, 167, 185 
junks, 214, 246, 247, 248 
Jupiter Ammon, 111 
Justin, 159, 189 
Justinian, 172, 267 

Kaber ' Chaberis emporion), 251 

Kachana, 187 

Kachh (see Cutch), 160, 175, 180 

Kadalundi (see TyndisI, 204 

Kadapa, 224 

Kadphises, 9, 166, 186, 187, 263 

Kahtan, 107, 142 

Kailas, sacred peak of, 272, 282 

Kalat, 147 

Kalhat, 147, 237 

xKalidasj, 229, 242, 25 5 

Kalvana 'see Calliena', 197 

Kamar Bav, 139 

Kiinipfer, 157 

Kanara, 80, 202, 2ll^ 204 

K''iiu'ho\\', 268 

Kandahar, 183 

Kane inipunoii, 116 

Kanishka, 235, 236 

kankiini'in (Indian copal), 80 

K:inkas, 257 

Kan Ying, Chinese ambassador to 

Roman Empire, 275 
Kaotsou, 262 
Karachi, 165, 166 
Karague, 88 

Kariba-il Watar Juhan'im, 107 
Kariba-ils of Zafar, 109 
Karikal, 242 
Karli, 235 
Kama, 105, 107 
Karnak, 68 
Karnul, 224 
Karteia, 147 
Karun river, 149 
Karuvur, Karoura, 205, 208, 215 
Karwar (see Chersonesus), 202, 208 
Kashgar, 186, 268, 269, 270, 272 
Kashi = Kashu, Kissioi, Khuzistan, 

Kachh, 134 
Kashmir, 168, 169, 171, 189, 257 
Kashta, 162 
Kassites, 134, 175 
Kasyapamata (see Caspapyra) 
Kasyapa Matanga, 275 
Kataban, 63, 94, 96, 106, 132 
Katan, El, 107, 150, 151 
Katar, El, 150, 162, 163 
Kathiawar, 10, 70, 167, 175, 176, 180 
KaverT river, 242 
Kavya, Kiratarjuniya, 254 
Kay, 116, 129, 142 
Kayal, Coil, 237 
Keane, A. H., 272 
Kej, 162 
kelek, 126 
Kemp, 273 
Kennedy, 227 
Kenrick, 70 
Kerala, Keralaputra (see Chera), 204, 

215, 208 
Kerman, 70 
kermes-berry, 73 
Kesmacoran, 162 
Keti, 165 

Ke-vaddha Sulfa of Digfia, 229 
Kharachar, 186, 268 
KharosthT alphabet, 210 
Khartum, 57, 59 
Khasia Hills, 194 
Khenzer, 158 
khesyt wood, 1 1 j 
Khnumhotep II, 192 
Khorassan, 170, 249 
Khor ed Duan, 150 
Khor Reiri, 140 
Khotan, 9, 186, 263, 268, 270 
Khuzistan, 175 
Khyber Pass, 190, 270 
Kielhom, F., 209 
Kilwa, 94 
Kimberley, 118 
King-chou (see Hu-nan), 263 
Kings, Book of, 102, 123, 131, 160, 

161, 175, 192, 193 


Kingsmill, 273 

Kirata (sec Cirrliadie), 253, 254 

Kissin, 139 

Kistna river, 195, 197, 224, 25? 

Knft, 52 

Koliaito (Coloe), 60, 61 

K6h-i-mubarak, 148 

kohl, 192 

Koko-Nor, 272, 279 

Konkan, 197, 198, 200, 201, 203, 

204, 205 
Koran, the, 108, 237 
Koreish, 107 
Korkai (Kolkai), Colchi, 209, 211, 

Kosala, 188 
kotias, 91 

Kottayam (see Nelcvnda), 208, 211 
Krapf, 75 
Krishna, 201 

the Great (the Nile), 230 
Kropotkin, 278 
Kshaharata line, 198 
Kshatrapa dynasty, 188, 197, 198, 

coinage, 192 
Kuche, 166, 186, 268 
Kuen-lun mountains, 269 
Kuki-Chin, 255, 278 
Kuldja, 268 
Kulhi, 151 
Kumbakonam, 242 
Kuria Muria, 14, 61, 62, 118, 119, 

127, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150 
Kurukshetra, Kurus, 281, 282 
Kuni'mbar, 244 
Kuryat, 174 
Kushan kingdom, 8, 9, 138, 167, 

194, 197, 275 
coinage, 187, 192 
Kwang Vouti, 263 
hp/ii, 113 

lac, 24, 73, 80 

Laconia, 156 

Lacouperie, Terrien de, 273 

ladanum, 112 

Lamu, 88, 98 

lances, 28 

I^anchowfu, 268, 272 

Landon, 273 

Lansdell, Henry, 170, 270 

Laodicea, 24, 77 

lapis-lazuli, 38, 122, 170, 221, 223, 

Lares, 191 

La Roque, 139 

Las Bela, 163 

laser, 178 

Lassen, Prof. Chr., 78, 81, 84, 89, 
99, 152, 163, 164, 169, 171, 
174, 175, 177, 182, 184, 188, 
189, 193, 197, 201, 213, 217, 
223, 229, 242, 243, 249, 253, 

254, 266, 272, 273, 279 
Latakia, 77 

Latica or Larica, 174, 175 
laurel-grove, 26, 85 
laurel in chaplets, 191, 216, 264 
laurels (in Somaliland), 87 
Layard, 127 

lead, 42, 45, 70, 77, 78, 114, 190, 
193, 220, 221 

leadstone, 225 

red, 151 
Lee, Henry, 258 
Leghorn, 168 
Lei-tsu, 263 
lemons, 179 
lemon-grass, 265 
Lenormant, and Chevalier, 143 
lentil, 256 
Leonidas, 123 
leopards, 43 
Lepsius, 136, 158 
Lesser Bear, 48, 277 
Letourneau, 268 
Leuke Kom'e, 101, 103 
Levant, the, 267 
Leviticus, Book of, 122 
Lhasa, 272 

Libya, 29, 61, 69, 279 
Lichien (see Ta-ts'in), 275 
licorice, 157 

Li-kan (see Rekam = Petra), 128 
lilies, 112 
limes, 141 

Limyrica (see Damirica), 205 
Lindsav, 217, 268 

linen, 23, 37, 45, 68, 122, 124, 192, 

figured, 167 
Linschoten, 84 
linseed, 190 
lion, 236, 277 
Lion, Watchpc},st of, 86 
Lisbon, 228 
Littledale, 273 
Little Nile River, 26, 84, 86 
Liu-sha, 277 
lizards, 34, 136 
loadstone, 155 

Locust-eaters ( Acridophagi), 56 
Lollia Paulina, 240 
LoUius, Marcus, 240 
London, 7 

Long-faces, <7, 254, 278 
Lop Nor, 268, 270 
lotus, 112 
Louis, 279 
l.oventhal, 209 
Lo-yang, 262 

road from, to Singanfu, 262. 
Lubim, CO 
Lucan, HI, 265 
Ludolfus, 133 
Lusitania, 190 
lychnis (see tiiirmatine ), 22". 


Ivriuin, 38, 42, 169 
Lydians, 132, 192 
LyTie, R. N., 92 

Maabar, 241, 248, 249 

Maaden, 170 

Macedonia, 123, 131, 161, 180 

Xffichin, 248 

macir, 25, 80, 81 

Maciver, Dr. David Randall, 97 

Mat-kinder, 278 

Madajjascar, 88, 94, 101, 137, 252, 271 

jnadarata^ 36, 153 

Madhvamika, 180, 184 

Madras, 220, 242, 244 

Museum, Roman coins in, 220 
Madura, Modiera, 211, 234, 238, 241 
Mieotis, Lake, 48, 277, 278 
Maes, a Macedonian silk-merchant, 

269, 270 
ma^luy 26 
Maliabkarata, 174, 197, 236, 238, 

253, 254, 257, 264, 281 
MahanadT rivei, 152, 224, 253 
Ma/ia-zrii^i^a, 2 1 3 
Mahendragiri, 237 
Miihi ri\er, (see Mai.s 
Mahra, 62, 130, 139, 142, 146, 148 
maidens for the harem, 42 
Mai^ river, 39, 182 
Makalla, 117 

Makran, 144, 150, 151, 162, 163 
Makrizi, 142, 143 
Malabar, 6, 81, 84, 88, 155, 175, 

201, 203, 2(14, 205, 208, 210, 

212, 213, 214, 217, 221, 222, 

226, 227, 228, 232, 241, 243, 

259, 267 
malabathrum, 6, 44, 45, 47, 84, 89, 

112, 216, 217, 256, 279, 281 
method of preparation and sale, 

Malacca, 227, 228, 241, 246, 259, 260 
malachite, 122 
Malacca, 78, 84 
MaLio, 25, 79, 80, 81, 83 
Malay Peninsula, 260 
Malaya-^nri (see Melizigara), 201 
Malavalani, 204, 234 
Malchus (Malik), 11, 103 
Male, 201, 251 

Male and Female Islands, 144-6 
Malichas, 11, 29, 103, 200 
Malik, 109 

Malindi ( Melinde), 88 
Malli, 70 

mallow-cloth, 24, 42, 43, 73, 194 
Maltzan, H. von, 119, 127 
Mah'an, Maha-Iavana (see Auranno- 

b.u^l, 202 
Malwa, 167, 187, 188, 197 
Mambarus (see Nambanusi, 197, 

198, 200 

Manar, Gulf of, 148, 156, 210, 222, 

230, 239, 241 
Manchester, 257 
Manchuria, 118 
Mandagora, 43, 201 
Mandalaka, 199 

Mandara-giri (see Mandagora), 201 
Mandavi, 91, 173 
"Mandeville, Sir John," 155, 163, 

215, 226 
Manes, 166, 191 
Mangalore, 203, 205 
manganese, 68 

Mangarouth (see Mangalore), 251 
Manifold, 272 
Manillas, the, 252 
manna, 164 
Mansuriyah, 166 

mantles, linen, double-fringed, 24 
Manu, Laws of, 71, 229, 256, 257, 

Manzi, 227 
Mapharitis, Ma'afir, 28, 30, 34, 106, 

107, 109 
Marallo (Camara?), 251 
yiarasid-al-lttita ', 144 
Maratha, 175, 202 
Marbodeus, 171 
Marcus Aurelius, 70, 186 
Mardi, 277 

Marduk, 138 

Mariaba, Marib, 4, 10, 97, 105, 107, 

108, 109, 119 
marigold. 111 

Marinus of Txre, 228, 260, 269 

marjoram, 112 

Mark, Gospel of, 114, 189 

Markinda, 196 

marten, 257 

Martial, 167 

marura, 112 

Masala, 106, 114, 115 

Masai ia < Maisolia, Mausala), 47. 

Mashonaland, 90 
Mashii, land of, 134 
Masira I Moseira, Sarapis), 14, 62, 119, 

126, 146, 147, 154, 163, 267 
Maspero, G., 146 
Massilia, 78 
Massowa, 60, 99 
mastich, 112 
Mas'udi, 66, 164, 247 
masula boats (see Andhra coinage), 

Masulipatam, 196, 252 
Matarem, 245 
matib (see zennar), (baptismal cord), 

Mathura, 184, 270 
Matthew, Gospel of, 123 
matting, 280 
Mauch, Carl, 96 
Maurice, 139 


Mauryu Empire, 188, 195, 197, 204, 

235, 236, 270 
Mauza, 106 
Mayr, 268 
McCrindle, 20, 69, 72, 73, 85, 112, 

151, 152, 178, 180, 183, 200, 

201, 202, 216, 226, 242, 249, 

252, 258, 259, 279 
Mecca, 107, 252 
Mechir, 234 

Medes, empire of, 50-1, 132 
Media, 164, 170, 269 
medicine. 111, 113, 169, 170, 172, 

173, 178, 190, 192, 195, 213 
Mediterranean, 3, 4, 5, 77, 84, 101, 

105, 112, 115, 126, 127, 128, 

136, 138, 151, 158, 159, 168, 

172, 176, 178, 193, 223, 230, 

234, 264 
Megasthenes, 212, 254, 255 
Meghna, 255 
Mekong river, 165 
Melibar (see Malabar), 273 
melilote, 190 
Melinde, 179 

Melizigara, Melizegyris, 43, 201 
Memphis, 3 
Menamah, 156 
Menander, 42, 184, 185, 187 
Menilek, 67 
Meninx, 156 
Menon, Shanguni, 209 

K. P. Padmanabha, 209, 212, 221 
Mentuhotep IV, 121 
Menuthias, 28, 94 
mercury, 77, 7S, 137 
Mercury, passage of, 136 
Merneptah, 122 
Mernere, 91, 153, 158 
Merodach-Baladan, 123, 149, 160 
Meroe, 10, 12, 15, 22, 56, 57, 58, 

59, 60, 61, 132 
Cushite kings in, 60 
Merv ( see Antiochia Margiana ), 

268, 269 
Merzbacher, 272 
Mesopotamia, 6, 58, 70, 157, 172, 

176, 177, 269 
Messalum, 114 

metopion (oil of bitter almonds), 112 
Meyer, Dr. Eduard, 60 
Midian, 123 
Midnapur, 257 
Mijertain country, 87 
Miles, Gen. S. B., 145, 147, 148, 

151, 230, 237 
Miletus, 123, 167 
Milinda, Questions of, 185 
military cloaks, 24 
milk, 123, 130, 192 
Millburn, 84 
millets, 178, 179 
Milton, John, 143 

mimosa, 141 

Minasa, 58, 107, 109, 115, 119, 125, 

Min«ans, 104, 105, 108 
their language, 104 
Jauf, 117 
Mingti, 263, 275 
Minibar (see Malabar), 215 
Minnagara, 8, 37, 39, 165, 166, 180 
Minos of Crete, 105 
mint, 213 

mirrors, 70, 220, 221 
Mitra, Rajendralala, 220, 221, 224, 

246, 253, 256 
Mocha, 85, 106, 107, 14' 
mocrotUf 26, 81 
Mogdishu (Makdashu, Magadoxo), 

74, 88, 92 
Mogul monarchs, 189 
Mohammarah, 149 
Mohammed, 7, 131 
Mohammedan conquests, 63, 96, 98 

travellers, 200 
Mokwanpur, 253 

OTo/of^zn^ = mallow cloth, 73, 179 
Mombasa, 94 
monach'e, 24, 27, 72, 179 
Monfiyeh, 94 
Mongolia, 253, 267, 272 
monkeys, 113, 121, 230, 237 
Monomotapa, Kingdom of, 97, 98 
Monophysite Christianity, 57, 64 
monsoon, 6, 145, 173, 230, 232, 233, 

Montu, 121 
Monze, Cape, 161 
Moon, Mountains of, 87, 88 
country of, 88, 230 
lake of, 88 

men of, 88 (Wanyamuezi) 
moringa, 113 
Morocco, 168, 192 
Morse, H. B., 263 
Morung, 253 

Moscha, 35, 140, 143, 146 
Moselle, 77 
Moses, 59, 171 
Mosyllum, 10, 26, 63, 81, 82, 83, 

85, 86, 101, 104, 218 
moto^ 26, 27 

Mountain Island [Orine), 23 
Mount Zion, 118 
Movers, F. C, 71, 79, 15 8, 160 
Mozambique, 143, 179 
MrichchhakatikTi, the, 221, 223, 257 
Mugheir, 152 
Muhammad Kazim, 259 
Mukabber, El, 150 
Mukharji, T. N., 258 
mulberry, 76, 152, 263, 264 
Mullah, the, 87 
Miiller, C, 19, 67, 70, 81, 84, 86, 106,, 

107, 114, 115, 116, 143, 147,, 


Miiller, C, — continued. 

151, 163, 171, 180, 181, 201, 
202, 242 
Miiller, D. H., 97, 109 
Mundiis, 25, 26, 81 
murrhine (glass). (See agate, car- 
nelian),24, 68, 193, 194, 223 
Muscat (Maskat), 80, 88, 91, 96, 

139, 142, 143, 147, 151 
musical instruments, with silk threads, 

muslins, 3, 24, 31, 42, 43, 47, 165, 
172, 202 
Argaritic, 46, 242 
Gangetic, 47, 256-8 
Mussel Harbor (Myos Hormos), 22, 

29, 52, 101, 103 
Muyiri-kotta (see Muziris), 205 
Muza, 25, 28, 30, 33, 34, 94, 104, 

106, 109, 114, 115, 116, 233 
Muziris, 44, 128, 203, 204, 205, 208, 

212, 233 
Myozasus, 50 
myrobalanus, 112 

mvrrh, 4, 25, 26, 31, 57, 62, 77, 78, 
80, 86, 87, 102, 105, 112, 113, 
114, 116, 120, 122, 123, 132, 
139, 145, 164, 165, 169, 214, 
217, 218, 236 
aromatic, 113 
Ausaritic, 113 114 
collatitia, 113 
cultivated, 113 
Dianitic, 113 
Erythraean, 113 
Gebanite, 113 
Minsan, 113 
odoraria, 113 
Sabasan, 113 
Sambracenian, 113 
stacte, 113, 
Troglodytic, 113 
white, 113 
myrrh-country, 57 
iiivrtle, 112 
Mysore, 152, 257, 259 
mysteries, Dionysiac, 132 

Nabatjean TroglodytiE, 80 
Nabatasans, 11, 29, 51, 60, 80, 102, 

103, 104, 109, 200 
their import duty, 29, 104 
Nabatu, 60, 102 
Xabonidus, 152, 227 
Naga, 278 

Nagar Parkar, 166, 173 
Kagarl, 180, 184 
nagas (see serpents), 250, 281 
Nahapana (see Nambanus), 175, 198, 

199, 200 
Nahum, 58, 69 
nails, 155, 156 
Nalopatana ( Xelrynda), 251 

Nambanus (see Nahapana), 39, 175, 

197, 198 
Nammadus river (see Narbada), 30, 

Naii-lu, or "Northern Way" across 

Turkestan, 268, 269, 270 
Nan-shan (see Kuen-lun), 269 
Nan-tau, 269 
Napata, 12, 58, 59, 78 
Naples, 77, 168 
Narbada river (see Nammadus), 152, 

153, 181, 182, 193 
nard, 38, 111, 112, 169, 170, 188, 

189, 191, 214, 217, 265 
nature-worship, 138 
Naura, 44, 203, 204 
Navarrete, 55 
Naville, 120, 218 
Nearchus, 162 
Nebaioth, 60, 102 
Nebuchadrezzar, 7 
Necho, Pharaoh, 101 
negroes, 97, 98, 194 
"negro-land," 153, 158 
Nehemiah, Book nf, 122 
Nejran, 117 
Nelcynda, i Neacyndi, Melkynda),44, 

203, 205, 207, 208, 211, 215, 

233, 234, 236, 237, 254, 256, 

Nellore, 248 
Nepal, 151, 194, 253, 257, 272, 279, 

Nergal, 134 
Nero, 12, 14, 59, 109, 194, 204, 219, 

220, 237 
Nerva, 220 
Nicomedia, 220 
Nicon, 27, 92 
Niebuhr, Carsten, 107, 130 
Nile, 3, 4, 15, 16, 23, 47, 51, 52, 56, 

57, 58, 59, 60, 68, 75, 98, 99, 

103, 117, 118, 120, 146, 153, 

158, 213, 228, 230, 232, 265 
sources, Indian knowledge of, 230 
Nlleshwar, 205 
Nimrod, 134, 163 
Nimrud Inscription, 123, 149 
Nineveh, 127 
Nisaea, 170 
Nishapur, 170 
Nitocris, Stela of, 158 
Nitran, Nitrias, Nitra ( see White 

Island), 203, 233 
nitre, 68 

Nizam's dominions, 197 
Noah, 76, 163 
No-Amon, 69 
Noel, 268 
Nogal Valley, 219 
nomads, 29, 30, 32 
North India, 152, 163, 187, 195, 197, 

199, 210, 235, 238, 258, 263, 



Nubia, 12, 15, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 

61, 62, 134 
Numbers, Book of, 78, 164 
Nundo Lai Dey, 201 
Nyaiiza lakes, 57, 87, 88, 99 
Nyassa, Lake, 88, 99 

Oannes, 159 

Obadlah, 102 

Obal, 74, 149 

Obollah (Apologus, Ubulu), 4, 74, 

obsidian, 66 

ocean-stream, 92, 251, 277, 278 
ocean, unexplored, 29, 101 
Ocelis, 25, 31, 32, 65, 83, 89, 107, 

114, 115, 147, 233 
ochre, red, 137 
O'Connor, 279 

Odoric, Friar, 155, 208, 215, 249 
Odras, 253 
cenanthe, 112 
oil, 4, 13, 122, 216 
ointments, 13, 31, 42, 82, 110, 111, 

112, 113, 114, 130, 169, 170, 

189, 191, 192, 217, 239, 265 
Old Testament, 237 
olive, 75, 77 

olive oil, 24, 34, 75, 169, 177 
Olok, 86 
Olympia, 54 
Olympus, 282 
Oman, 112, 129, 130, 142, 144, 145, 

147, 148, 150, 151, 157, 161, 

230, 237 
Omana, 34, 129, 139, 140, 150 
Omanites, 63, 140, 150 
Ommana, 32, 36, 71, 150, 151, 153, 

160, 161, 164 
Ommano, river, 150 
omphacium, 75, 76, 112 
Omphale, 192 
ondaniqite^ 70 

Oneslcritus, 115, 161, 178, 249 
onycha, 122 

onvx stone, 3, 193, 194, 223, 225 
opal, 223 
Ophiodes, 167 

Ophir, 97, 151, 160, 161, 175, 260 
supposed location in East Africa, 

opium, 215 
opobalsamum, 112 
Opone, 27, 83, 87, 90, 135 
Oppert, 78, 177 
Oppidum Saax, 62, 63 
opsian stone, 23, 66 

Bay of, 66 
Ora, 161, 162 
Orasa, 37, 161 

oreichalch (aurichalcum), 69, 78 
Orenburg, 171 
orgies, Dionysiac, 132-3 
Orissa, 253 

Oritas, Ori, 161, 162, 164, 221 

Ormes (see Hormus), 155 

Orotal = Dionysus, 132 

orpiment, 45, 191, 221 

Orrhotha, 251 

Osiris, 76, 132, 133, 146 

Osor-hapi (Serapis), 146 

Ostia, harbor-works at, 220 

ostrich feathers, 4, 57 

Oudh, 242 

oxen, 58, 158, 196 

Oxford, 153 

ox-gall, 169 

Oxus river, 186, 268, 269, 277 

OxyJracas, 70 

Oyster Rocks (see Casnitas), 202 

Ozene, 42, 187, 270 

ozcenttis (see spikenard), 256 

Pa-anch, Island of, 87, 133, 135, 162, 

packs, 48, 281 
Pacorus, 103 
Pactyan land, 189 
Padasans (see Cannibals : Purushada ) , 

254, 255 
Paethana, 43, 195, 196, 199 
pagoda, Buddhist: Abyssinian, 64 

Chinese, 274 

Hindu, 65 
Pahang, 259 
Pahlavas, 235 
paint, 221 

Paithan, 195, 196, 199, 200 
Palajpatmas, 43, 201 
Palaisimundu, 47, 249 
Palestine, 71, 102, 122, 159 
Palibothra (see Pataliputra), 270 
Palk strait, 241 

Pallava dynasties, 167, 2;i4, 244 
palm-leaves, 35 
palm-oil, 29, 99 

fiber, 154 

trees, 130 
Palmyra, 4, 6, 101, 103 
Pamirs, 166, 268, 269, 270, 273, 281 
Pamphile, 264 
Panama, Bay of, 183 
panax, 112 

Panchaia, 87, 135, 136, 271 
Panchao, 9, 11^ 166, 186, 263, 268 
Pandaea (see Pandya), 238 
Pandian kingdom (see Pandya: Pan- 

dion), 44, 46, 211, 233 
Pandian, J. B., 209 
Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji, 175. 200 
Pandu, Pandava, 238, 253 
Pandya, 195, 197, 204, 205, 207, 208, 
211, 237, 238, 241, 242, 255, 
Pangani, 94 
Panjab, 153, 166, 167, 170, 172, 183, 

185, 187, 270 
Panna, 224 


Pano, 27, 87, 135 

panthers, 61 

panther skins, 57, 113, 121 

Paphos, 123 

Papica, 39, 40, 181 

papyrus, 111 

Papyrus Harris, 61, 77, 122, 158 

Paralia, 46, 47, 234 

Paripatana (see Palaspatmae ) , 201 

Park, Mungo, 89, 90 

Parker, E, H., 263 

Paropanisene, Paropanisus (see Hindu 

Kush), 42, 189 
Parsees, 127 
Parsidae, 36, 161 
Parsis, 163 

Parthia, 5, 6, 8, 14, 16, 63, 65, 70, 
103, 117, 119, 127, 139, 140, 
146, 147, 149, 150, 151, 161, 
166, 171, 172, 184, 185, 187, 
194, 198, 235, 269, 270, 276, 
Parthian kings, chronological list of, 

Parthian princes, 37, 166, 167, 185, 
kings, 112 
Parti, 251 _ 
Parur, Paravur (see Karuvur, Muzi- 

ris), 205, 208, 215 
Pasargadae, 50-1 
Patala, 166, 232 
Pataliputra (Patna), 184, 185 236, 

Patras, 71 

Patta, Manda and Lamu, 94 
Pausanias, 62, 71, 132, 143, 145, 146, 

Pausias, 191 
Pauthier, 144 
peacocks, 61, 175 

pearls, 6, 13, 36, 45, 46, 47, 74, 123, 
148, 151, 156, 164, 168, 210, 
221, 222, 223, 224, 239, 240, 
241, 249, 256 
pearl-mussel, 148 

-fisheries, 239, 240, 241 
Pegu, 252 

Pei-lu, 268, 269, 270 
P'ei-ikan (see Tian-shan), 269 
P'ei-tau, 269 
Peking, 272 
Pemba, 94 
Penner river, 241 
Pepi II, 121 

pepper, 6, 44, 45, 169, 192, 195, 202, 
204, 205, 210, 211, 213, 214, 
215, 216, 225, 227, 234, 241, 
248, 250, 251, 251, 273 
long, 42, 142, 194, 195, 213 
peratikos, 75 

perfume, 110, 111, 113, 114, 122, 
124, 143, 169, 170, 190, 217, 
233, 270 

Perim, 114, 115 

Periplus of the Erythrasan Sea, 3, 7, 
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 62, 
63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 
73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 83, 86, 
89, 92, 94, 96, 97, 101, 103, 
105, 106, 108, 109, 114, 115, 
116, 117, 119, 121, 124, 128, 
129, 130, 132, 135, 138, 140, 
143, 144, 146, 147, 149, 15o, 
152, 153, 154, 156, 160, 161, 
165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 
172, 174, 176, 178, 179, 180, 
181, 184, 185, 188, 189, 191, 
194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 
204, 205, 207, 208, 209, 211, 
216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 
226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 234, 
236, 237, 238, 241, 242, 250, 
252, 255, 258, 260, 261, 265, 
266, 269, 270, 272, 274, 275, 
278, 279, 282 
Periplus, date and authorship of, 7-36, 
197-200, 290-3 
articles of trade mentioned in, 

bibliography of, 17-21 
distances in, 54-5 
meaning of, 50 
rulers mentioned in, 294 
text of, 22-49 
Periyar river, 205 

Persia, 14, 16, 32, 35, 37, 59, 70, 84, 
96, 118, 123, 127, 147, 150, 
153, 160, 161, 170, 172, 176, 
183, 189, 191, 192, 223, 250, 
251, 256, 264, 267 
Persian Empire, 123, 213 

embassy to the Deccan, 248 
sea-trade from China, 84 
Persian Gulf, 3, 4, 14, 16, 35, 36, 
50, 58, 71, 74, 77, 87, 101, 
107, 136, 140, 148, 149, 150, 
151, 152, 153, 155, 159, 160, 
162, 163, 164, 175, 191, 194, 
201, 209, 213, 221, 222, 230, 
249, 251 
Persians, 51, 63, 70, 112, 116, 132, 
162, 213, 247, 250, 251, 252, 
Perthes, Justus, 206 
Peshavfar, 183, 184 
Petenikas, 195 

Petra, 4, 6, 29, 101, 102, 103, 109, 
in Chinese annals, 128 
Romans at, 102 
>f/?7 ("fibers," should be /a^a, leaf), 

48, 281 
Petrie, Flinders, 102 
Petronius, 12, 15, 59, 77, 194 
Peucelaotis (see Poclais), 184, 270 
Peutinger Tables, 204, 206, 208 
pewter, 78 


Pharaohs, 3, 4, 120, 121, 162 

Philic, 59 

Philip, 11 

Philostratus of Lemnos, 69 

Phoenicia, 68, 103, 160 

Phoenicians, 3, 4, 68, 71, 77, 78, 83, 
87, 97, 131, 132, 135, 147, 
158, 159, 160, 164, 170, 210,' 
expedition around Africa, 101 

phoenix, 135-6, 158 

phoinix, 158 

Phrygians, 132 

Piankhi, 162 

Piers Plo^wman^ 215 

Pigeon Island (see White Island), 203 

pigmies and cranes, 254 

pine, 80, 111 

Ping-chou (see Shan-si), 263 

Piram island (see Basonesj, 181 

pirates, 44, 202, 203, 204, 232, 233 

Pirmed Hills, 208 

Pitalkhara caves, 195 

plate, gold and silver, 24, 26, 38 

Plates, 264 

Pliny,' 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 61, 62, 
66, 68, 69, 71, 72, 76, 78, 80, 

81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 90, 101, 

105, 106, 108, 111, 112, 113, 

114, 115, 118, 120, 123, 124, 
126, 133, 135, 137, 138, 144, 
145, 147, 149, 150, 151, 153, 
156, 158, 160, 161, 164, 167, 
168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 178, 
179, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 
194, 195, 201, 203, 205, 208, 
209, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 
220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 
227, 232, 237, 238, 239, 240, 
249, 253, 256, 258, 259, 260, 
264, 265, 281 

Plutarch, 123, 133, 146, 189 

Poclais, 41, 42, 183 

Poduca, 46, 242 

Poen, 62, 159, 162 

Pckomo language, in E. Africa, 98 

Pollux, 71 

Polo, Marco, 3, 66, 70, 84, 92, 99, 

115, 120, 129, 135, 140, 143, 
144, 145, 146, 154, 155, 157, 
162, 170, 173, 179, 202, 203, 
214, 221, 225, 227, 235, 237, 
240, 241, 247, 248, 249, 270, 
273, 281 

Polumbum (see Quilon), 215 
pomegranite, 112 
Pompeii, 169 

Pompey the Great, 153, 194 
Pomponius Mela, his map of the 
world, 100, 101, 252, 277, 281 
Pondicherry (see Poduca), 242 
Ponnani (see Tyndis), 284, 205 
Pontus, 48 

Poppsea (Sabina), 14, 123, 237 

Porakad (see Bacare), 211, 212 

porcelain, 225 

Porebandar, 91 

Port Sudan, 60 

Porphyry, 139 

Portugal, 66, 227 

Portuguese, 75, 81, 101, 202, 204, 

212, 214, 215, 222, 241 
Porus, 69, 180 
Prasum, 94 
precious stones, 3, 4, 13, 105, 122, 

123, 149, 168, 175, 221, 222, 

223, 225, 227, 229, 249, 256, 

257, 276 
"sham curiosities" for Chinese 

trade, 277 
Prester John, 267 
Priscian, 159 

Pritchett, R. T., 53, 246 
Prjevalski, 273 
Proverbs, Book of, 82 
Psalms, Book of, 82 
Psammetichus (Psamtik) II, 58, 158 
Pseudo-Callisthenes, 279 
Psygmus, 86 
Ptah, 61 
Ptolemais of the Hunts {Ptolemais 

Theron), 22, 5 2, 60 
Ptolemies, the, 4, 5, 22, 51, 59, 63, 

68, 84, 89, 102, 103, 108, 135, 

167, 2(3 
Ptolemy Euergetes, 60, 63, 82 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, 51, 52, 60,68 
Ptolemy (the geographer), 7, 55, 94, 

97, 101, 105, 106, 107, 116, 

118, 129, 133, 140, 141, 143, 

150, 162, 163, 175, 182, 188, 

200, 201, 203, 205, 208, 211, 

212, 228, 242, 249, 253, 256, 

259, 260, 266, 269, 272, 273, 

278, 279 
Pudapatana (Poduca?), 251 
Pukkalaoti (see Poclais), 184 
Pulikat, 242 
pulse, 178 
Pulumayi II, 195 
Puni (Phoenicians), 87, 135 
Punt Expedition, 52, 80, 143, 159, 

228, 245, 271 
Punt, Land of, 61, 73, 78, 82, 83, 

86, 113, 121, 122, 135, 142, 

143, 144, 153 
Punt-people, 62, 120, 218 

reliefs, 120, 164, 218, 272 
Purali (see Paralia, Travancore ) , 234 
Purali River, 105, 161 
Puranas, 198, 199, 200,^202, 230, 236, 

Matsya, 199 
yara Sanhiia, 254, 255 
Vayu, 199 

Fishnu, 174, 253, 254 
Purindrasena, 199 


purple, 13, 36, 73, 156, 157 

Tyrian, 145 
Pushkala, 238 
Pushkalavati (see Porlai^), 183, 184, 

Put, 69 

Pj-ralas Islands and channel, 28, 94 
Pyramids, 76, 261 
Pyrrhon mountain, 46, 234 
P>'thange!us, 86 

quartz, quartzose, 223, 224 
Querimbo Islands, 88 
quicksilver, 137, 215 
Quilon, 211, 248 

Raamah, 105, 159, 161, 162 

radix ChinrE^ 157 

Raffles, Sir Stamford, 245 

Rafizah sect, 74 

rafts, 25, 32, 50, 126, 127 

Raghu, 242 

Raidan, 109, 119 

Rajapur (see Melizigarai, 2ill, 215 

Rajpipla, State of, 193 

Rajput pilots, 75 

Rajputana, 151, 223 

Raksha Ravana, 226, 237, 249 

Rama, 230, 237, 242 

Ramanuja, 257 

Ramayana, 174, 226, 230, 234, 236, 

237, 238, 249, 250, 253, 257, 

264, 281, 282 
Rameses II, 122 

Rameses III, 58, 61, 78, 122, 158 
Ramusio, 17 

Rann of Cutch, 135, 166, 173, 174 
Rapson, E. J., 192, 200, 244 
Ras Asir, 85 
Ras Aswad, 92 
Ras Binna, 86 
Ras Chenarif, 86 
Ras el Fil, or Filuk, 85, 86 
Ras el Hadd, 117, 118, 127, 147 
Ras el Kelb, 129 
Ra^ el Khvma, 91 
Ras el Kyi, 92 
Ras el Sair, 115 

Ras Fartak, 117, 129, 133, 140, 232 
Ras Hadadeh, 85 
Ras Hafun, 87 
Ras Hantara, 81, 82, 85 
Ras Hasik, 129, 140, 146 
Ras Khamzir, 81, 85 
Ras Mirbat, 140 
Ras Musandum, 148, 150 
Ras Nuh, 161 
Ras Ormara, 161 
Ras Risut, 140 
Rashtrika, 175 
Ratnagiri coast, 201, 215 
Raven Castle, 116 
Ravenna, Geographer of, 208 
Rawlinson, 14 

realgar, 42, 45, 191, 192, 221 
Rebmann and Ehrhardt, their map of 

E. Africa, 88 
Reclus, Elisee, 165, 166, 175, 182, 

Red Bluff.; ( see Pyrrhon, Varkkallai), 

red lead, 221 
Red Men, 3, 51 
Red Sea, 3, 5, 7, 8, 50, 51, 52, 57, 

59, 60, 66, 75, 88, 89, 99, 104, 

105, 108, 116, 117, 146, 151, 

167, 168, 169, 179, 183, 201, 
223, 233, 234 

Regio Cinnamomifera, 83 

Reichard, 19 

Reinaud, 155, 268 

Rekem, 1112, 128 

religions of India at the time of the 

Periplus, 235 
Remusat, 272 
Renonsari, 179 
resin, 112, 192, 236 
Retenu, 61 

Revelation, Book of, 13, 192 
Rhadamasans, 105 
Rhadamanthus, 105 
Rhambacia, 37, 105, 162, 163 
Rhamna?, 105, 162, 163 
Rhapta, 28, 94, 97 
rhinoceros, 23, 73, 98 
rhinoceros-horn, 24, 29, 73, 276 
Rhinocolura, 103 
Rhodes, 111 
Rhodesia, 96, 97, 98 
Rhone, 78 
rhubarb, 157 
rice, 27, 34, 37, 39, 76, 104, 176, 

178, 221, 256 
Richard, 263 
Richthofen, F. von, 268, 269, 270, 

rift-valley, in E. Africa, 98, 99 
Ritter, 106, 107, 116, 148, 170, 242 
roads (in India), 196, 253 
robes, from Arsinoe, 24 
Rocher, 273 

Rockhill, William WoodviUe, 273 
Rogers, J. E. Thorold, 214 
Rohri Hills, 174 
Roman Emperors, chronological list 

of, 110; coins of, 220 
Chinese account of, 275-7 
coinage, 192, 193, 204, 276 
in India, 219, 220, 234 
in Ceylon, compared with 
Persian, 252 
"embassy" to China, 276 
Empire, 12, 76, 77, 108, 151, 

168, 169, 185, 187, 191, 214, 
217, 228, 275 

geographers, 150, 277 

republic, 77 

senate, 103 , 219, 265 


Roman shipping, 160, 231 

Romans, 63, 68, 76, 78, 82, 89, 101, 
102, 106, 108, 109, 111. 31, 
137, 152, 160, 167, 169, 170, 
171, 172, 178, 187, 190, 192, 
193, 194, 204, 205, 213, 223, 
224, 236, 251, 252, 256, 260, 
265, 269, 275 

Rome, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 63, 65, 
84, 89, 90, 96, 102, 103, 104, 
109, 124, 128, 147, 153, 160, 
164, 167, 168, 169, 172, 177, 
187, 189, 191, 198, 209, 213, 
214, 215, 216, 219, 220, 222, 
235, 236, 239, 240, 242, 270 

roses, oil of, 112, 191 

rosewood, 153 

rubies, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227 

rudders, 231, 248 

Rudolf, Lake, 99 

Rud Shur, 221 

Rudra (see Siva), 235 

rugs, gold-embroidered, 276 

Rukaym, 142 

Rum, 249 

rushes, 86 

Russia, 76, 171 

Ryder, A. W., 221 

Saba, 59, 63, 104, 105, 106, 108, 119, 

124, 179 
Saba the Great, 108, 109 
Saba-ans, (Sabaites), 10, 11, 30, 51, 

62, 63, 68, 71, 96, 97, 104, 

105, 107, 108, 109, 115, 116, 

117, 119, 124, 125, 128, 142, 

143, 145, 147 
in Cevlon, 250 
Sabakha, i50 
Sabatier, 220 

Sabbatha, 4, 32, 116, 119, 126, 133 
Sabeans, 104 
Sabi River, 96 
Sabis, 126, 133 
Sabitu, 1^5 
sables, Russian, 171 
Sabota (see Sabbatha), 120, 124, 126 

Sabtah, 162 
Sabteca, 162 
Sacas, 62, 269 
Saca;a, 62, 145, 146 
saccharic 1,1 ^ 90 
Sachalites, bay of, 33, 120, 129, 139, 

Sachalitic Country, 35, 272 

frankincense, 126, 130, 218 
safHower, 111 
saffron, 31, 110, HI, 214| 

oil of, 112 
Sagar island, 255 
Saghar, 133 

sagmatogene, 24, 27, 72, 179 
Sahure, 113, 121 

sail-boats, 35 
Saizanas, 67 

Saka, 10, 165, 166, 167, 175, 176, 
180, 185, 188, 195, 196, 197, 
198, 199, 204, 235, 236 
coinage, 190 
era, 197, 198 
Sakastene, 166, 185 
Sakuntala, the, 229 
Sakyamuni Gautama Buddha, 187 
Salah, 107 
Salamis, 171 

Salik'e (see Ceylon), 249 
Salmasius, 71 
Salome, 11 
Salopatana, 251 
Salsette island, 155 
salt, 77, 156 
Sah, Henry, 9, 10, 66, 67, 85, 88, 

salt mines, 119 
Samarcand, 268 
Sambalpur 224 
Samnium, 66 
sampsuchum, 112 
Sanaa, 107, 115 
Sanabares, 200 
sand, 68 

sandalwood, 6, 36, 152, 175, 250 
Sandanes (see Sandares), 197, 200 
sandarake, 191, 192 
Sandares, 8, 43, 197, 198, 199, 200 
Sandberg, 273 
Sand-Dwellers, 122 
sangara, 46, 243 
Santarensian tin mine, 190 
Saphar, Zafar, Sapphar, 30, 107, 109, 

116, 119, 140, 141, 233 
sapphires, 45, 167, 170, 171, 222, 

223, 226, 227 
sapphiros (see lapis lazuli), 38, 122, 

170, 223 
Saracens, 59, 76, 94, 101, 149, 163, 

241, 242 
Saraganus, 43, 197, 198, 199 
Sarapion, 27, 92 

Sarapis, 35, 146, 153, 160, 163, 209 
Sarasvati river, 174 
sarda (see camelian), 223 
Sardinia, 168 

sardonyx (see chalcedony), 223 
Sarikol (see Serica), 269 
Saris, Capt., 85 
sasamin wood (blackwood, sesamin), 

152, 251 
sashes, 31 

Sassanids, 7, 172, 267 
Satakarni (see Saraganus), 198 
Sati, 187 

Satiya, Satiyaputra, 204, 205 

Northern, 167 

Western, 167, 188, 197, 19«, 

200, 236 


Saua, Sa'b, Save, 30, 107, 233 

Saukira Uay, 133 

Savitri river, 201 

Sawahil, 160 

Savce, Prof. A. H., 71, 165 

scarlet, 13, 73, 214, 227 

schoeni, measure, equivalent of, 125 

Schwanbeck, 115 

Scylax of Caryanda, 189 

Scvrites, Scyritae (see Cirrhadae), 253, 

Scvthia, 8, 32, 37, 39, 42, 45, 146, 

166, 190, 267 
Scythian Ocean (Arctic), 260 
Scyths, 165, 166, 257, 260, 267 
sea-trade, 228, 229, 245-7, 259, 261 
Seba, 162 

Sebennytic mouth, 68 
Sebni, 121 
Seine, 77 
Seistan, 166, 185 
Sela, 102 
Seleucidae, 149 
Seleucus, 184, 189 
Seleucus Callinicus, 169 
Seleucus II, 123 
Semele, 132 

Semiramis mountain, 36, 148 
Semites, 107, 176 
Semylla, 43, 200 
sendels, 273 
Senegal, 89, 157 
September, 31 
Septimius Severus, 219 
Ser, river, 146 
Sera, island, 163 
Sera Metropolis, 269 
Serandip, Serendib, 163, 249 
Seres, 70, 76, 146, 171, 172, 179, 

209, 265, 266, 267, 269 
Seria, 146 

Serica (see also Sarikol), 267 
serichatum, 112 
Seric skins, 38, 171 

tissues, 265 
serpentine, 223 

serpents, 37, 38, 43, 44, 131-3, 138, 
145, 165, 236 

guardians of cinnamon, 132 
of diamonds, 225, 226 
of frankincense, 128, 131-2 
of medicinal waters, 132 
of pepper, 215, 216 
of various gums, 132 

in the Indian Ocean (see gracz), 
37, 44, 165 

progenitor of Abyssinian dynasty, 

serpent-worship, 131, 236, 237, 
241, 279 

souls of the dead, 131 

tree-spirits, 131 

winged, 131 
sesame oil, 27, 35, 39, 176, 177 

sesamum, 178 

Sesecrienae islands, 44, 202 

Sesostris, 51, 192 

Sewell, R., 209, 210 

Seyffarth, 136 

Shabaka, 162 

Shabwa (see Sabbatha) 

Shafia sect, 74 

Shah-bandar, 165 

Shamash-Napishtjm, 135 

Shams, the Sabaean sun-god, 133 

Shans, the, 273, 275 

Shan-si, 263 

sharks, 145, 241 

charms against, 241 
Shatt-el-Arab river, 149, 265 
shawls, 169, 257 
Sheba, 105, 123, 162 
Sheba, Queen of, 67, 123 
sheep, 13, 30, 71, 149, 156, 176, 259, 

Shehr, 129, 160 
Shehri luban, 218 
Sheikh Sa'id, 115 
shells, 224, 259 
shellac, 73 
Shem, 107, 163 
Shencottah Paa., 212 
Shen-si, 261, 262 
Sherring, 27? 

Sheshonk I (o- Shisnak), 58 
Shibam, 117, 119 
Shinar, Chief of, 122 
ships, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 35, 36, 37, 
40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 75, 209, 
210, 212, 213, 230 

Andhra, 243-5 

Arabian, 28, 44, 106, 128, 227 

Carthaginian, 279, 280 

Dravidian, 46, 227 

Eastern, 46, 227, 273 

Egyptian, 51, 52 

from the north (Bengal), 46, 242, 
255, 272 

Greek, 43 

Gujarati, 244-5 

Hadramaut, 127 

Hebrew, 260 

Hindu, 27, 107, 115, 128, 201, 

Malabar, 227, 243-5 

Malay, Burmese and Chinese, 

Persian, 244 

Persian Gulf, 154-6, 227 

Roman, 78, 227 

ship's head, 230-1 

shipwrecks, 29, 38, 41 

type used by author of Periplus, 
Shea, 75 

Siam, 227, 252, 279 
Sibal, 237 
Sibor, 251 


Sicily, 76, 168 

Sicyon, 191 

Sidon, 158, 159, 160, 265 

Sidonia, 159 

Sielediba (see Ceylon, Sinhala-dvipa) , 

249, 250, 251, 252 
Sigerus (see Melizigara), 201, 232 
Sikkim, 151, 188, 253, 272, 279, 280, 

silent trade, 250, 267, 279, 280, 281 
Si-ling, 263 
silk, 13, 146, 172, 179, 196, 214, 

259, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 

274, 281 
tasar, 264 
wild, 276 
silk cloth, 42, 45, 48, 171, 172, 191, 

194, 222, 250, 251, 257, 263, 

264, 265, 270, 273, 276 
silk, raw, 48, 263, 264 
silk-route, 172, 263, 268, 269, 275 
silkworm, 76, 263, 266, 275 

eggs of, brought to Constan- 
tinople, 267 
silk yarn, 38, 48, 172, 264, 270 
silver, 13, 24, 25, 26, 31, 33, 42, 61, 

69, 77, 78, 102, 122, 175, 191, 

192, 214, 219, 227, 249, 252, 

259, 273, 276 
Silvester, St., 214 
Simpson, William, 159 
Sins, 266, 273 
Sinbad the Sailor, 156, 225 
Sind, Sindu, 172, 248, 251 
sindon, 165, 172 
Singan-fu, 11, 261, 262, 268, 270, 

272, 274, 279 
road to, from Lo-yang, 262 
Singapore, 246 

Singhala (see Ceylon), 255, 273 
singing boys, 42 

Sinhalese, 235, 239, 241, 250, 267 
Sinim, the, 264, 266 
Sining-fu, 272, 279 
Sinthus river, 37, 38, 165 
Sipra river, 187 
Siraf, 155 
Sirangala, 190 

Sita, 226, 230, 237, 249, 257 
SIta-quest, 282 
Siva, 138, 187, 201, 208, 235, 238, 

254, 281 
Siva Satakami, 199 
Sivajl, 203 
skins, 32, 257, 263 

seric, 38 
slaves, 13, 25, 27, 29, 33, 34, 36, 58, 

74, 88, 91, 96, 161, 191 
Smith, Vincent A., 166, 180, 183, 

184, 189, 198, 200, 204, 205, 

209, 210, 235, 238, 242 
Smith, W. Robertson, 119, 130, 132, 

snails, 216 

snakes (see serpents), 34, 44 

Socotra (see Dioscorida), 4, 62, 63, 
76, 87, 119, 129, 133, 135, 
137, 138, 139, 144, 162, 163, 
237, 271, 272 

Sofala, 88, 97 

Sofala-Ophir theory, 98 

Sohar, 151 

Soli (see Chola), 241, 249 

Solomon, 58, 61, 67, 97, 147, 151, 

160, 176, 260 

Ophir voyages of, 97, 260 
Song of, 82, 123, 193 

Somali coast of Africa, 52, 58, 60, 
61, 62, 63, 74, 75, 77, 79, 80, 
81, 83, 88, 89, 106, 112, 118, 
120, 124, 137, 145, 172, 178, 
182, 217, 218, 219, 228, 271 

Son river, 258 

Sonargaon, Suvarnagrama, 255 

Sonmiani Bay, 161 

Sopara (see Suppara), 197 

Sopater, Roman merchant in Ceylon, 

Sopatma, 46, 242 

Sophir (see Suppara) 

South America, 138 

South Arabia, 6, 9, 11, 14, 51, 52, 
58, 61, 62, 63, 75, 76, 77, 80, 
87, 94, 97, 106,- 107, 108, 112, 
120, 127, 129, 140, 141, 142, 
145, 147, 148, 154, 159, 160, 

161, 162, 218, 228, 267, 271 
South Countries, 61 

Southern Horn (Notii Cerai, Cape 

Guardafui), 86 
South India, 152, 162, 167, 171, 187, 

195, 205, 208, 209, 210, 213, 

216, 220, 221, 227, 230, 235, 
237, 239, 241, 243, 244, 259, 

coinage of, 221, 243-5 

Spain, 68, 70, 77, 78, 190 

spartum. 111 

Spasinus, 149 

Speck, 268 

Speke, Lieut. J. H., 87, 96, 230 

spices, 3, 4, 6, 25, 26, 105, 115, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 149, 157, 169, 
211, 214, 218, 237, 273 

Spices, Market and Cape of, 26, 33, 
45, 82, 85, 86 

spikenard, 42, 45, 112, 170, 188, 189, 

217, 251, 273 
Gangetic, 47, 222, 256 

spinel, 222 

spondylium, 216 

sponge, 74 

Sprenger, Aloys, 105, 107, 114, 116, 

148, 164 
Sramanas, Buddhist missionaries to 

China, 275 
SravastI, 188 


stacte fGebanite-Minaean), 31, 112, 

113, 114, 122 

stadia, various units in Roman use, 
and equivalents in modem mea- 
surement, 54-5 
in Persian schoeni, 125 

Stanford, 270 

:>Tatues, 66 

steel, 24, 70, 71, 172, 225 

steering, method of, 230, 231, 232, 

Stein, M. A., 268, 269, 270, 272 

Stephanus Byzantius, 62, 140, 145 

stibnite, stimmi, 192 

Stieler, 270 

Stiffe, Capt. A. W., 155 

stones, transparent, 45, 47, 222 

Stone Tower, the (see Tashkurghan), 
269, 281 

storax, 33, 37, 42, 112, 127, 128, 214, 
216, 276 

Strabo, 7, 16, 52, 51, 68, 69, 77, 78, 
si, 86, 101, 102, r03, 105, 108, 

114, 116, 118, 145, 146, 149, 
157, 159, 161, 162, 167, 176, 
177, 178, 184, 189, 217, 249, 
254, 255, 259, 277, 278 

straits (of Bab-el-Mandeb), 52 

of Malacca, 127 
Streubel, 19 
Stuck, 18, 259 
st)mmata^ 112 
sty rax, 131 
buakin, 66 

Sudan, 56, 6U, 61, 74, 99 
Sitdras^ 253 
Suetonius, 78 
Suez, 52, 68 

Gulf of, 273 
sugar, 90 

!u-ho (see storax), 128, 276 
Suklatirtha, 180 
Sumatra, 127, 138, 252 
sumpter-mules, 31 
Sundara Satakami (see Sandares 1, 198, 

199, 200 
Sungaria, 269 
Sunium, Cape, 190 
sun-worship, 162, 163, 211 
Suppara (Shurparaka), 43, 175, 197 
Sur, 91, 147 
Surashtra, 174, 176, 184, 185, 188, 

197, 199 
Surat, 176, 179, 182, 183, 237 
Sutlej river (Satlaj), 174, 180, 272 
suwat river, 184 
Sivahili language, in E. Africa, 98, 

sweet rush (cyperusj, 31, 111, 112 
sweet wood, 13 
Swiss lake-dwellers, 76 
swords, 24, 70 
Syagrus (see Ras Fartakl, 33, 34, 

129, 133, 139, 232 

Syagrus dates, 158 

Sylla, 239 

Symulla (see Semylla), 200 

Syncellus, 159 

Syrastrene, 39, 40, 175, 176 

Syr Daria (see Jaxartes), 277 

Syria, 5, 58, 61, 71, 76, 77, 87, 102, 
108, 111, 122, 123, 128, 131, 
138, 149, 158, 184, 213, 264, 
270, 275 

Syrian Christians, 208 

Taba;, 26, 27, 86 

tabu (on frankincense gatherers), 145 

Tacitus, 219, 265 

Tagara, 43, 196 

Taghdumbash valley, 269 

Taharka, 78, 162 

Ta'is, 107 

Taka, 140 

Takakusu, 213, 275 

Taksha, 238 

Takshasila (see Taxila), 183, 238 

tamala ( see malabathrum, cinnamon), 

216, 279, 281 
Tamalipti ( ro-»20-//-/0 (see Tamra- 

lipti), 272 
tamarisk, 165 
Tamil fsee Damirica), 176, 197, 204, 

205, 207, 208, 209, 211 
Tamra-lipti (Tamluk), 249, 255 
Tamrapami river (see Taprobane, 

Tambapanni), 237, 249, 255 
Tana River, 98 
Tanais river (Don), 277, 278 
Tanganyika, 88, 99 
Tanjore, 242 
tannin, 80 

Tanutamon, stela of, 78 
Taprobane (Tamra-pami, Dinpa-RS- 

-uana), 47, 239, 249, 250, 251, 

Tapti river, 182 
Tarentum, 219 
Tarim river, 268 

Tartars, 185, 186, 261, 262, 263, 268 
Tashkend, 269 
Tashkurghan, 269, 281 
Ta-ts^in (Chinese name for Roman 

Syria), 128, 275, 276, 277 
routes to, 276, 277 
Tavemier, 168, 170, 171, 172, 179, 

192, 196, 212, 215, 216, 222, 

223, 224, 225, 252, 256, 259, 

Taxila, 69, 185, 270 
Taylor, Dr., 243, 254, 255, 256 
teakwood, 36, 152, 201 
Tehama, 107 
Tehenu, 61 

Tell-el-Amarna tablets, 78 
Tellicherry, 221 
Telugu, 197, 204 
Ter (Thair) (see Tagara), 196 


terebinth, 112 

Teredon, 149 

Terek Pass, 268 

textile industry, 196, 256-8 

Thaguri, 269, 270 

Thames, 6 

Thana, 155 

Tharbis, 59 

Tharshish, 61 

Thebais, 103 

Thebes, 3, 52, 58, 6:, 68, 120, 121, 

Theinni (see Hsen-wi), 273 
Theophrastus, 71, 82, 118, 132, 171, 

177, 178, 179, 192, 213 
Thina;, 48, 261, 269, 273, 274 
Thina (see This), 260 
Thomas, Acts of, 185 
This, Land of, 11, 48, 183, 261-3, 

266, 279 
Thoth, 31 
Thothmes III, 158 
Thousand Nights and One Night, The, 

throw-sticks, 61 
Thurston, E., 220 
thyine wood, 192 
Tiamat, 138 

Tian-shan mountains, 261, 268, 269 
T'iao-chih, 277 

Tiastenos (see Chashtana), 188 
Tiberius, 11, 103, 204, 219, 220, 265 
Tibet, 82, 84, 89, 172, 222, 258, 263, 

269, 272, 273, 279, 281 
Tibetans, 253, 266, 278, 279 
Tibeto-Burman, 254, 255, 278 
gold of, 258-9 
trade-route across, 272 
Tibullus, 191, 255 
tides, 40, 41, 183 
Tien (see Yunnan), 273 
Tien-chu (see India), 276 
tigers, 43, 261, 277 
Tiglath-pileser III, 102, 118,123,149, 

Tigre, 57, 62, 63, 121 
Tigris, river, 149 
timber, 4, 149, 156, 205 
Timna, 107 
tin, 33, 42, 45, 77-9, 127, 156, 190, 

193, 217, 220, 221 
Tinnevelly, 211, 212, 234 
tinsel, 191 
Tipperah, 259 
Tirur, 234 

Titianus (see Maes), 269 
Titus, 11, 102, 103, 220 
tobacco, 105 
tobe, Somali, 72 
toga, Roman, 72 
Togarum, 43, 201 
Tokar, 60 
Tokwina, 84, 85 
Tonkin, 246 

sea-trade of, 246 
topaz, 37, 42, 44, 167-8, 222, 223 
Tordesillas, treaty of, 55 
Torr, Cecil, 248 
Torrend, Rev. J., S. J., his theory 

of the history of E. African 

dialects, 98 
tortoice-shell, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 

28, 29, 31, 35, 45, 47, 48, 73, 

126, 136, 137, 227, 259, 276 
tourmaline, 223 
Tozer, 92, 268, 278 
trade - winds, navigation dependent 

upon, 53 
Trajan, 101, 103, 102,109,187,219,220 
trappa^a, 40, 182, 245 
Travancore, 80, 152, 172, 194, 204, 

205, 211, 212, 213, 234 
tree-blood (frankincense legend), 128, 

130-3_, 145, 164^ 
tree-spirits, in serpent form, 131 
tears, 33, 164 
worship, 236, 279 
tree-wool, 75, 179, 265, 266 
Trichinopoly, 241, 242 
Trivandrum, 234 
Troglodytes, 58, 83 
Tropina, Tripontari, 212 
Tsengu, country of (Japanese Ency- 

clopsedia), 92 
Tsiemo, 268 
Ts'in, 11, 261-3 
Ts'in Chi Hwangti, 261 
Ts'i, 261 
Tsor, 147 

Tsung-ling (see Pamirs^, 269 
Tsybikoff, 273 
Tubba ibn Hassan, 107 
Tulu, 204, 205 
tunics, 25 
Tunis, 168 

Turanian-Hamitic system, 163 
Turanian trade, 172 

race, 253 
turbit, 273 
Turfan, 268 
Turiasso, 70 
Turkestan, 8, 11, 172, 176, 183, 223, 

235, 257, 263, 265, 269, 272, 

273, 274 
trade-routes, 269, 272, 274, 275 
Turks, 172, 184, 185, 266 
Turkharas, 257 
turmeric, 112 
turpentine, 80 
turquoise, 38, 170, 223 
Tuticorin, 215, 237 
Tybis, 234 
Tylor, E., 236 
Tylos, 71 

Tyndis, 44, 203, 204, 205, 208 
Tyre, 129, 147, 153, 156, 158, 159, 

213, 264 
Tzinista, 250, 273 


Ubulu (Obollah, Apolo^s, Obal), 

74, 149 
Uganda, 57 
Ujjain, UjjenI, UjjayinI (see Ozena), 

10, 65, 187, 188, 199, 236 
Uknu river, 149 
ultramarine, 170, 171, 223 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 258 
Unya-muizi, 230 

Katha, 236 
Uraiyur (see Argaru), 241, 242 
Urania, 132 
Uru, 162 
Urumtsi, 268 
Ushas, 229 
ushu-wood, 123, 128 
Usuu, 128 
Uthek, 121 
Uth!rat= Osiris, 132 
U2al, 115 

Vaigai river, 241 

Vaisya clan, 250 

Valiyar river, 241 

Van den Berg, L. W. C, 119, 127, 

Vanji, 205 
Varkkallai (see Balita, Pyrrhon), 234, 

varnish, 263 
Varthema, 212 
Varuna, 229 
Vasco da Gama, 227 
Vaughn, 130 

J'cJas, 229, 235, 257, 2S1 
Vengurla Rocks (see Sesecriena; ) , 202 
Venice, Venetians, 70, 214 
Venus, 123 

vermilion, 73, 192, 215 
Vespasian, 12, 13, 220 
Vespucci, 3, 55 
vessels, 13, 31, 104, 214 
Victoria Nyanza, 87, 88, 230 
Vignoli, 215 
Vijaya, 249 
Vijayanagar, 224 

Vikramaditya of Ujjain, 188 
Vikramapura, Bikrampur, 255 
Vilivayakura II, 197, 235 
Vincent, 8, 18, 19, 84, 94, 104, 108, 

144, 148, 169, 171, 179, 181, 

201, 202, 216, 259, 272 
Vindhya mountains, 188, 197, 201, 

vine, 34, 75, 76, 77 
vinegar, HI, 240 
Vinukonda, 196 
Virgil, 76, 87, 123, 125, 135, 153, 

216, 226, 266, 271 
Vishnu, 138, 235, 238, 253 
Vitellius, 78 
Vivien de Saint- Martin, 81 

Vizadrog, Vijayadurga (see Byzan- 
tium), 201 
Vogiie, Melchior de, 103 
Voltumus, 68 
votive offerings, 66 
vulture, 142 

Waddell, 273 

Wadi Dirbat, 140 

Wadi ed Dawasir, 149, 150, 160 

Wady el Araba, 101 

Wadi er Rumma, 160 

Wadi Hadramaut, 116, 117, 119 

Wadi Maifa, 116 

Wady Musa, 101, 102 

Wadi Rakhiya, 119 

Wadi Rekot, 118 

Wadi Tyin, 148, 237 

Wadi Yabrin, 150, 160 

Wahind canal, 174 

Wassaf, 248 

water. 111 

Waters of Death, 135 

Watt, 73, 76, 80, 81, 83, 84, 99, 

148, 151, 152, 153, 164, 169, 

172, 176, 177, 178, 188, 193, 

194, 215, 222, 224, 256, 259, 

Wa-wat, 57, 121 
weasel, 257 
Weber, 108, 109, 119 
Wei river, 261 
Wei, 261 
Wellhausen, 143 
■Wellsted, 119, 137, 139, 143, 145, 

148, 162 
\Vestem Ghats, 196 
Western India, 152, 153, 172, 192, 

197, 230, 271 
whale-fishery, 155, 162 
wheat, 13, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 

39, 45, 76, 127, 176, 178, 221 
White Island, 44, 203 
White Village {Leuk'e Komi), 29, 

Whitman, Walt, 183 
Wild-Flesh-Eaters {Agriop/iagi) , 22, 

Wilde, Oscar, 69 

Wilford, Lieut., 88, 230, 254, 259 
Willis, Bailey, 262 
Wilmot, A., 97 
Wilson, 209 
"Wilson, C. R., 200 

Indian Etesian, 38, 45 
Hippalus, 45 
wine, 13, 24, 28, 31, 33, 36, 37, 38, 

42, 45, 77, 111, 112, 122, 127, 

151, 157, 158, 164, 190, 191, 

Arabian, 42, 77 
Calenian, 77 
Falemian, 77 


wine — continued 

Italian, 24, 77 

Laodicean, 24, 42, 77 

Statanian, 77 

of Damascus, 77 

of dates, 77 

of Greece, 77 

of raisins, 76, 191 

of Spain and Gaul, 77 

of Surrentum, 77 

of the Roman republic, 77 

of the Seine and Moselle, 77 
Witwatersrand, 118 
wood-oil, 248 
wolves, 261 

wool, 71, 72, 76, 157, 257 
woolen cloth, 257 
ITu-i, 277 

Xerxes, 264 
xylo-balsamimi, 112 

Yakin, the Sea-country (see Bit- 

Yakin), 123, 149 
Yam, 61 
Yang-knjjan^ 269 
Yangtse river, 165 
Yarab, Yarub, 107, 142 
Yarkand, 268, 269, 270 
yarn, 42 
Yashhab, 107 
Yates, 266 
Yavanas, 235 
Yellow River (see Hoang-ho), 263, 

Yemama, El, 160 
Yemen, 51, 77, 80, 89, 91, 101, 102, 

103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 

115, 117, 119, 129, 130, 132, 

i40, 142, 147, 154 
Yen-hsi period, 276 
Yerim, 107 
Younghusband, 273 
Yuan Chwang, 200 
Yu-chou, 263 
Yudhisthira, 257 
Yueh-chi, 8, 9, 165, 166, 167, 185, 

186, 187, 263 

Yule, Col. Henry, 66, 70, 80, 84, 
92, 123, 144, 155, 157, 170, 
202, 203, 205, 234, 235, 237, 
241, 242, 248, 272 

Yiimenhsien, 268 

Yiimen-kivan, 269 

Yunnan, 273 

Za Adp-aba, 67 

Za Agba, 67 

Za Awtet, 67 

Zabaesi Bazen, 9, 67 

Za Beesi Angaba, 67 

Za Demahe, 67 

Zafar (see Saphar) 

Zagdur, 67 

Za Hakale, 9, 10, 66, 67 

Zaire, 75 

Zakawasya b'Axum, 67 

Za Les, 67 

Za Makeda, 67 

Za Malis, 67 

Za Masenh, 67 

Zambesi River, 98, 99 

Zanzibair (see Menuthias), 10, 16, 75, 

88, 92, 94, 96, 99, 101, 115, 

139, 173, 230 
trade with India, 99 
Zaragoza, treaty of, 55 
Za Senatu, 67 
Za Sutuwa, 67 
Zayton, 214 
Zazebass Besedo, 67 
Zechariah, Book of, 159 
Zeila (see Avalites), 66, 73, 74, 75 
zennclr (see maieb), 139 
Zenobian islands (see Genaba), 35, 

Zeus, 132 
Zimbabwe, 97 
zinc, 69 

Zoscales, 9, 10, 23, 63, 64, 66 
Zosimiadon, 18 
Zula (Adulis), 60 
Zul Kamain, 108 
Zwemer, 105, 119, 143, 148, 156 

Map to Illustrate the Periplus Maris ErytHRAei 

60 A.D. 

100 100 ZOO 300 -WO SOO too 7ffO 

English Nautical Miles 

60=1 e<]Hatorial degree = 600 Olympic Sta